CN107683750B - Method for improving seed production yield and quality of morning glory - Google Patents

Method for improving seed production yield and quality of morning glory Download PDF

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CN107683750B
CN107683750B CN201710891380.6A CN201710891380A CN107683750B CN 107683750 B CN107683750 B CN 107683750B CN 201710891380 A CN201710891380 A CN 201710891380A CN 107683750 B CN107683750 B CN 107683750B
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morning glory
plants
days
plant
fertilizer
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CN107683750A (en
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姚悦梅
潘跃平
山溪
肖燕
戴忠良
毛忠良
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Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Sciences Jiangsu Hilly Area
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for improving seed production yield and quality of morning glory, which comprises the following steps: 1) sowing and raising seedlings; 2) applying enough base fertilizer in the seed production field, deeply ploughing soil, making deep groove wide cultivation beds, and then covering black mulching films; after the plants survive, the periphery is covered by wet rice hulls or a matrix; 3) planting for 15-20 days, pinching and topping at 5-6 nodes; 4) during the growth period of the morning glory plants, normal water and fertilizer management is carried out, meanwhile, leaf buds at the bottom of a main branch or all leaf buds below a core-picking part of the main branch are wiped off, and 3-4 new leaf buds at other parts of the plants are wiped off every 7-10 days; 5) selecting a flower bud to be bloomed, tearing off the top end of a petal, and enabling a stamen to be exposed outside a crown after the flower bud blooms; 6) morning glory seeds are harvested in batches. The method effectively improves the seed yield, solves the problems of high temperature and high humidity in summer, vigorous growth of morning glory, easy lodging of plants and poor fructification condition, greatly improves the seed yield and quality, and increases the benefit.

Description

Method for improving seed production yield and quality of morning glory
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of flower planting, and particularly relates to a method for improving seed production yield and quality of morning glory.
Background
Morning glory (pharhris nil. paianniuhua) is called trumpet flower and glory flower. The morning glory is a perennial sprawl herb flower in morning glory of Convolvulaceae, is a good flower for vertical greening generally cultivated in China, is also called trumpet flower, has a crystal and tender trumpet tube, has a trumpet mouth with different five-color light according to varieties, has light blue, blue purple, purple red, jade white and other colors, has a rose color variety as large as a cup and has regular pentagon edges, and is very beautiful and shining. Morning glory corolla is thin like yarn, and is light and lively when the sun starts to bloom in the early morning, and is also called face-ward flower because it blooms in the sun. With the enhancement of the importance of landscaping and beautification in urban construction, morning glory has wide application in landscaping and is a key beautifying material in families and gardens because of short growth period, quick response, rich colors, quick growth speed, bright colors and good decorative effect in the greening process. The morning glory can be used for shed frame greening and can also be used for pot planting, the flowering phase is long, the flowering phase is generally 6-11 months, the adaptability is strong, drought and damp heat can be resisted, the morning glory is suitable for planting in a courtyard, greening materials can be used, and a flower wall, a hedgerow and a small shed frame are arranged, so that the morning glory is suitable for arrangement of a fence flower stand in a park and a courtyard and beautification of a household balcony.
Morning glory has the characteristics of easy cultivation, wide application and strong stress resistance, the demand of domestic urban landscape on morning glory which has heat resistance, moisture resistance, disease resistance, drought resistance, wide regional adaptability, rich and various color changes, variable flower shapes and high ornamental value in summer rises all the year round, and morning glory has the advantages of large and bright flower, longer flowering period, continuous flowering in hot seasons and more flowering quantity. The plant cultivation method is suitable for summer greening beautification and landscape arrangement, is strong in growth, easy to cultivate and maintain and manage, is widely applied to garden greening at present, has large seed demand, but is susceptible to powdery mildew of plants due to high temperature and high humidity in summer and cultivation technology, and has low or weak fruit setting rate after blooming, so that large-area popularization and application of the plants are influenced. Therefore, the invention provides a simple and feasible method, improves the condition, improves the seed production yield of the morning glory and provides possibility for the popularization of the excellent variety of the morning glory.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to overcome the defects of the prior art, the invention aims to provide a simple and feasible method for improving the yield and the quality of morning glory seeds.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the technical scheme that the steps are as follows:
a method for improving seed production yield and quality of morning glory comprises the following steps:
1) sowing and raising seedlings;
2) planting: applying enough base fertilizer in the seed production field, deeply ploughing soil, making deep groove cultivation beds with the width of 1.1-1.3m and the height of 35-40cm, and then covering black mulching films; the row spacing of the cultivated plants is 50-60cm multiplied by 50-60 cm; watering every evening 2-3 days after planting, and then watering properly according to the wilting condition of seedlings. Until the plant survives, the periphery of the root of the seedling is covered by wet rice hulls or a matrix after the plant survives, and the seedling is transplanted and replanted in time when the seedling is short and dead;
3) carrying out normal water and fertilizer management after the plants are planted and survived for 15-20 days, climbing vines at the beginning of morning glory, pinching at 5-6 nodes and promoting branching; meanwhile, a climbing support is built on the cultivation bed; digging ground piles at intervals of 10-15m on the cultivation bed, and fixing climbing supports at two ends of the ground piles;
4) during the growth period of the morning glory plants, normal water and fertilizer management is carried out, and meanwhile, leaf buds at the bottom of a main branch or all leaf buds at the lower part of the pinching part of the main branch are wiped off; later every 7-10 days, a part of new leaf buds of the plants are wiped off, 3-4 leaf buds of each plant are uniformly wiped off, simultaneously, the old leaves and dead leaves of the plants are cleaned, ventilation of the plants is facilitated in high-temperature and high-humidity seasons, and infection of powdery mildew is reduced;
5) the morning glory plant starts to bloom continuously at the beginning of 8 months, after the morning glory plant enters the full-bloom period and in the afternoon of sunny weather, buds to be bloomed are selected, the tops of petals are torn off, and after the flowers bloom, stamens can extend out of the crowns; repeating the above treatment every 3-5 days until the end of 9 months and the beginning of 10 months, finishing the treatment when the full bloom stage is about to bunch;
6) and (3) beginning to harvest morning glory seeds in batches in the middle ten days of 9 months, wherein the harvesting standard is that after 35-40 days of flowers, when capsules begin to turn yellow, the morning glory seeds can be harvested once every 5-7 days, and the remaining morning glory seeds are harvested at the beginning of 11 months and finally.
Further, in the step 1), the method for sowing and raising seedlings comprises the following steps: and (3) plug seedling in the early 6 months, adopting 50-hole plug seedling, and directly planting the seedlings when the seedlings grow to 6-8 leaves in 12-15 days.
Further, in the step 2), the base fertilizer applied to every 667 square meters comprises: 2500kg of decomposed organic fertilizer, 50-80 kg of ternary compound fertilizer and 10-15 kg of potassium chloride or potassium sulfate. Wherein the mass ratio of N to P to K in the ternary compound fertilizer is 15:15: 15.
Further, in step 3), the climbing device comprises: bamboo poles with the length of 2.3-2.5m are arranged and form a human-shaped bracket. The height of the bamboo pole is too long, on one hand, the bamboo pole is easy to fall down due to heavy rain and wind, and in addition, if the morning glory climbs too high, the morning glory is difficult to be treated in the flowering phase, and the seeds are difficult to harvest.
Further, in the step 4), the bottom of the main branch is 30-35cm away from the ground.
Further, in the step 5), the flowering period is not less than 75% of flowering plants, and the average flowering number of each plant is not less than 15.
Further, in step 5), the flower bud to be bloomed is 1/3-1/2 of the length of the sepal of the flower bud, and the top of the flower bud slightly loosens.
Further, in the step 5), the top end of the petal is positioned at 1/5-1/4 of the total length of the top end of the bud.
Further, in the step 6), harvesting for the last time, cutting off morning glory plants from roots, dragging the morning glory plants from the climbing support after the plants are yellow and wilted after 5-7 days, hanging the morning glory plants for later ripening by rain sheltering and ventilation, paving fine sand nets below the morning glory plants, after ripening for 15-20 days, then airing and threshing in time, selecting cleanly, and airing and storing. Wherein, the morning glory plant is hung and matured after rain sheltering and ventilation, the hanging height is 1.5-1.8m, and seeds of capsules which are cracked and dropped in the post maturation process can be collected by paving a fine sand net below the morning glory plant.
Has the advantages that: the method effectively improves the yield of seeds, solves the problems of high temperature and high humidity in summer, vigorous growth of morning glory, easy lodging of plants and poor fructification condition, greatly improves the yield and quality of the seeds, increases the benefit and has the following advantages:
1. deep ditch, wide rectangular pieces of land in a field, and the tectorial membrane cultivation, can effectively solve the problem that it is rainy in summer, can in time drain off water and prevent that morning glory from receiving the waterlogging to can insert the bamboo pole deeply, be interrupted simultaneously and play the ground stake, can firmly fix, prevent that heavy rain and strong wind morning glory from lodging by a large scale, seriously influence output.
2. During field planting, the morning glory is planted at a proper interval, partial leaf buds are removed, ventilation is facilitated, the occurrence of diseases is reduced, and the middle-upper branches of the morning glory can be promoted by pinching and topping at 5-6 nodes.
3. The top ends of the flower buds are cut off before blooming, stamens can be exposed outside the flower crowns, pollen can be effectively spread, pistils can pollinate more easily, the fruit setting rate is improved, and the number of shrunken seeds is reduced, so that the yield and the quality are improved.
4. The capsule is harvested in batches, so that the seeds can be prevented from being mature, cracked and falling off, nutrients required by after-ripening can be effectively guaranteed by ventilation, suspension and after-ripening of the whole plant, the humidity of the after-ripening is reduced, the capsule is prevented from mildewing, and the seed quality is improved.
Detailed Description
The invention is further illustrated by the following specific examples.
Example 1
The light purple big flower and leaf climbing morning glory is used in the embodiment, and the conventional variety is sourced from Zhenjiang Ruihu agriculture and agriculture company Limited.
In this embodiment, the following treatment is adopted for cultivation in different sectors, and the cultivation area of each sector is 50 square meters. A: conventional cultivation and seed production; b, cultivating and producing seeds;
1. sowing and seedling raising: and (3) plug seedling in the early 6 months, adopting 50-hole plug seedling, and directly planting the seedlings when the seedlings grow to 6-8 leaves in 12-15 days.
2. Planting: applying enough base fertilizer in the seed production field, putting 2500kg of decomposed organic fertilizer per 667 square meters, additionally adding 80kg of ternary compound fertilizer and 10kg of potassium chloride as base fertilizer, deeply ploughing soil, uniformly mixing, making cultivation beds with the width of 1.2m and the height of 25-30cm in a cell A, and planting 250 plants with the row spacing of 30cm multiplied by 60 cm; and the cell B is made into a deep groove cultivation bed with the width of 1.2m and the height of 35-40cm, the row spacing of the cultivated plants is 50cm multiplied by 60cm, 150 plants are planted, and black mulching films are covered on the two cells. Watering every evening 2-3 days after planting, and then watering appropriately according to the wilting condition of seedlings (when the temperature of the morning glory tender leaves is highest in one day, watering is required). Until the plant survives, the periphery of the root of the seedling is covered by wet rice hulls or a matrix (the wet rice hulls can preserve moisture and prevent hardening, and the seedling growth is facilitated), and the seedling is lack of seedling and dead seedling are transplanted and replanted in time; wherein, the matrix composition is as follows: the volume ratio of the vermiculite to the perlite to the fine sand is 1:1: 1; the mass ratio of N to P to K in the ternary compound fertilizer is 15:15: 15.
The decomposed organic fertilizer is mainly prepared by fermenting the following components: the proportion of fermentation components is as follows: 1000kg of dried chicken manure, 200kg of carbonized rice hull, 100kg of crushed rice and wheat straw or peanut shell, 30kg of calcium superphosphate and 1kg of organic fertilizer leavening agent (produced by Shandong LvLong biology Co., Ltd., sold in the market, the leavening agent is preferably pre-activated in advance, the pre-treatment comprises the steps of activating the leavening agent, brown sugar and water at room temperature for 12 hours according to the proportion of 1:1: 20, uniformly mixing the activating solution and 10 times of corn flour), finally adding about 500kg of well water or river water (chlorine in tap water can influence the activity of zymophyte), mixing and stirring the above materials uniformly, and adjusting the water content according to the dry and wet conditions of the raw materials to enable the water content of the fermentation raw materials to be about 40% (the materials are mixed into a mass by hand holding, are sewed into water without dripping, and are well dispersed by hand. The fermentation process comprises the following steps: putting the mixed fermentation raw materials into a fermentation tank or stacking, wherein the height is 1.0-1.5m, the width is 1.5-2 m, the length is 3-4m, punching air holes in the stack by using a stick, and covering with plastic cloth for heat preservation; performing primary turning for 2-3 days after composting, maintaining for 1-2 days when the internal temperature of the material can reach 60-70 ℃, performing primary turning, and maintaining for 1-2 days when the internal temperature of the fermented raw material is raised to 60-70 ℃ again after turning; when the internal temperature of the raw materials is reduced, the fermentation is finished after the raw materials are kept relatively stable (the successful fermentation mark is that the materials are loose, the raw materials have no original odor, and the materials have slight ammonia smell or wine smell, and a large amount of white hypha are generated in the pile). The fermentation time is generally 10-20 days, and the environmental temperature is preferably above 15 ℃. The suitable temperature is 25-35 ℃.
3. After the plants are planted and survived, normal water and fertilizer management is carried out, the plants are planted for 15-20 days, and after the morning glory begins to climb vines, a cell A normally climbs the morning glory by using bamboo poles to take a human-shaped climbing support; pinching and topping the plants in the B cell at the 5-6 node position to promote branching. Meanwhile, bamboo poles (namely the bamboo poles are 25-30cm into the ground) are deeply inserted into the cultivation bed, the length of the bamboo poles is 2.3-2.5m, a human-shaped climbing support is built for climbing morning glory, and the climbing supports are fixed at two ends of ground piles which are drilled every 10 m on the cultivation bed.
4. During the growth period of the morning glory plants, normal water and fertilizer management is carried out, the A cell is not treated, and the morning glory plants start to successively bloom at the beginning of 8 months and naturally bloom and fruit.
5. And in the growth period of morning glory plants in the district B, normal water and fertilizer management is carried out, leaf buds at the bottom of a main branch (30-35 cm away from the ground) or all leaf buds at the pinching part of the main branch are wiped off, a part of new leaf buds of the plants are wiped off every 7-10 days later (3-4 new leaf buds are uniformly wiped off every plant), old leaves and dead leaves of the plants are cleaned, ventilation at the bottom is facilitated in high-temperature and high-humidity seasons, and the infection of powdery mildew is reduced.
6. After the morning glory plants in the district B start to successively bloom at the beginning of 8 months, after the morning glory plants enter a full-bloom stage (the full-bloom stage is equal to or more than 75 percent of the flowering plants, the average flowering number of each plant is equal to or more than 15), selecting buds to bloom (the buds to bloom are 1/3-1/2 of the total length of the buds in terms of sepal length and the petals are slightly opened) in the afternoon of a clear day, and tearing off the tops of the petals by scissors or hands (the top positions are 1/5-1/4 of the total length of the tops of the buds), so that stamens can stretch out and expose outside the crowns after the flowers bloom. The treatment can be repeated every 4 days until the end of 9 months and the beginning of 10 months, the full-bloom stage is about to bunch (the number of flowers of a single plant is less than 10), and the treatment can be finished.
7. 9, the two districts enter the blooming season at the beginning of the month, and the temperature is most suitable for the period of fructification. The method comprises the following steps that a cell A is marked on 20 flowers blossoming on the same day, a cell B is marked on 20 flowers blossoming on the same day after treatment, the two cells are marked on the same day for 5 times, the marking time is recorded every time, 100 morning glories are marked in each cell, the flowers are harvested and threshed after 40 days, and statistical results are weighed.
8. The morning glory seeds are harvested in batches in the middle and last ten days of 9 months in two districts, the harvesting standard is that after 35-40 days after flowers and capsules begin to turn yellow, the morning glory seeds can be harvested once every 5-7 days, the remaining morning glory seeds are harvested once in the beginning of 11 months, morning glory plants are cut off from the roots, after the plants are yellow and withered after 5-7 days, the morning glory plants are pulled down from bamboo poles, the morning glory plants in the district A are directly aired and threshed, the morning glory plants in the district B are hung in a rainy and ventilated shady place to be mature, a fine sand net is laid below the morning glory plants, the mature is 15-20 days, and then the morning glory plants are aired and threshed in time, carefully selected, dried and stored.
9. And (3) observing the powdery mildew infection conditions of the plants in the two districts in the growth process of the morning glory plants, wherein the infection rate of the diseased plant in the district A is 36.4%, the infection rate of the diseased plant in the district B is only 17.1%, and counting the yield and the quality of the seeds in the two districts. The results are as follows:
TABLE 1 Effect of different cultivation methods on seed set and seed yield and quality
It can be seen through the comparison of the results of the above 2 cultivation methods that the leaf buds are wiped off at the bottom of the B cell by adopting thin planting, no branch exists, and meanwhile, the leaf buds of the plant part are wiped off, so that the ventilation of the bottom of the plant and the whole plant is increased, and the disease infection rate of the powdery mildew of the plant is effectively reduced. The crown upper portion is cut off in B district, enables stamen and exposes in the crown outside, does benefit to pollen and effectively propagates, and makes pistil pollination more easily, improves the percentage of fertile fruit, and reduces flat seed quantity, and handles A and compare the fruit setting percentage and improved 75% and increased single fruit seed quantity to increase output and quality. 250 plants are planted in the cell A in the same area, only 150 plants are planted in the cell B, the yield of the cell B in the same area is increased by 37.8 percent compared with the cell A due to the improvement of the yield of a single plant and the quality of seeds, and the seeds are shriveled and broken and are far lower than the cell A.
Compared with other cultivation methods, the method reduces the lodging condition in the plant seed production process and the plant infection condition, and the lodging and the plant disease death are one of the important reasons for the reduction of the seed yield and the seed quality.
Example 2: essentially the same as in example 1, except that:
in the step 2), every 667 square meters of base fertilizer applied comprises: 2000kg of decomposed organic fertilizer, 50kg of ternary compound fertilizer and 15kg of potassium sulfate.

Claims (1)

1. A method for improving seed production yield and quality of morning glory is characterized by comprising the following steps:
1) sowing and seedling raising: the method for sowing and raising seedlings comprises the following steps: in the early 6 months, plug seedling is adopted, 50-plug seedling is adopted, and the seedlings can be directly planted when growing to 6-8 leaves in 12-15 days;
2) planting: applying enough base fertilizer in the seed production field, deeply ploughing soil, making deep groove cultivation beds with the width of 1.1-1.3m and the height of 35-40cm, and then covering black mulching films; the row spacing of the cultivated plants is 50-60cm multiplied by 50-60 cm; watering every evening 2-3 days after planting, and then watering properly according to the wilting condition of seedlings; until the plant survives, the periphery of the root of the seedling is covered by wet rice hulls or a matrix after the plant survives, and the seedling is transplanted and replanted in time when the seedling is short and dead; every 667 square meters of base fertilizer applied comprise: 2500kg of decomposed organic fertilizer, 50-80 kg of ternary compound fertilizer and 10-15 kg of potassium chloride or potassium sulfate; wherein the mass ratio of N to P to K in the ternary compound fertilizer is 15:15: 15; the decomposed organic fertilizer is prepared by fermenting the following components: 1000kg of dry poultry and livestock manure, 200kg of carbonized rice hulls, 100kg of crushed rice and wheat straws or peanut shells, 30kg of calcium superphosphate and 1kg of organic fertilizer leavening agent;
3) carrying out normal water and fertilizer management after the plants are planted and survived for 15-20 days, climbing vines at the beginning of morning glory, pinching at 5-6 nodes and promoting branching; meanwhile, a climbing support is built on the cultivation bed; fixing climbing supports at two ends of a ground pile every 10-15m on the cultivation bed; the climbing support includes: bamboo poles with the length of 2.3-2.5m are overlapped to form a human-shaped bracket;
4) during the growth period of the morning glory plants, normal water and fertilizer management is carried out, and meanwhile, all leaf buds at the bottom of a main branch or all leaf buds below a pinching part of the main branch are wiped off; later every 7-10 days, removing a part of new leaf buds of the plant, and simultaneously cleaning old leaves and dead leaves of the plant; the bottom of the main branch is 30-35cm away from the ground;
5) the morning glory plant starts to bloom continuously at the beginning of 8 months, after the morning glory plant enters the full-bloom period and in the afternoon of sunny weather, buds to be bloomed are selected, the tops of petals are torn off, and after the flowers bloom, stamens can extend out of the crowns; repeating the above treatment every 3-5 days until the end of 9 months and the beginning of 10 months, ending the full-bloom period, and ending the treatment when the number of blooms of a single plant is less than 10; the full-bloom period is not less than 75% of flowering plants, and the average flowering number of a single plant is not less than 15; the length of the flower bud to be bloomed is 1/3-1/2 of the total length of the flower bud, and the top end of the flower bud slightly loosens; the bud top refers to the position 1/5-1/4 of the total length of the bud top;
6) the morning glory seeds are harvested in batches in the middle ten days of 9 months, the harvesting standard is that 35-40 days after flowers, when capsules begin to turn yellow, the morning glory seeds can be harvested once every 5-7 days, and the remainder of the morning glory seeds are harvested at the beginning of 11 months; and finally, harvesting at one time, cutting off the morning glory plants from the roots, dragging the morning glory plants from the climbing support after the plants become yellow and wilted after 5-7 days, carrying out rain sheltering, ventilation, suspension and after-ripening on the morning glory plants, paving a fine sand net below the morning glory plants, after-ripening for 15-20 days, then airing and threshing in time, selecting cleanly, and drying in the sun for storage.
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