CN107646648B - Optimized soilless matrix for African daisy potting - Google Patents

Optimized soilless matrix for African daisy potting Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107646648B
CN107646648B CN201710906904.4A CN201710906904A CN107646648B CN 107646648 B CN107646648 B CN 107646648B CN 201710906904 A CN201710906904 A CN 201710906904A CN 107646648 B CN107646648 B CN 107646648B
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leaf mold
leaf
pot
optimized
soilless
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CN107646648A (en
Inventor
单芹丽
杨春梅
王继华
李绅崇
吴丽芳
阮继伟
余蓉培
汪国鲜
曹桦
李慧敏
龙江
黎霞
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Yuxi Yunxing Biotechnology Co ltd
Flower Research Institute of YAAS
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Yuxi Yunxing Biotechnology Co ltd
Flower Research Institute of YAAS
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

An optimized soilless substrate for African daisy potting is characterized in that the optimized soilless substrate is composed of leaf mold and vermiculite, the volume ratio of the leaf mold to the optimized soilless substrate is 3:1, the leaf mold does not contain dead branches and fallen leaves of eucalyptus and Christmas trees, and the volume of the leaf mold containing the dead branches and fallen leaves of broad-leaved plants accounts for 65-75% of the total volume of the leaf mold. The leaf mold and vermiculite are stacked for more than 6 months before the pot is prepared, and a sieve with the diameter of a sieve hole of 3cm is arranged. Compared with the traditional soil cultivation, the optimized soilless substrate potted African daisy blooms 5-10 days in advance, the branches are thick and strong, the leaf color is dark green, the branches grow by 1-5 cm, the inflorescence diameter is increased by 1-2 cm, and the flowering phase is prolonged by 2-4 days, so that the method is an effective means for relieving continuous cropping obstacles and reducing infectious diseases, meanwhile, leaf rotting soil is easy to obtain, the price of the prepared mixed soilless substrate is low, the production cost is saved, and the method has important significance for promoting the continuous development of the African daisy industry.

Description

Optimized soilless matrix for African daisy potting
Technical Field
The invention relates to a soilless culture medium for flowers, belonging to the technical field of agricultural culture.
Background
Gerbera jamesonii Bolus is also called Eugenia flower, and is a perennial evergreen herbaceous flower of Gerbera of Compositae, which is one of five major cut flowers in the world. The cultivation and production of the gerbera jamesonii are mainly carried out in facilities, the yield is high, the gerbera jamesonii can bloom annually when cultivated under the condition of a protected area, and the cut flower yield is high. In recent years, the facility production area of the gerbera jamesonii is increased, but most of the gerbera jamesonii is cultivated in soil, and the problems of reduced flower yield, reduced quality, serious insect disease and the like appear in production along with the prolonging of the service life of the facility, because the deterioration of the soil environment quality in the facility, the shortening of gerbera jamesonii branches due to continuous cropping obstacles, the reduction of the inflorescence diameter, the increasing of the using amount of pesticides and fertilizers and the increase of the production cost of the gerbera jamesonii, thereby reducing the economic benefit.
Soilless culture is an effective means for solving the continuous cropping obstacle of the African daisy, the substrate proportion is the key of the soilless culture technology, and the potted African daisy can remove diseased plants in time and prevent the occurrence of soil-borne diseases. Therefore, the optimization of the potted soil-free matrix has important practical significance for the sustainable development of the gerbera jamesonii industry.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems existing in the prior African daisy facility cultivation, the invention provides an optimized soilless substrate for African daisy potting, aiming at reducing or eliminating the influence of continuous cropping obstacles on the development of the African daisy industry, reducing the usage amount of pesticides and improving the product quality of the African daisy.
The technical scheme of the invention is as follows:
1. an optimized soilless substrate for African daisy potting is formed by mixing leaf mold and vermiculite, the volume ratio of the leaf mold to the vermiculite is 3:1, the leaf mold does not contain dead branches and fallen leaves of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) and Christmas trees (Acacia dealbata Link), the volume of the dead branches and fallen leaves containing broad-leaved plants in the leaf mold accounts for 65-75% of the total volume of the leaf mold, other components are dead branches and fallen leaves obtained under the natural growth condition of a forest, when the leaf mold is mixed with the vermiculite, the leaf mold is piled for more than 6 months, and the leaf mold below a sieve with the sieve hole diameter of 3cm is used.
2. A soilless pot culture method of African daisy comprises the following steps:
(1) cultivating gerbera cut flower type germchits without diseases and insect pests by using a soilless substrate or cultivating gerbera pot type germchits without diseases and insect pests by using the soilless substrate as transplanting seedlings;
(2) the germchits of the gerbera cut flower type variety are cultivated by using flowerpots with a pot mouth diameter of more than 28cm and a pot height of more than 30cm, and the matrix in the flowerpots is the optimized soilless matrix for the gerbera bonsai according to the technical scheme 1; or the germchits of the gerbera jamesonii pot type variety are cultivated by using flowerpots with the pot mouth diameter of more than 15cm and the pot height of more than 21cm, and the matrix in the flowerpots is the optimized soilless matrix for the gerbera jamesonii pot culture according to the technical scheme 1.
3. According to the soilless pot culture method of the gerbera jamesonii, according to the technical scheme 2, the transplanted seedling of the gerbera jamesonii pot flower type variety has more than 4 leaves, more than 5 main roots and 7-9 cm of plant height; the leaf number of the gerbera jamesonii cut flower type variety transplanted seedling is more than 4, the main root number is more than 5, and the plant height is 10-12 cm.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. the leaf mold is formed by long-term rotting and fermenting of dead branches and fallen leaves of trees in surface soil layers in forests. According to the invention, a large number of tests show that the gerbera jamesonii cultivated in the leaf-rotting soil containing dead branches and fallen leaves of eucalyptus and Christmas trees has undeveloped root systems and slow plant growth; and even if the leaf mold does not contain eucalyptus and dry branches and fallen leaves of Christmas trees, the leaf mold which is not high in content of the dry branches and fallen leaves of the broad leaf plants is not beneficial to the growth of the African daisy plants. Compared with the traditional soil cultivation, the gerbera jamesonii pot culture optimized soilless substrate is adopted, the potted gerbera jamesonii blooms 5-10 days in advance, the flowering branches are thick and strong, the leaf color is dark green, the diameter of the inflorescence is increased by 1-2 cm, the flowering period is prolonged by 2-4 days, the flowering branches of pot flower type varieties are increased by 1-3 cm, the flowering branches of cut flower type varieties are increased by 2-5 cm, the product quality of the gerbera jamesonii is improved, the flowering period is prolonged, the production time of the products is shortened, and the flowers are more.
2. The optimized soilless substrate for the African daisy potting is light in weight, is used for the African daisy potting, is easy to move and replace the substrate, can remove infected plants in time, and is an effective means for reducing continuous cropping obstacles and infectious diseases; meanwhile, the usage amount of pesticides is reduced, and the method is favorable for reducing the production cost and reducing the pollution to the environment.
3. The invention selects the leaf mold as renewable resource, is easy to obtain, has little damage to the ecological environment, and the prepared mixed soilless substrate has low price, thus saving the production cost.
Detailed Description
In order to better illustrate the present invention, the present invention is further described in detail below with reference to examples, each of which is a conventional method without specific description.
Example 1
1.1 formula of optimized soilless substrate for African daisy potting: the soil is formed by mixing leaf mold and vermiculite, the volume ratio of the leaf mold to the vermiculite is 3:1, and the specific requirements of the leaf mold are as follows: the leaf mold is characterized in that the leaf mold does not contain dead branches and fallen leaves of eucalyptus and dead branches and fallen leaves of Christmas trees, the volume of the leaf mold containing dead branches and fallen leaves of broad leaf plants accounts for 65-75% of the total volume of the leaf mold, other components do not make special requirements, and the leaf mold is the dead branches and fallen leaves obtained under the natural growth condition of forests. The leaf mold is characterized in that the leaf mold only needs to contain no dead branches and fallen leaves of eucalyptus and no dead branches and fallen leaves of Christmas trees, and the volume of the leaf mold containing dead branches and fallen leaves of broad leaf plants accounts for 65-75% of the total volume of the leaf mold; when the leaf mold is mixed with the vermiculite, the leaf mold is required to be stacked for more than 6 months, and the leaf mold below a sieve of the sieve with the sieve hole diameter of 3cm is taken.
1.2 preparation of optimized soilless substrate for African daisy potting: the leaf mold described in example 11.1 was piled up for 6 months or more, and sieved through a sieve having a sieve opening diameter of 3cm, and the leaf mold and vermiculite below the sieve were taken out: the optimized soilless substrate for the African daisy potted plant is prepared by uniformly mixing the vermiculite and the water according to the volume ratio of 3:1, wherein the ratio of the vermiculite to the water is 1.1 in the embodiment 1.
1.3 African daisy soilless substrate potting requirements:
1.3.1 selection of transplanted seedlings
The germchit of the cut flower type germchit of the gerbera jamesonii cultivated by the soilless substrate without plant diseases and insect pests is taken as the transplanting seedling. When the germchits of the gerbera jamesonii flower-cutting type variety are transplanted seedlings, the height of the germchits is 10-12 cm, the number of blades is more than 4, and the number of main roots is more than 5; the soilless substrate for cultivating germchits of cut germchits of gerbera jamesonii type variety can be the optimized soilless substrate of the gerbera jamesonii potted plant described in the embodiment 1, or other soilless substrates, as long as the germchits are cultivated by the soilless substrate.
1.3.2 flowerpot size and selection of soilless substrate for potted plants
The germchits of the gerbera cut flower type variety are cultivated by using flowerpots with a pot mouth diameter of more than 28cm and a pot height of more than 30cm, and the matrix in the flowerpots is the optimized soilless matrix for the gerbera bonsai in the embodiment 1.
1.3.3 transplanting method
The method comprises the following steps of taking shallow planting as a principle, keeping the planting depth of each transplanted seedling consistent, watering a seedbed thoroughly before transplanting, transplanting the gerbera jamesonii seedlings into corresponding flowerpots as required, compacting a matrix around the roots of the gerbera jamesonii seedlings by hands after transplanting, watering rooting water, placing the flowerpots with the gerbera jamesonii seedlings in a greenhouse, spraying 800 times of 75% chlorothalonil wettable powder on the next day after transplanting, and spraying moisture on the whole seedlings.
1.3.4 post-transplant management
Controlling the temperature in the greenhouse to be 20-25 ℃, and fertilizing and preventing and controlling plant diseases and insect pests of the potted gerbera jamesonii according to a conventional gerbera jamesonii cultivation method. If the infected plants are found to be removed in a pot, the infectious diseases are prevented from further spreading.
Example 2
Example 2 the procedure was the same as in example 1 except that the following African daisy soilless substrate potting was required, and the description thereof is omitted.
2.1 selection of transplanted seedlings: the germchits of the gerbera flower pot type variety without plant diseases and insect pests cultivated by the soilless substrate are taken as the transplanted seedlings. When the germchits of the gerbera jamesonii pot-type variety are transplanted seedlings, the height of the germchits is 7-9 cm, the number of the leaves is more than 4, and the number of the main roots is more than 5.
2.2 flowerpot size and selection of soilless substrate for potted plants
The germchits of the gerbera jamesonii pot type variety are cultivated in flowerpots with the pot mouth diameter of more than 15cm and the pot height of more than 21 cm.

Claims (3)

1. An optimized soilless substrate for African daisy potting is characterized in that: the substrate is formed by mixing leaf mold and vermiculite, the volume ratio of the leaf mold to the vermiculite is 3:1, the leaf mold does not contain dead branches and fallen leaves of eucalyptus and Christmas trees, the volume of the leaf mold containing dead branches and fallen leaves of broad-leaved plants accounts for 65-75% of the total volume of the leaf mold, and when the leaf mold is mixed with the vermiculite, the leaf mold is piled for more than 6 months, and the leaf mold below a sieve is sieved by a sieve with the sieve pore diameter of 3 cm.
2. A soilless pot culture method of African daisy is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) cultivating gerbera cut flower type germchits without diseases and insect pests by using a soilless substrate or cultivating gerbera pot type germchits without diseases and insect pests by using the soilless substrate as transplanting seedlings;
(2) the germchit of the gerbera cut flower type variety is cultivated by a flowerpot with a pot mouth diameter of more than 28cm and a pot height of more than 30cm, and the substrate in the flowerpot is the optimized soilless substrate for the gerbera bonsai according to claim 1; or the germchit of the gerbera jamesonii pot type variety is cultivated by a flowerpot with the diameter of the pot mouth more than 15cm and the height of the pot more than 21cm, and the substrate in the flowerpot is the optimized soilless substrate for the gerbera jamesonii pot culture according to claim 1.
3. The method of soilless potting of gerbera jamesonii according to claim 2, wherein: the leaf number of the gerbera flower pot type variety transplanted seedling is more than 4, the main root number is more than 5, and the plant height is 7-9 cm; the leaf number of the African chrysanthemum cut-flower type variety transplanted seedling is more than 4, the main root number is more than 5, and the plant height is 10-12 cm.
CN201710906904.4A 2017-09-29 2017-09-29 Optimized soilless matrix for African daisy potting Active CN107646648B (en)

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108353855B (en) * 2018-03-19 2021-05-14 上海市绿化管理指导站 Artificial breeding method of cyrtorhinus squarrosus
CN109673199A (en) * 2019-01-23 2019-04-26 贵阳中医学院 A method of improving gerbera seed germination rate

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101707972A (en) * 2009-11-24 2010-05-19 张家港市凤凰大华农业园 Method for preparing African daisy culture soil
CN106105669A (en) * 2016-06-29 2016-11-16 无锡南理工科技发展有限公司 A kind of African Chrysanthemum transplants substrate and the application thereof of seedling exercising
CN106258598A (en) * 2016-10-12 2017-01-04 云南省农业科学院花卉研究所 A kind of liftoff bed planting method of cut gerbera flower

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101707972A (en) * 2009-11-24 2010-05-19 张家港市凤凰大华农业园 Method for preparing African daisy culture soil
CN106105669A (en) * 2016-06-29 2016-11-16 无锡南理工科技发展有限公司 A kind of African Chrysanthemum transplants substrate and the application thereof of seedling exercising
CN106258598A (en) * 2016-10-12 2017-01-04 云南省农业科学院花卉研究所 A kind of liftoff bed planting method of cut gerbera flower

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