CN107614140B - Container, selectively shaped shell and tool for providing shell and related method - Google Patents

Container, selectively shaped shell and tool for providing shell and related method Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN107614140B
CN107614140B CN201680030515.3A CN201680030515A CN107614140B CN 107614140 B CN107614140 B CN 107614140B CN 201680030515 A CN201680030515 A CN 201680030515A CN 107614140 B CN107614140 B CN 107614140B
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
assembly
pressure
tool
shell
forming
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
CN201680030515.3A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Other versions
CN107614140A (en
Inventor
A·E·卡斯滕斯
J·A·麦克伦格
P·L·里普勒
G·H·布彻尔
P·K·麦卡蒂
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Stolle Machinery Co LLC
Original Assignee
Stolle Machinery Co LLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US14/722,187 priority Critical patent/US9975164B2/en
Priority to US14/722,187 priority
Application filed by Stolle Machinery Co LLC filed Critical Stolle Machinery Co LLC
Priority to PCT/US2016/026312 priority patent/WO2016190969A1/en
Publication of CN107614140A publication Critical patent/CN107614140A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN107614140B publication Critical patent/CN107614140B/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D22/00Shaping without cutting, by stamping, spinning, or deep-drawing
    • B21D22/20Deep-drawing
    • B21D22/24Deep-drawing involving two drawing operations having effects in opposite directions with respect to the blank
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D51/00Making hollow objects
    • B21D51/16Making hollow objects characterised by the use of the objects
    • B21D51/38Making inlet or outlet arrangements of cans, tins, baths, bottles, or other vessels; Making can ends; Making closures
    • B21D51/44Making closures, e.g. caps

Abstract

The present disclosure provides a shell, a container using the shell, and a tool and associated method for forming the shell. The shell includes a central panel, a circumferential chuckwall, an annular recess between the central panel and the circumferential chuckwall, and a curl extending radially outward from the chuckwall. The material of at least one predetermined portion of the shell is selectively stretched relative to at least one other portion of the shell, thereby providing a corresponding thinned portion. The tool includes a pressure concentrating forming surface.

Description

Container, selectively shaped shell and tool for providing shell and related method
Cross Reference to Related Applications
The present application claims the benefit of U.S. patent application serial No.14/722,187, filed on 27/5/2015, which is incorporated herein by reference, a continuation-in-part application serial No.13/894,017 filed on 14/5/2013, which claims the benefit of U.S. provisional patent application serial No.61/648,698 entitled "CONTAINER, selectively shaped SHELL AND tool FOR providing SHELL AND related METHOD (contact, anode assembly FORMED SHELL, AND tool AND ASSOCIATED METHOD)" filed on 18/2012.
Technical Field
The disclosed concept relates generally to containers and, more particularly, to can ends or shells for metal containers, such as beer or beverage cans and food cans. The disclosed concept also relates to methods and tools for selectively shaping can ends or shells to reduce the amount of material used therein.
Background
Metal containers (e.g., cans) for containing products such as food and beverages are typically provided with an easy-open can end on which a pull tab (e.g., without limitation, a rivet) is attached to a tear strip or tear panel. The tear panel is defined by a score line in an outer surface (e.g., the common side) of the can end. The tab is configured to be lifted and/or pulled to tear the score line and bend and/or remove the tear panel to form an opening for dispensing the contents of the can.
When manufacturing cans, the cans originate from a can end shell that is formed by a punch cut (e.g., a punch) of a sheet metal product (e.g., without limitation, aluminum sheet, steel sheet). The shells are then transferred to a conversion press having a plurality of successive tooling stations. As the shell advances from one tooling station to the next, a converting operation, such as but not limited to rivet forming, paneling, score lines, coining, tab securing, and tab staking, is performed until the shell is fully converted to the desired can end and ejected from the press.
In the can manufacturing industry, large amounts of metal are required in order to manufacture a relatively large number of cans. Therefore, the current industry goal is to reduce the amount of metal consumed. Accordingly, efforts are continually being made to reduce the thickness or gauge (sometimes referred to as "rundown") of the raw materials from which the can ends and can bodies are made. However, as less material is used (e.g., thinner gauge), a problem arises in that a unique solution needs to be developed. Accordingly, there is a continuing desire to reduce the gauge and thus the amount of material used to form such containers. However, a further disadvantage associated with forming can ends from relatively thin gauge materials is the tendency of the can end to buckle, for example during shell formation.
Existing proposals for reducing the amount of metal used reduce the size of the blank for the can end but sacrifice the area of the end panel. This undesirably limits the available space for, for example, score lines, tear panels, and/or tabs.
There is therefore room for improvement in containers such as beer/beverage cans and food cans, selectively formed can ends or shells, and tools and methods for providing such can ends or shells.
Disclosure of Invention
These needs and others are met by the disclosed concept, which is directed to a selectively shaped shell, a container employing the selectively shaped shell, and a tool and associated method for making the shell. Among other advantages, the shell is selectively stretched and thinned to reduce the amount of metal required while maintaining the desired strength.
As one aspect of the disclosed concept, the shell is configured to be secured to the container. The housing includes: a central panel; a circumferential chucking wall (chuck wall); an annular recess between the central panel and the circumferential retaining wall; and a curl extending radially outward from the chuck wall. The material of at least one predetermined portion of the shell is selectively stretched relative to at least one other portion of the shell, thereby providing a corresponding thinned portion.
The shell may be formed from a blank of material, wherein the blank of material has a base gauge prior to forming, and wherein, after forming, the material of the shell at or near the thinned portion has a thickness. The thickness of the material at or near the thinned portion is less than the base gauge. The thinned portion can include a retaining wall.
As another aspect of the disclosed concept, a method for forming a shell is provided. The method comprises the following steps: introducing a material between the tools, shaping the material to include a central panel, a circumferential chuckwall, an annular recess between the central panel and the circumferential chuckwall, and a curl extending radially outward from the chuckwall, selectively stretching at least one predetermined portion of the shell relative to at least one other portion of the shell to provide a corresponding thinned portion of the shell.
The method may include the step of converting the shell into a finished can end. The method may further include the step of sealing the finished can end to the container body.
As another aspect of the disclosed concept, a tool for forming a shell is provided. The tool comprises: an upper tool assembly; and a lower tool assembly cooperating with the upper tool assembly to form material disposed therebetween to include a central panel, a circumferential gripping wall, an annular recess between the central panel and the circumferential gripping wall, and a curl extending radially outward from the gripping wall. The upper tool assembly and the lower tool assembly cooperate to selectively stretch material of at least one predetermined portion of the shell relative to at least one other portion of the shell, thereby providing a corresponding thinned portion.
Selectively thinning a predetermined portion of the shell relative to at least one other portion of the shell to provide a corresponding thinned portion of the shell has been determined to create certain complications, such as an overload condition on the tool and/or press. Furthermore, selective thinning may result in overly non-uniform thinning. That is, while some non-uniformity in thinning is acceptable, excessively non-uniform thinning is undesirable. It is desirable to use existing presses to accomplish the selective thinning. There is therefore room for improvement in terms of tools.
These needs and others are met by the disclosed concept, which is directed to a tool that includes a force and/or pressure concentrating forming surface and/or a hybrid bias generating assembly. In an exemplary embodiment, the hybrid bias generation assembly is one of an active hybrid bias generation assembly or an optional hybrid bias generation assembly as described below. It will be appreciated that in the known art, to increase the pressure on the housing, the manufacturer simply increases the pressure on the tool. This increase in pressure creates a reaction load applied to the press. As disclosed herein, concentrating the force/pressure on the forming surface allows for a reduction in the reaction load applied to the press. The increase in the pressure surface area of the upper surface of the upper tool assembly and the decrease in the forming surface area of the clamped blank solve the problem. In exemplary embodiments, the concentrating shaped surface allows for a ratio of total biasing pressure to clamping pressure of between about 1:10 to 1:50, or between about 1:20 to 1:40, or about 1: 30. That is, the total biasing pressure is applied to the pressure surface and the pressure generated at the clamping surface is between about 10 to 50 times, or between about 20 to 40 times, or about 30 times. This ratio of total biasing pressure to clamping pressure allows the load conditions on the tool and/or press to be reduced and thus solves the problem. Further, the use of the hybrid bias generating assembly prevents an excessive uneven thinning amount, and thus solves the problem.
In an exemplary embodiment, the piston of the upper tool assembly includes a piston coupled to an upper pressure sleeve. The piston includes an upper side exposed to pressure. The upper pressure sleeve includes a lower forming surface. The area ratio of the upper side of the piston of the upper tool assembly to the lower forming surface of the upper pressure sleeve is between about 10:1 to 50:1, between about 20:1 to 40:1, or about 30: 1. A tool assembly having this area ratio solves the above-mentioned problems. That is, as shown in fig. 12A and 12B, in the known art, the area ratio of the upper side of the piston of the upper tool assembly to the lower forming surface of the upper pressure sleeve is about 4: 1. This ratio includes a smaller upper side of the piston of the upper tool assembly and a larger lower forming surface of the upper pressure sleeve than the disclosed concept. It should be noted that in this configuration, the metal is not thinned as described above. As shown in fig. 13A and 13B, and in an exemplary embodiment, the area ratio of the upper side of the piston of the upper tool assembly to the lower forming surface of the upper pressure sleeve is about 30: 1. The upper tool assembly of the construction of the disclosed concept is a force concentrating and/or pressure concentrating forming surface that addresses the problem.
Drawings
A full understanding of the disclosed concept can be gained from the following description of the preferred embodiments when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a side cross-sectional view of a shell for a beverage can end, also illustrating in simplified form a portion of a beverage can in phantom;
FIG. 2 is a side cross-sectional view of the shell of FIG. 1 illustrating various thinning locations in accordance with one non-limiting aspect of the disclosed concept;
FIG. 3 is a side cross-sectional view of a tool according to an embodiment of the disclosed concept;
FIG. 4 is a side cross-sectional view of a portion of the tool of FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a side cross-sectional view of a portion of the tool of FIG. 4, modified to show the tool in a different position according to a non-limiting example of a method of forming the disclosed concept;
6A-6E are side views of successive forming stages for forming a shell, according to non-limiting exemplary embodiments of the disclosed concept;
FIG. 7 is a side cross-sectional view of a tool according to an alternative embodiment of the disclosed concept;
FIG. 8 is a detailed side cross-sectional view of a pressure concentrating forming surface showing a prior art housing (ghost) forming surface;
FIG. 9 is a detailed cross-sectional side view of a pressure concentrating forming surface having three abutments;
FIG. 10 is a detailed side cross-sectional view of a pressure concentrating forming surface having five abutments;
FIG. 11 is a flow chart of the disclosed method;
FIG. 12A is a schematic illustration of forces, pressures and selected component areas associated with the prior art, wherein the ratio of the pressure on the upper piston to the lower clamping surface pressure on the material is 1:4, and FIG. 12B is a partial cross-sectional side view of a prior art tool capable of achieving a 1:4 pressure ratio; and
fig. 13A is a schematic illustration of forces, pressures, and selected component areas associated with the disclosed concept, wherein the ratio of the pressure on the upper piston to the lower clamping surface pressure on the material is 1:30, and fig. 13B is a partial cross-sectional side view of the tool shown in fig. 3 that is capable of achieving a pressure ratio of 1: 30.
Detailed Description
For purposes of illustration, embodiments of the disclosed concept will be described as applied to shells for can ends (commonly referred to in the industry as "B64" ends), although it will be apparent that they may also be used to suitably and selectively stretch and thin predetermined portions or regions of any known or suitable alternative type (e.g., without limitation, beverage can/beer can ends, food can ends) and/or construction other than B64 ends.
It is to be understood that the specific elements illustrated in the drawings herein and described in the following specification are simply exemplary embodiments of the disclosed concept, which are provided as non-limiting examples only for purposes of illustration. Hence, specific dimensions, orientations, components, numbers, embodiment configurations, and other physical characteristics related to the embodiments disclosed herein are not to be considered limiting on the scope of the disclosed concepts.
Directional phrases used herein (e.g., clockwise, counterclockwise, left, right, top, bottom, up, down, and derivatives thereof) relate to the orientation of the elements shown in the drawings and do not limit the scope of the claims unless expressly recited therein.
As used herein, the singular forms "a", "an" and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.
As used herein, the statement that two or more parts or components are "coupled" shall mean that the parts are joined together or operate together either directly or indirectly (i.e., through one or more intermediate parts or components), so long as a link exists. As used herein, "directly coupled" means that two elements are in direct contact with each other. It should be noted that the moving parts (e.g., without limitation, the circuit breaker contacts) are "directly coupled" when in one position (e.g., the closed second position), but are not "directly coupled" when in the open first position. As used herein, "fixedly coupled" or "fixed" refers to coupling two components to move integrally while maintaining a constant orientation relative to each other. Thus, when two elements are coupled, all portions of the elements are coupled. However, the description that a particular portion of a first element is coupled to a second element (e.g., a first end of a shaft is coupled to a first wheel) refers to the particular portion of the first element being disposed closer to the second element than other portions of the first element.
As used herein, the phrase "removably coupled" refers to one component being coupled to another component in a substantially temporary manner. That is, the two components are coupled in the following manner: the joining or separating of the components is easy without damaging the components. For example, two components secured to one another with a limited number of readily accessible fasteners are "removably coupled," whereas two components welded together or joined by a difficult-to-access fastener are not. "hard-to-reach fastener" refers to a fastener that requires removal of one or more other components prior to reaching the fastener, where the "other components" are not access devices (such as, but not limited to, doors).
As used herein, "operatively coupled" means that a plurality of elements or assemblies, each of which is movable between a first position and a second position or between a first configuration and a second configuration, are coupled such that when a first element is moved from one position/configuration to another, a second element is also moved between those positions/configurations. It is noted that a first element may be "operatively coupled" to another element and vice versa.
As used herein, a "coupling assembly" includes two or more coupling or coupling components. The coupling or components of the coupling assembly are typically not part of the same element or other component. Thus, in the following description, the various components of the "coupling assembly" may not be described at the same time.
As used herein, a "coupling" or "one or more coupling components" is one or more components of a coupling assembly. That is, the coupling assembly includes at least two components configured to be coupled together. It should be understood that the components of the coupling assembly are compatible with each other. For example, in a coupling assembly, if one coupling part is a snap socket, the other coupling part is a snap plug, or if one coupling part is a bolt, the other coupling part is a nut.
As used herein, "corresponding" means that two structural components are sized and shaped to be similar to each other and can be coupled with a minimal amount of friction. Thus, an opening "corresponding to" a member is sized slightly larger than the member so that the member can pass through the opening with a minimal amount of friction. This definition is modified if the two components are to be "tightly" fitted together. In this case, the difference between the sizes of the components is even smaller, whereby the amount of friction increases. The opening may even be slightly smaller than the part inserted into the opening if the element defining the opening and/or the part inserted into the opening are made of a deformable or compressible material. Two or more "corresponding" surfaces, shapes or lines have substantially the same size, shape and contour as regards the surfaces, shapes and lines.
As used herein, and in the phrase "first and second positions corresponding to [ y ], [ x ] moves between the first and second positions," where "[ x ] and" [ y ] are elements or components, the term "corresponding to" means that when element [ x ] is in the first position, element [ y ] is in the first position, and when element [ x ] is in the second position, element [ y ] is in the second position. Note that "correspond" relates to the final position and does not mean that the elements must move at the same rate or at the same time. That is, for example, the hubcap and the wheel to which it is attached rotate in a corresponding manner. Instead, the spring-biased latch member and the latch release move at different rates. Thus, as described above, a "corresponding" position refers to an element being in both the identified first position and the identified second position.
As used herein, the expression that two or more parts or components are "engaged" with one another shall mean that the elements exert a force or bias against one another, either directly or through one or more intermediate elements or components. Further, as used herein with respect to moving parts, a moving part may "engage" another element during movement from one position to another, and/or a moving part may "engage" another element once in the described position. Thus, it is to be understood that the expression "element a engages element B when element a is moved to the first position of element a" and the expression "element a engages element B when element a is in the first position of element a" are equivalent expressions and mean that element a engages element B when moved to the first position of element a and/or element a engages element B when element a is in the first position of element a.
As used herein, "operably engaged" refers to "engaging and moving. That is, "operably engaged," when used with a first component configured to move a movable or rotatable second component, means that the first component exerts a force sufficient to move the second component. For example, a screwdriver may be arranged in contact with the screw. When no force is applied to the screwdriver, the screwdriver simply "couples" to the screw. If an axial force is applied to the screwdriver, the screwdriver is pressed against the screw and "engages" the screw. However, when a rotational force is applied to the screwdriver, the screwdriver "operably engages" the screw and causes the screw to rotate.
As used herein, the word "unitary" refers to a component formed as a single part or unit. That is, an assembly that includes parts that are formed separately and then coupled together as a unit is not an "integral" component or body.
As used herein, "configured to [ act ]" means that the structure of the identified element or component is shaped, sized, arranged, coupled, and/or configured to perform the identified act. For example, a member that is "configured to move" is movably coupled to another element and includes an element that causes the member to move, or is otherwise configured to move in response to other elements or components. Thus, additionally, as used herein, "configured to [ act ]" means a structure and not a function. Further, as used herein, "configured to [ act ]" means that the identified element or component is intended and designed to perform the identified action. Thus, an element that is only capable of performing the identified action, but is not intended and designed to perform the identified action, is not "configured to [ action ]". As used herein, "associated" means that the elements are part of the same component and/or operate together, or act or interact in some manner with each other. For example, an automobile has four tires and four hubcaps. While all of the elements are coupled as part of the vehicle, it should be understood that each hubcap is "associated" with a particular tire.
As used herein, in the phrase "[ x ]" moving between its first and second positions "or" [ y ] configured to move [ x ] between its first and second positions, "x" is the name of an element or component. Further, when [ x ] is an element or component that moves between multiple positions, the pronoun "it" refers to "[ x ]", i.e., the element or component specified before the pronoun "it".
As used herein, the terms "can" and "container" are used substantially interchangeably to refer to any known or suitable container configured to contain a substance (such as, but not limited to, a liquid, food, any other suitable substance), and specifically includes, but is not limited to, beverage cans (such as beer cans and soda cans) and food cans.
As used herein, the term "can end" refers to a lid or closure that is configured to be coupled to a can to seal the can.
As used herein, the term "can end shell" is used substantially interchangeably with the term "can end". A "can end shell" or simply "shell" is a member that is acted upon by the disclosed tool and transformed to provide the desired can end.
As used herein, the terms "tool," "tool assembly," and "tool assembly" are used substantially interchangeably to refer to any known or suitable tool or component or components used to form (e.g., without limitation, stretch) a shell in accordance with the concepts of the present disclosure.
As used herein, "fastener" refers to any suitable connecting or fastening mechanism that expressly includes, but is not limited to, screws, bolts, and combinations of bolts and nuts (e.g., without limitation, lock nuts), and combinations of bolts, washers, and nuts.
As used herein, the term "number" shall mean one or an integer greater than one (i.e., a plurality).
Fig. 1 and 2 illustrate a can end shell 4 that is selectively shaped according to one non-limiting exemplary embodiment of the disclosed concept. Specifically, as described in detail herein below, the material in certain predetermined regions of the shell 4 has been stretched to thin it, while other regions of the shell 4 preferably maintain the base metal thickness. Although the examples shown and described herein relate to shells (e.g., without limitation, see shell 4 of fig. 1-3, 5, and 6E) for beverage can bodies 100 (partially shown in simplified form in phantom lines in fig. 1), it should be appreciated that the disclosed concepts may be used to stretch and thin any known or suitable can end shell type and/or construction for any known or suitable alternative type of container (e.g., without limitation, a food can (not shown)) that is subsequently further shaped (e.g., converted) into a finished can end for such a container.
The shell 4in the non-limiting example shown and described herein comprises a circular central panel 6, which circular central panel 6 is connected to an annular recess 10 by a substantially cylindrical panel wall 8. The exemplary annular recess 10 has a generally U-shaped cross-sectional profile. As shown in fig. 1, 2 and 6E, a tapered chucking wall 12 connects the recess 10 to the crown 14, and a peripheral curl or outer lip 16 extends radially outward from the crown 14.
In the non-limiting example of fig. 2, the shell 4 has a base metal thickness of about 0.0082 inches. The base metal thickness is preferably substantially maintained in areas such as the central panel 6 and the outer lip or curl 16. Maintaining the center panel 6 at the base metal thickness facilitates the functions of staking, score line and tabbing in the converted end (not expressly shown). For example, and without limitation, by substantially maintaining a base thickness in panel 6, undesirable problems that may be attributed to the reduction in strength associated with the thinned metal, such as wrinkling and/or undesirable score lines and/or rivet failures or tab failures, are substantially eliminated. Similarly, maintaining the outer lip 16 substantially at the base thickness facilitates a sealing capability for sealing the lid or can end 4 to the can body 100 (partially shown in simplified form in phantom lines in fig. 1). The regions that are preferably minimal to no thinning occur are generally indicated by reference numeral 18 in fig. 2.
Therefore, it is preferred that most of the thinning (e.g., without limitation, 5% to 20% thinning or about 10% thinning) occur in retaining wall 12. More specifically, thinning preferably occurs in the area between the crown 14 and the recess 10, generally indicated as area 20 in FIG. 2. Thus, by way of illustration, in the non-limiting example of fig. 2, the thickness of the material in the chuck wall 12 may be reduced to about 0.0074 inches. It will be appreciated that this is a significant reduction compared to conventional can ends, resulting in significant weight and cost savings.
It should be further appreciated that the particular shell type and/or configuration and/or size arrangement shown in fig. 2 (as well as all of the figures provided herein) is merely for illustration and does not limit the scope of the disclosed concepts. That is, for any known or suitable shell, or can end type and/or construction, any known or suitable alternative thinning of the base gauge may be performed in additional and/or alternative areas of the shell (e.g., without limitation, shell 4) without departing from the scope of the disclosed concept.
Moreover, the disclosed concept achieves a reduction in material and associated reductions in total amount and weight of material without incurring the material processing expense associated with the raw materials supplied to form the final product. For example, and without limitation, an increased machining (e.g., rolling) of the raw material to reduce the base gauge (i.e., thickness) of the material can undesirably result in a relatively large increase in the initial cost of the material. The disclosed concept achieves the desired thinning and reduction, yet uses raw materials with more traditional and therefore less costly base specifications.
Fig. 3-5 illustrate various tool assemblies 200 (or "tools 200") for stretching and thinning shell material, according to one non-limiting exemplary embodiment of the disclosed concept. In particular, selective shaping (e.g., stretching and thinning) is achieved by precise tool geometry, arrangement, and interaction. According to one non-limiting embodiment, the process begins by introducing a blank of material having a base metal thickness or gauge (e.g., without limitation, see blank 2 of fig. 6A) between the components of tool assembly 200.
Fig. 3 shows a single station 300 of the multi-station tool assembly 200 coupled to a press 400, also referred to as a "bladder (pocket)" 300. For example, and without limitation, during each stroke of a conventional high speed single action or double action mechanical press 400 coupled with the multi-station tool assembly 200 of the disclosed concept, one shell 4 is typically produced at each station 300. In accordance with the disclosed concept, tool assembly 200 includes opposing upper and lower tool assemblies 202, 204, the upper and lower tool assemblies 202, 204 cooperating to form (e.g., without limitation, stretch; thin; bend) metal (e.g., without limitation, see metal blank 2 of fig. 6A) to achieve a desired shell (e.g., without limitation, see shell 4 of fig. 1-3, 5, and 6E).
More specifically, the upper tool assembly 202 and the lower tool assembly 204 are coupled to an upper die shoe 206 and a lower die shoe 208 that are respectively supported by a press bed and/or a bolster plate and a press hammer within the press 400 in a generally well known manner. The annular blanking and drawing die 210 includes an upper flange portion 212 coupled to a retainer or riser body 214 by a plurality of fasteners 216. The blanking and drawing die 210 surrounds an upper pressure sleeve 218. That is, the blanking and drawing die 210 is proximate to the upper pressure sleeve 218 and is radially outward of the upper pressure sleeve 218. An inner mold member or mold center 220 is supported within upper pressure sleeve 218 by a mold center standpipe 222. The blanking and drawing die 210 includes an inner curved forming surface 224 (fig. 4 and 5). The lower end 227 of the upper pressure sleeve 218 includes a curved (contoured) annular forming surface 226 (fig. 4 and 5).
With continued reference to fig. 3, an annular die holder 230 is coupled to the lower die shoe 208 within the recess 232. An annular cutting edge die 234 is coupled to the die holder 230 by suitable fasteners 236. An annular lower pressure sleeve 240 includes a lower piston portion 242 for movement within the die holder 230. The lower pressure sleeve 240 further includes an upper end 244, the upper end 244 having a substantially flat surface opposite the lower end of the blanking and drawing die 210 described above. As shown, the cutting edge die 234 is positioned proximate to the lower pressure sleeve 240 and radially outward from an upper end 244 of the lower pressure sleeve 240. As best shown in fig. 4 and 5, the die core ring 250 is disposed within the lower pressure sleeve 240 and includes an upper end 252, the upper end 252 being opposite the lower end or forming surface 226 of the upper pressure sleeve 218. The upper end 252 includes a tapered surface 254, a rounded or curvilinear inner surface 256, and a rounded outer surface 258 (all shown in fig. 4 and 5). A circular face plate punch 260 is disposed within the die core ring 250 opposite the die center piece 220 described above. The panel punch 260 includes a circular, substantially flat upper surface 262 having a peripheral circular surface 264. As best shown in fig. 4 and 5, a peripheral recessed portion 266 extends downwardly from the circular surface 264.
Accordingly, the above-described tools of the upper tool assembly 202 and the lower tool assembly 204 cooperate to form and, in particular, stretch and thin predetermined selected regions of the shell 4, as will now be described in greater detail with reference to fig. 6A-6E, which illustrate a method and associated forming stages for forming the stretched and thinned shell 4, in accordance with one non-limiting embodiment of the disclosed concept.
Fig. 6A shows a first forming step in which the blank 2 is provided using the aforementioned tool assembly 200 (fig. 3-5). More specifically, the respective cutting edges of the blanking and drawing die 210 and the annular cutting edge die 234 cooperate to cut (e.g., blank) the blank 2 from a web or sheet of material. In a second step, shown in fig. 6B, the tools 200 cooperate to form the first bend, i.e. to bend the peripheral edge of the blank 2 downwards, as shown. Next, in a forming step shown in fig. 6C, as shown in the drawing, an outer portion of the blank member 2 is further formed. This is achieved by the following cooperation: the inner curved surface 224 of the blanking and drawing die 210 cooperates with the upper end 252 of the die core ring 250 and with the upper end 252 of the die core ring 250 through the forming surface 226 of the upper pressure sleeve 218.
The stretching and thinning according to the above non-limiting embodiments of the disclosed concept will be further described and understood with reference to the fourth forming step shown in fig. 4 and 6D. Specifically, FIG. 4 shows the tool assembly 200 after a downstroke, wherein all of the tools shown have been moved downwardly in the direction of arrow 410 to the position shown. That is, the blanking and drawing die 210 and lower pressure sleeve 240 have been moved downwardly in the direction of arrow 410 to further form the outer lip or curl 16. As shown, the upper pressure sleeve 218 has also been moved downwardly in the direction of arrow 410 so that the forming surface 226 of the upper pressure sleeve 218 cooperates with the upper end 252 of the die core ring 250 to further form the crown 14. The die center piece 220, also moving downwardly in the direction of arrow 410, stretches the metal of the blank 2in the area of the gripping wall 12 as the substantially flat surface of the lower end of the die center piece 220 clamps the material between the die center piece 220 and the substantially flat upper surface 262 of the panel punch 260. The die center piece 220 and the panel punch 260 are each moved downwardly in the direction of arrow 410 to draw and thin the metal in the area of the chuck wall 12 when the die center piece 220 cooperates with the tapered surface 254 of the die core ring 250. Thus, in the fourth forming step, the material of the blank 2 is stretched and thinned in the region that will become the chuck wall 12, but little stretching or thinning occurs in the outer lip or curl region 16, or in the region that will later be formed into the panel 6 (fig. 5 and 6E), or in the lower region that will later be formed into the annular recess 10 (fig. 5 and 6E). As previously mentioned, these regions are maintained substantially at the base gauge metal thickness.
In the fifth and final shell forming step, the forming of the shell 4 is completed. Specifically, as shown in fig. 5, fig. 5 shows the same tool assemblies 200 shown and described above in relation to the down stroke of fig. 4, in fig. 5 some of the tool assemblies 200 have been moved upwardly in the direction of arrow 420 to form the panel 6 of the shell 4. Specifically, the blanking and drawing die 210, the die center 220, the lower pressure sleeve 240, and the panel punch 260 all move upward in the direction of arrow 420, while the upper pressure sleeve 218 has stopped moving downward in the direction of arrow 410 and maintained the pressure on the shell 4. This results in further formation of an outer lip or curl 16 on the circular outer surface 258 of the die core ring 250 and a crown 14 between the forming surface 226 of the upper pressure sleeve 218 and the upper end 252 of the die core ring 250. The desired final form of the chuck wall 12 is provided by the interaction of the upper pressure sleeve 218 with the surfaces 254 and 256 of the die core ring 250. The panel 6 is formed by the interaction of the substantially flat upper surface 262 of the panel punch 260 with the die center 220 because both components move upwardly in the direction of arrow 420 with the metal of the blank 2, the metal of the blank 2 becoming the panel 6 disposed (e.g., clamped) between the upper surface 262 and the die center 220. This movement also assists in shaping the cylindrical panel wall 8 and the depressions 10.
Specifically, as the panel punch 260 moves upward and the upper pressure sleeve 218 moves downward, an annular recess 10 is formed within a peripheral recess 266 of the panel punch 260. Thus, when the metal cooperates with the peripheral circular surface 264 of the panel punch 260, a cylindrical panel wall 8 is formed.
It will thus be appreciated that the disclosed concept differs significantly from conventional shell forming methods and tooling in which the material of the blank 2 or shell 4 is not particularly stretched or thinned. That is, while the face plate 6, the valley 10, and the outer lip or curl 16 of the exemplary shell 4 (fig. 1-3, 5, and 6E) are not stretched or nominally stretched, the region 20 (fig. 2) between the valley 10 and the crown 14 is stretched and thinned during the forming process, particularly in the fourth forming step shown in fig. 5 and 6D.
It should be appreciated that although five forming stages are illustrated in fig. 6A-6E, any known or suitable alternative number and/or alternative sequence of forming stages may be performed to selectively stretch and thin the material as appropriate in accordance with the disclosed concept. It is further appreciated that any known or suitable mechanism for sufficiently securing certain regions of material while other predetermined regions of material are stretched and thinned to resist movement (e.g., slippage) or flow or thinning of the material may be employed without departing from the scope of the disclosed concept. Moreover, in addition to the regions of the shell 4 shown and described herein, alternative or additional regions of the shell 4 (e.g., without limitation, the shell 4) may be suitably stretched and thinned, and the disclosed concepts are fully applicable to shells (not shown) having different types and/or configurations.
Accordingly, it should be appreciated that the disclosed concept provides a tool assembly 200 (fig. 3-5) and method for selectively stretching and thinning a predetermined region (e.g., without limitation, see region 20 of fig. 2) of the shell 4 (fig. 1-3, 5, and 6E), thereby providing relatively large material and cost savings.
Another embodiment of the disclosed invention is shown in fig. 7. The tool 200A is substantially similar to the tool assembly 200 discussed above, except for the elements discussed below, and like elements will be given the same reference numerals. As mentioned above, and in the exemplary embodiment, an upper end 252 of the die core ring is opposite a lower end or forming surface 226 of upper pressure sleeve 218. As further described above, the outer portion of the blank 2 is formed by the forming surface 226 of the upper pressure sleeve 218 in cooperation with the upper end 252 of the die core ring 250. That is, the upper end 252 of the die core ring and the forming surface 226 of the upper pressure sleeve both engage the blank 2. As used herein, elements that are simultaneously disposed opposite each other are engaged at the same time referred to as "gripping".
As described above, the upper end 252 of the die core ring includes the tapered surface 254, the circular inner surface 256, and the circular outer surface 258. In the exemplary embodiment, upper end 252 of die core ring also includes a substantially horizontal surface 257. As used herein, a "generally horizontal surface" 257 is the portion of the upper end of the die core ring that extends in a plane that is generally perpendicular to the axis of movement of the upper tool assembly 202 and the lower tool assembly 204. As used herein, "generally perpendicular" refers to +/-about 10 degrees perpendicular.
In the exemplary embodiment, upper tool assembly 202 and lower tool assembly 204 move between a separated first position at which upper tool assembly 202 is spaced apart from lower tool assembly 204 and a forming position at which upper tool assembly 202 is in close proximity to lower tool assembly 204 to selectively stretch material of at least one predetermined portion of shell 4 relative to at least one other portion of the shell to thereby provide a corresponding thinned portion. When the upper tool assembly 202 and the lower tool assembly 204 are in the forming position, the upper pressure sleeve 218 and the die core ring 250 clamp the shell 4 as described above. As used herein, the force acting on the blank 2 is the "clamping force".
In the exemplary embodiment, upper tool assembly 202 also includes a hybrid bias generating assembly 500, and upper pressure sleeve forming surface 226 is a force concentrating forming surface 600. As used herein, a "hybrid bias generating assembly" is an assembly that generates a bias in at least two different ways, and the bias is applied to the same component. That is, as used herein, a "hybrid bias generation assembly" includes at least two bias generation assemblies that apply a bias to the same component and a plurality of hybrid components. Accordingly, assemblies such as, but not limited to, the hybrid bias generating assembly 500 described herein that generate bias via compressed fluid (pressure bias) and via springs (mechanical bias) satisfy the first requirement as an active hybrid bias generating assembly. In contrast, a device having a high pressure compressor and a low pressure compressor (both producing a pressure bias) is not a "hybrid bias generating assembly" because the manner in which the bias is produced is the same. Further, an assembly in which one type of bias voltage is applied to one component and another type of bias voltage is applied to a different component is also not a "hybrid bias voltage generating assembly" because bias voltages are not applied to the same component.
Further, as used herein, an "active hybrid bias generating assembly" is an assembly that includes at least two bias generating assemblies that simultaneously apply a bias to the same component. Further, as used herein, a "selectable hybrid bias generating assembly" is an assembly that includes at least two bias generating assemblies, and the biases are selectively applied to the same component. That is, in a "selectable hybrid bias generating assembly," which has the ability to apply bias in at least two different ways, and the user decides which bias generating assembly applies bias to the component or both. Thus, when the user selects two biasing modes, the "selectable hybrid bias generating assembly" operates as an "active hybrid bias generating assembly". In other words, an "active hybrid bias generating element" is a "selectable hybrid bias generating element", but the opposite is not always the case. That is, not all of the "selectable hybrid bias generating components" are "active hybrid bias generating components". A "selectable hybrid bias generating component" that is biased in only one of several available ways is a "selectable hybrid bias generating component" rather than an "active hybrid bias generating component". In the exemplary embodiment, hybrid bias generation assembly 500 is one of an active hybrid bias generation assembly 502 or an optional hybrid bias generation assembly 504.
The hybrid bias generating assembly 500 includes a pressure generating assembly 510, a mechanical bias assembly 550, and a plurality of hybrid components 570. As used herein, a "mixing component" 570 is a component configured to be used by two bias generating assemblies, in the exemplary embodiment, a pressure generating assembly 510 and a mechanical biasing assembly 550. The pressure generating assembly 510 includes a pressure generating device 512 (shown schematically), a pressure communication assembly 514 (shown schematically), a pressure chamber 516, and a piston assembly 518. Pressure generating device 512 is any known device configured to compress a fluid under increased pressure or to store a compressed fluid, such as, but not limited to, a fluid pump or compressor. The pressure communication assembly 514 includes any number of hoses, conduits, channels, or any other structure capable of communicating pressurized fluid. It should be understood that the pressure communication assembly 514 may also include seals, valves, or any other structure needed to control the communication of pressurized fluid.
In the exemplary embodiment, riser body 214 is sealingly coupled, directly coupled, or secured to upper die shoe 206. In this configuration, the standpipe body 214 defines a pressure chamber 516. It will be appreciated that the pressure chamber 516 includes a number of seals, not shown, necessary to prevent fluid from escaping. As described below, the piston assembly 518 includes an annular ring-shaped body 520 and, in the exemplary embodiment, a spring seat 554. In another embodiment, not shown, the piston body and the spring seat are a unitary body. It should be understood that the description of the piston body 520 as applied to the spring seat 554 is an embodiment including the spring seat 554. For example, the piston body 520 corresponds to the pressure chamber 516 and the mold center standpipe 222; it should be understood that in embodiments having a spring seat 554, the spring seat 554 corresponds to the pressure chamber 516 and the die center standpipe 222. Thus, the outer radial surface or spring seat 554 of the piston body 520 is sealingly coupled to the inner surface of the pressure chamber 516, and the inner radial surface of the piston body 520 is sealingly coupled to the outer surface of the mold center riser 222. It should be understood that the piston assembly 518 includes a number of seals, not shown, that are required to prevent fluid from escaping from the pressure chamber 516. A piston assembly 518 is movably disposed in the pressure chamber 516.
The pressure generating device 512 is in fluid communication with a pressure chamber 516 via a pressure communication assembly 514. The fluid, and thus the pressure associated therewith, is communicated to an upper side portion (hereinafter "pressure surface" 521) of the piston body 520. It should be understood that in embodiments having a spring seat 554, the pressure surface 521 may be an upper surface of the spring seat 554. In the exemplary embodiment, the total biasing force is applied to pressure surface 521, and the area of pressure surface 521 is approximately 3.46in2(square inch) to 17.3in2Between, or about 10.38in2. Accordingly, the pressure generating device 512 is configured to control the position of the piston assembly 518 in the pressure chamber 516, and is configured to cause the piston assembly 518 to move in the pressure chamber 516. Piston assembly 518 is coupled to upper pressure sleeve 218. That is, the upper pressureThe sleeve 218 includes an upper end 225 opposite the contoured surface 226. Piston assembly 518 is coupled to upper end 225 of the upper pressure sleeve. Thus, as the piston assembly 518 moves within the pressure chamber 516, the upper pressure sleeve 218 moves between an extended first position, in which the lower end 227 of the upper pressure sleeve is more spaced from the upper die shoe 206, and a retracted second position, in which the lower end 227 of the upper pressure sleeve is less spaced from the upper die shoe 206.
In this configuration, piston assembly 518 and piston body 520 are "mixing members" 570 as defined herein. That is, the piston assembly 518 and the piston body 520 are configured to be utilized by both the pressure generating assembly 510 and the mechanical biasing assembly 550. It is noted that pistons associated with only the pressure generating assembly 510 or only the mechanical biasing assembly 550 are not "mixing components" as defined herein. That is, by this definition, only the piston assembly 518 associated with the pressure generating assembly 510 cannot be "configured" for use by both bias generating assemblies. Similarly, according to this definition, piston assembly 518, which is associated with only mechanical biasing assembly 550, cannot be "configured" for use by both bias generating assemblies. Thus, the piston associated with only the pressure generating assembly 510 or the piston associated with only the mechanical biasing assembly 550 is not a "mixing component" as used herein.
In the exemplary embodiment, mechanical biasing assembly 550 includes a plurality of spring assemblies 552 and a plurality of spring seats 554. The spring assembly 552 includes a plurality of springs 560 associated with each spring seat 554. In one embodiment, each spring assembly 552 includes a single linear spring rate compression spring 560. In this embodiment, the mechanical biasing assembly 550 is configured and does apply a bias with a substantially linear stiffness during compression of the spring assembly 552.
In another exemplary embodiment, each spring assembly 552 includes a plurality of springs 560 having variable spring rates. (it should be understood that reference number 560 represents a "spring" rather than a specific type of spring). The variable spring rate may be any one of an increasing spring rate, a decreasing spring rate, or a double rate (sometimes referred to as a "progressive with knee" spring rate). As used herein, an "incremental spring rate" is a spring rate that increases compressively in a non-linear manner. As used herein, a "decreasing spring rate" is a spring rate that decreases compressively in a non-linear manner. As used herein, a "dual rate" spring rate is a spring rate that increases at a first linear or substantially linear spring rate until a selected compression is reached, after which the spring rate increases at a second, different linear or substantially linear spring rate. That is, the first spring rate and the second spring rate are significantly different from each other. Variable rate springs include, but are not limited to, cylindrical springs, conical springs, and miniature block springs with variable pitch.
In an exemplary embodiment, all of the spring assemblies 552 include substantially the same type of spring 560. That is, for example, each spring assembly 552 includes a plurality of substantially similar linear spring rate compression springs 560, or a plurality of substantially similar dual rate compression springs 560. In another exemplary embodiment, the spring assembly 552 includes different types of springs. For example, within the mechanical biasing assembly 550, one set of spring assemblies 552 includes a plurality of substantially similar linear spring rate compression springs 560, and a second set includes a plurality of substantially similar dual rate compression springs 560. In another exemplary embodiment, the variable rate spring assembly 552 may include any one of a plurality of dual rate springs, a plurality of springs having different compression rates, a plurality of springs having an increasing spring rate, a plurality of springs having a decreasing spring rate, or a combination of any of these springs.
In the exemplary embodiment, a compression spring 560 is disposed within pressure chamber 516. In this embodiment, at least the lower spring seat 554' is an annular body 562 corresponding to the pressure chamber 516 and the die center standpipe 222. The lower spring seat 554' is coupled, directly coupled, fixed to the upper side of the piston body 520, or the lower spring seat is integral with the upper side of the piston body 520. The compression spring 560 is sized to be in a compressed state when disposed in the pressure chamber 516. In this configuration, mechanical biasing assembly 550 biases (i.e., operatively engages) piston assembly 518, and thus upper pressure sleeve 218. That is, upper pressure sleeve 218 is biased to its first position.
In one exemplary embodiment, wherein the pressure concentrating forming surface 600 has an approximate 0.346in as described below2Between about 7000lbfs and 9000lbfs or about 8000lbfs of force acting on a pressure surface 521, the area of said pressure surface 521 being between about 3.46in2To 17.3in2Between about 6.92in2To 13.84in2Between, or about 10.38in2. Alternatively, the area at the pressure surface 521 is about 10.38in2In an embodiment of (1), the area of the pressure concentrating forming surface 600 is between about 1.038in as described below2To 0.208in2Between about 0.519in2To 0.2595in2Between, or about 0.346in2. That is, the force/pressure is concentrated at a ratio of between about 1:10 to 1:50, or at a ratio of between about 1:20 to 1.40, or at a ratio of about 1: 30.
In the exemplary embodiment, as described above, multi-station tool assembly 200 is coupled to a press 400, a one hundred ton press. The multi-station tool assembly 200 includes twenty-four stations or capsules 300. In an embodiment where about 8000lbfs acts on each pressure surface 521 (i.e., on twenty-four pressure surfaces 521), the total load is about 8000lbfs 24 (bladder) ═ 192000 lbfs. About 192000lbfs was about 96 tons (192000 lbfs/2000). Accordingly, the upper tool assembly 202 with the hybrid bias generating assembly 500 in the configuration described herein solves the problems described for use with existing presses and includes a force concentrating forming surface 600 configured to operate with an existing one hundred ton press.
The total bias/force generated by the hybrid bias generating assembly 500 may also be referred to as the "total bias pressure". As used herein, "total bias pressure" refers to the total bias/pressure generated by the hybrid bias generating assembly 500 (and thus by the upper tool assembly 202). In addition, mechanical biasingThe assembly 550 generates a force that is considered to be evenly distributed on the pressure surface 521 as used herein. That is, the mechanical force may be considered a pressure used to calculate the force and pressure acting on the component. In the exemplary embodiment, mechanical biasing assembly 550 generates about 70% -80%, or about 75%, of the total biasing pressure. In contrast, the pressure generating assembly 510 produces about 20% -30%, or about 25%, of the total biasing pressure. The force/pressure generated by the pressure generating means 512 acts on the pressure surface 521. The area at the pressure surface 521 is about 10.38in2In the exemplary embodiment, hybrid bias generating assembly 500 generates a pressure between about 674.4psi and about 867.1psi, or a pressure of about 770.7 psi. Further, in an exemplary embodiment in which the mechanical biasing assembly 550 produces about 75% of the total biasing pressure and the pressure generating assembly 510 produces about 25% of the total biasing pressure, the mechanical biasing assembly 550 produces between about 505.8psi to 650.3psi or about 578.0psi and the pressure generating assembly 510 produces between about 168.6psi to about 216.8psi or about 192.7 psi. Further, the pressure generating assembly 510 is configured to pressurize the pressure chamber 516 at a substantially constant pressure.
In an alternative exemplary embodiment, the hybrid bias generating assembly 500 is configured to have substantially all of the total bias pressure or all of the total bias pressure generated by the mechanical biasing assembly 550, and the pressure generating assembly 510 generates a substantially constant but substantially minimal pressure. That is, in this embodiment, the mechanical biasing assembly 550 produces about 90% -99%, or about 95%, of the total biasing pressure. In contrast, the pressure generating assembly 510 produces about 1% to about 10%, or about 5%, of the total biasing pressure. Further, the pressure generating assembly 510 is configured to pressurize the pressure chamber 516 at a substantially constant pressure. In this embodiment, the hybrid bias generation assembly 500 is an active hybrid bias generation assembly 502.
Further, in this embodiment, the hybrid bias generating assembly 500 is configured to vary the ratio of forces generated by the mechanical biasing assembly 550 and the pressure generating assembly 510. That is, for example, during the initial clamping operation, the total biasing pressure is substantially generated by the mechanical biasing assembly 550, i.e., the mechanical biasing assembly 550 generates about 90% to 100% or about 99% of the total biasing pressure, and the pressure generating assembly 510 generates about 0% to 10% or about 5% of the total biasing pressure. After the initial clamping operation, i.e., during the second clamping operation, the total biasing pressure generated by the mechanical biasing assembly 550 is reduced to greater than or equal to 75% of the total biasing pressure, while the pressure generating assembly 510 generates up to 25% of the total biasing pressure.
In an alternative embodiment, the hybrid bias generating assembly 500 is a selectable hybrid bias generating assembly 504, wherein the user selects the source of the generated pressure, i.e., selects either the mechanical biasing assembly 550 or the pressure generating assembly 510. In this embodiment, the mechanical biasing assembly 550 generates about 99% to 100% or substantially all of the total biasing pressure. In contrast, the pressure generating assembly 510 produces about 0% to 1% or a negligible percentage of the total bias pressure. That is, for example, during the upstroke, the pressure generating assembly 510 generates a negligible percentage of the total biasing pressure while generating sufficient pressure to bias the elements of the upper tool assembly 202 downward. As previously described, in the exemplary embodiment, pressure generating assembly 510 is configured to pressurize pressure chamber 516 at a substantially constant pressure.
In another embodiment, the hybrid bias generating assembly 500 is also an optional hybrid bias generating assembly 504, wherein the user selects the source of the generated pressure, i.e., either the mechanical biasing assembly 550 or the pressure generating assembly 510. However, in this embodiment, the pressure generating assembly 510 generates about 99% -100% or substantially all of the total biasing pressure. In contrast, the mechanical biasing assembly 550 produces about 0% to 1% or a negligible percentage of the total biasing pressure. That is, during the upstroke, for example, the mechanical biasing assembly 550 generates a negligible percentage of the total biasing pressure while generating sufficient pressure to bias the elements of the upper tool assembly 202 downward. As previously described, in the exemplary embodiment, pressure generating assembly 510 is configured to pressurize pressure chamber 516 at a substantially constant pressure.
In this embodiment, the pressure generating assembly 510 is configured to apply a variable pressure. That is, the pressure generating assembly 510 includes a pressure control assembly 530 (shown schematically) configured to vary the pressure within the pressure chamber 516. In the exemplary embodiment, pressure control assembly 530 includes a plurality of pressure sensors (not shown) within pressure chamber 516 and a position sensor (not shown) configured to determine a position of piston assembly 518. The pressure control assembly 530 is configured to vary the pressure within the pressure chamber 516 according to a pressure profile. That is, the pressure control assembly 530 is configured to increase or decrease the pressure within the pressure chamber 516 depending on the position of the piston assembly 518. In the exemplary embodiment, pressure control assembly 530 includes a Programmable Logic Circuit (PLC) (not shown) and a plurality of electronic pressure regulators. The sensor and the electronic pressure regulator are coupled to and in electronic communication with the PLC. The PLC also includes instructions for operating the electronic pressure regulator and data representing the pressure curve.
In exemplary embodiments, the hybrid bias generating assembly 500 is configured to be switchable between the active hybrid bias generating assembly 502 or the selectable hybrid bias generating assembly 504, or between different configurations of either the active hybrid bias generating assembly 502 or the selectable hybrid bias generating assembly 504, by means of a removable spring 552. That is, the spring 552 is removably coupled to a spring seat 554 within the pressure chamber 516.
Note that in another embodiment, the upper tool assembly 202 does not include the hybrid bias generating assembly 500, but rather includes one of the mechanical biasing assembly 550 or the pressure generating assembly 510, with the selected assembly providing 100% of the total bias pressure. As described below, the mechanical biasing assembly 550 or the pressure generating assembly 510 is coupled to a "pressure concentrating forming surface" 600. That is, the mechanical biasing assembly 550 or the pressure generating assembly 510 is coupled to other elements described herein.
As described above, the forming surface 226 of the upper pressure sleeve is a pressure concentrating forming surface 600. As used herein, a "pressure concentrating forming surface" 600 is a forming surface that engages a reduced area of the blank 2 relative to prior art forming surfaces. That is, the prior art forming surfaces clampingly arrange blank 2 against circular inner surface 256, generally horizontal surface 257, and in some configurations, circular outer surface 258 of upper end 252 of the die core ring. As used herein, a "pressure concentrating forming surface" 600 is a forming surface that engages a limited portion of the surface of the upper end 252 of the die core ring, or a forming surface that engages a limited portion of the crown 14 disposed between the pressure concentrating forming surface 600 and the upper end 252 of the die core ring. That is, the surface that does not "grip" the blank cannot be part of the "pressure concentrating forming surface" 600. In one exemplary embodiment where the blank is generally circular, the limited area is a radially continuous, annular, reduced grip area. As used herein, a "reduced grip area" is a radially continuous annular area that extends over a portion of the generally horizontal surface 257 of the upper end 252 of the die core ring, but does not extend over the circular inner surface 256 of the upper end 252 of the die core ring. Further, as used herein, a "weakened (diminished) clamping area" is a radially continuous annular area that extends over about 25% to 75% of the area of the generally horizontal surface 257 of the upper end 252 of the mold core ring, but does not extend over the circular inner surface 256 of the upper end 252 of the mold core ring. That is, in the prior art, the shaping surface is and is the entire surface (i.e., 100%) that engages the upper end 252 of the die core ring and is generally planar as a clamping region, whereas the force concentrating shaping surface 600 of the present disclosure includes a reduced clamping region.
In another exemplary embodiment shown in fig. 9 and 10, the pressure concentrating forming surface 600 includes a plurality of "abutments" 610. As used herein, an "abutment" is a limited area of the shaped surface 226 of the upper pressure sleeve. In an exemplary embodiment, the plurality of abutments 610 of the pressure concentrating shaped surface includes between two and five substantially concentric abutments 610A, 610B, 610C, 610D, 610E. That is, in the exemplary embodiment, a lower end of upper pressure sleeve 218 includes an annular (i.e., substantially circular) shaped surface 226. The plurality of abutments 610 are concentric portions of the annular forming surface 226 that grips the blank 2. That is, only the abutment 610 engages the blank 2. The regions between the abutments 610 are offset upwardly relative to the abutments 610 so that these regions do not engage the blank 2. In other words, in the exemplary embodiment, there are concentric grooves 612 between abutments 610.
As shown in FIG. 7, the cross-sectional area of the shaped surface 226 of the upper pressure sleeve is substantially less than the cross-sectional area of the piston assembly 518 and/or the lower spring seat 554'. In this configuration, the pressure/area applied to the blank 2 by the contoured surface 226 of the upper pressure sleeve is greater than the pressure/area acting on the piston assembly 518 and/or the lower spring seat 554'. That is, while the biasing/force remains constant, the area over which the biasing/force acts is greater at the piston assembly 518 and/or the lower spring seat 554' as compared to the area at the contoured surface 226 of the upper pressure sleeve. Thus, the pressure per unit area is greater when the area at the contoured surface 226 of the upper pressure sleeve is smaller.
The pressure increase per unit area is greater for the pressure concentrating forming surface 600. That is, the area of the pressure concentrating forming surface 600 as defined herein is even less than the area of the upper pressure sleeve forming surface 226. In exemplary embodiments using a pressure concentrating forming surface 600, the ratio of the total biasing pressure to the clamping pressure is between about 1:10 to 1:50 or between about 1:20 to 1:40, or about 1: 30.
In this configuration, in an exemplary embodiment, the clamping pressure is approximately at the elastic limit of the deformed material. Further, in exemplary embodiments, the deformed material has a "thinning limit". That is, as used herein, the "thinning limit" is the elastic limit of the material when in a compressed state. That is, a material in a compressed state may be placed under tension that exceeds the elastic limit of the material but does not tear the material. Thus, as used herein, a "thinning limit" is a pressure that allows the material to be thinned by about 10% without tearing. The above exemplary measurements (e.g., area of the pressure surface 521) are for a tool assembly 200 for machining aluminum that is initially about 0.0082 inches thick. The pressure concentrating forming surface 600 is configured to generate a clamping pressure approximately at the thinning limit of the aluminum and to thin the aluminum such that the thickness of the material in the chuck wall 12 can be reduced to a thickness of about 0.0074 inches.
Thus, as shown in FIG. 11, using the tool assembly 200A described above includes 1000-introducing material between the tool assemblies 200A; 1002-generating a total biasing force in the tool assembly 200A; 1004 — clamping the material between the upper tool assembly 202 and the lower tool assembly 204; 1006-forming the material to include a center panel, a circumferential chuckwall, an annular recess between the center panel and the circumferential chuckwall, and a curl extending radially outward from the chuckwall; 1008-selectively stretching at least one predetermined portion of the shell relative to at least one other portion of the shell to provide a corresponding thinned portion of the shell.
It should be noted that the methods and assemblies for thinning shells disclosed herein may also be used to thin metal thickness on can bodies, can ends and/or domes, and cups (i.e., precursor structures for can bodies).
While specific embodiments of the disclosed concept have been described in detail, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that various modifications and alternatives to those details could be developed in light of the overall teachings of the disclosure. Accordingly, the particular arrangements disclosed are meant to be illustrative only and not limiting as to the scope of the disclosed concept which is to be given the full breadth of the claims appended and any and all equivalents thereof.

Claims (10)

1. A tool (200A) for shaping a shell (4), the tool comprising:
an upper tool assembly (202) including an upper pressure sleeve (218);
the upper pressure sleeve (218) including a lower end (227) defining a pressure concentrating forming surface (600);
a lower tool assembly (204) cooperating with the upper tool assembly (202) to shape material disposed therebetween to include a central panel (6), a circumferential gripping wall (12), an annular recess (10) between the central panel (6) and the circumferential gripping wall (12), and a curl (16), the curl (16) extending radially outward from the gripping wall (12); and
wherein the upper tool assembly (202) and the lower tool assembly (204) are moved between a first spaced-apart position in which the upper tool assembly (202) is spaced apart from the lower tool assembly (204) and a forming position in which the upper tool assembly (202) is in close proximity to the lower tool assembly (204) to selectively stretch material of at least one predetermined portion of the shell (4) relative to at least one other portion of the shell (4) to provide a respective thinned portion;
the upper tool assembly (202) includes an upper die shoe (206), a riser body (214), and a hybrid bias generation assembly (500);
the riser body (214) coupled to the upper die shoe (206), the riser body (214) defining a pressure chamber (516);
the upper pressure sleeve (218) is movably arranged in the pressure chamber (516) of the riser body;
the upper pressure sleeve (218) being movable between a first extended position in which a lower end (227) of the upper pressure sleeve is more spaced from the upper die shoe (206) and a second retracted position in which the lower end (227) of the upper pressure sleeve is less spaced from the upper die shoe (206);
the hybrid bias generation assembly (500) is operatively coupled to the upper pressure sleeve (218); and
wherein the hybrid bias generation assembly (500) controls movement of the upper pressure sleeve (218) as the upper tool assembly (202) and the lower tool assembly (204) move between the separated first position and the forming position.
2. The tool (200A) according to claim 1, wherein the hybrid bias generating assembly (500) comprises a pressure generating assembly (510), a mechanical bias assembly (550), and a plurality of hybrid components (570).
3. The tool (200A) according to claim 1, wherein the hybrid bias generation assembly (500) is an active hybrid bias generation assembly (502).
4. The tool (200A) according to claim 2, wherein:
the pressure generating assembly (510) is configured to pressurize the pressure chamber (516); and
the mechanical biasing assembly (550) includes a plurality of springs (552).
5. The tool (200A) according to claim 4, wherein the plurality of springs (552) are disposed within the pressure chamber (516).
6. The tool (200A) according to claim 4, wherein the pressure generating assembly (510) is configured to pressurize the pressure chamber (516) with a substantially constant pressure as the upper tool assembly (202) and the lower tool assembly (204) move between the separated first position and the forming position.
7. The tool (200A) according to claim 4, wherein:
the hybrid bias generating assembly (500) generates a total bias force as the upper tool assembly (202) and the lower tool assembly (204) move between the separated first position and the forming position;
the pressure generating assembly (510) produces a total biasing force of 20% -30%; and
the mechanical biasing assembly (550) generates a total biasing force of 70% -80%.
8. The tool (200A) according to claim 7, wherein:
the pressure generating assembly (510) produces a total biasing force of 25%; and
the mechanical biasing assembly (550) produces a total biasing force of 75%.
9. The tool (200A) according to claim 4, wherein:
the hybrid bias generating assembly (500) generates a total bias force as the upper tool assembly (202) and the lower tool assembly (204) move between the separated first position and the forming position;
the total biasing force is transmitted through the upper pressure sleeve (218) to the pressure concentrating forming surface (600);
the pressure concentrating forming surface (600) is configured to apply a clamping force to a workpiece; and
the ratio of the total biasing force to the clamping force is between 20:1 and 40: 1.
10. The tool (200A) of claim 9, wherein a ratio of the total biasing force to the clamping force is 30: 1.
CN201680030515.3A 2012-05-18 2016-04-07 Container, selectively shaped shell and tool for providing shell and related method Active CN107614140B (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US14/722,187 US9975164B2 (en) 2012-05-18 2015-05-27 Container, and selectively formed shell, and tooling and associated method for providing same
US14/722,187 2015-05-27
PCT/US2016/026312 WO2016190969A1 (en) 2015-05-27 2016-04-07 Container, and selectively formed shell, and tooling and associated method for providing same

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201910094857.7A CN109746301B (en) 2015-05-27 2016-04-07 Tool for forming a shell and associated method

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201910094857.7A Division CN109746301B (en) 2012-05-18 2016-04-07 Tool for forming a shell and associated method

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN107614140A CN107614140A (en) 2018-01-19
CN107614140B true CN107614140B (en) 2020-04-14

Family

ID=57394257

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201680030515.3A Active CN107614140B (en) 2012-05-18 2016-04-07 Container, selectively shaped shell and tool for providing shell and related method
CN201910094857.7A Active CN109746301B (en) 2012-05-18 2016-04-07 Tool for forming a shell and associated method

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201910094857.7A Active CN109746301B (en) 2012-05-18 2016-04-07 Tool for forming a shell and associated method

Country Status (5)

Country Link
EP (1) EP3302845A4 (en)
JP (1) JP2018520877A (en)
CN (2) CN107614140B (en)
BR (1) BR112017025267A2 (en)
WO (1) WO2016190969A1 (en)

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9975164B2 (en) 2012-05-18 2018-05-22 Stolle Machinery Company, Llc Container, and selectively formed shell, and tooling and associated method for providing same
CN110125219B (en) * 2019-03-29 2020-12-08 武汉船用机械有限责任公司 Processing device for thin-wall special-shaped piece

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN85106107A (en) * 1985-08-13 1987-03-04 金属箱公共有限公司 Reinforced can end forming method and equipment
JPH08174093A (en) * 1994-12-27 1996-07-09 Amada Co Ltd Method for holding steel plate in punching machine and device therefor

Family Cites Families (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3957005A (en) * 1974-06-03 1976-05-18 Aluminum Company Of America Method for making a metal can end
US4722215A (en) * 1984-02-14 1988-02-02 Metal Box, Plc Method of forming a one-piece can body having an end reinforcing radius and/or stacking bead
US4571978A (en) * 1984-02-14 1986-02-25 Metal Box P.L.C. Method of and apparatus for forming a reinforced can end
US5149238A (en) * 1991-01-30 1992-09-22 The Stolle Corporation Pressure resistant sheet metal end closure
DE29906170U1 (en) * 1998-04-12 1999-09-23 Schmalbach Lubeca Closure cover with stackable side play
WO2001087515A1 (en) * 2000-05-17 2001-11-22 Precision Machining Services, Inc. High-speed forming of container shells
JP2002336915A (en) * 2001-05-14 2002-11-26 Mitsubishi Materials Corp Drawing die for forming aluminum can
US6386013B1 (en) * 2001-06-12 2002-05-14 Container Solutions, Inc. Container end with thin lip
US7506779B2 (en) * 2005-07-01 2009-03-24 Ball Corporation Method and apparatus for forming a reinforcing bead in a container end closure
US8141406B2 (en) * 2008-10-09 2012-03-27 Container Development, Ltd. Method and apparatus for forming a can shell
US8573020B2 (en) * 2010-09-20 2013-11-05 Container Development, Ltd. Method and apparatus for forming a can shell
US9149854B2 (en) * 2011-05-04 2015-10-06 Fca Us Llc Stamping apparatus
US9975164B2 (en) * 2012-05-18 2018-05-22 Stolle Machinery Company, Llc Container, and selectively formed shell, and tooling and associated method for providing same
US9573183B2 (en) 2012-05-18 2017-02-21 Stolle Machinery Company, Llc Container, and selectively formed shell, and tooling and associated method for providing same
US20150050104A1 (en) * 2013-08-19 2015-02-19 Alfons Haar, Inc. Method and apparatus for forming a can end with controlled thinning of formed portions of the can end

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN85106107A (en) * 1985-08-13 1987-03-04 金属箱公共有限公司 Reinforced can end forming method and equipment
JPH08174093A (en) * 1994-12-27 1996-07-09 Amada Co Ltd Method for holding steel plate in punching machine and device therefor

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
JP2018520877A (en) 2018-08-02
EP3302845A1 (en) 2018-04-11
CN109746301A (en) 2019-05-14
WO2016190969A1 (en) 2016-12-01
CN109746301B (en) 2021-05-04
CN107614140A (en) 2018-01-19
EP3302845A4 (en) 2019-01-23
BR112017025267A2 (en) 2018-08-07

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US20170341128A1 (en) Shaped metal container and method for making same
US3998174A (en) Light-weight, high-strength, drawn and ironed, flat rolled steel container body method of manufacture
CA2655908C (en) Expansion die for manufacturing metal containers
US4885924A (en) Method of forming containers
US20180050379A1 (en) End closure with coined panel radius and reform step
DK2021136T3 (en) Method for producing a container with narrowing
US3730383A (en) Container body and a method of forming the same
Zhang et al. Development of hydro-mechanical deep drawing
JP5097112B2 (en) Method and apparatus for forming reinforcing beads in container end closing member
Emmens et al. The technology of incremental sheet forming—a brief review of the history
US5600991A (en) Stretch controlled forming mechanism and method for forming multiple gauge welded blanks
US9375775B2 (en) Hydromechanical drawing process and machine
CA2521198C (en) Method and apparatus for reforming and reprofiling a bottom portion of a container
EP0245050B1 (en) Apparatus and method for controlled spin flow forming of containers and containers per se
US4193285A (en) Method of deep-drawing of a container or the like from an aluminium material
US9085027B2 (en) Method of manufacturing a tubular member
AU2005267900B2 (en) Method and apparatus for shaping a metallic container end closure
CN1326752C (en) Reformed can end for a container and method for producing same
US3638597A (en) Method of forming a rivet
US6089072A (en) Method and apparatus for forming a can end having an improved anti-peaking bead
US3957005A (en) Method for making a metal can end
US7086265B2 (en) Method for controlling the material flow during the deep-drawings of sheet metal, and deep-drawing tool
DK2531409T3 (en) Canned body
US5187962A (en) Apparatus and method for reshaping containers
JP3621129B2 (en) Method for forming metal container body

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
PB01 Publication
PB01 Publication
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
GR01 Patent grant
GR01 Patent grant