CN107593941B - Processing method of black tea with fungus fragrance - Google Patents

Processing method of black tea with fungus fragrance Download PDF

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CN107593941B
CN107593941B CN201710859941.4A CN201710859941A CN107593941B CN 107593941 B CN107593941 B CN 107593941B CN 201710859941 A CN201710859941 A CN 201710859941A CN 107593941 B CN107593941 B CN 107593941B
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tea
leaves
fresh
withering
black tea
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CN107593941A (en
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肖文军
林玲
龚志华
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HUNAN WULING XIUFENG TEA Co.,Ltd.
Hunan Agricultural University
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Hunan Wuling Xiufeng Tea Co ltd
Hunan Agricultural University
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Abstract

A processing method of black tea with bacterial fragrance is based on the withering, rolling, fermenting, primary drying, redrying and other processes of the existing black tea manufacturing, takes fresh tea leaves which are suitable for manufacturing black tea in summer or autumn as raw materials, and is integrated with the process technology of bacterial fragrance forming, namely, the method comprises the processes of primary withering, secondary withering, cold kneading, oxygenation regulation and fermentation, primary drying, redrying, crude tea blending, variable temperature alcoholization, steaming, pile fermentation, inoculation of eurotium cristatum, pressing and shaping, flowering and drying and the like. Aiming at the current situations of low utilization rate, poor quality, no characteristic of aroma and the like of fresh tea leaves in summer and autumn, the method ensures that the prepared black tea has the excellent quality characteristics of thick golden flower, uniform particles, fresh and alive color and luster, strong fungus aroma after brewing, flower aroma, red brown and bright liquor color, fresh and mellow taste and the like. The method not only can obviously improve the sensory quality of the traditional summer and autumn black tea in the aspects of color, fragrance, taste and shape, but also effectively reduces the problem that the fresh leaf resources of the summer and autumn black tea are wasted to a certain extent.

Description

Processing method of black tea with fungus fragrance
Technical Field
The invention relates to a processing method of black tea, in particular to a processing method of fungus-fragrance black tea which is characterized in that the traditional black tea processing technology is improved, fungus fragrance is increased, the black tea in summer and autumn is thick in golden flower, uniform in particle, fresh and alive in color and luster, rich in fungus fragrance after being brewed, flower fragrance, red-brown and bright in liquor color, fresh, mellow and thick in taste and quality.
Background
According to the growth characteristics of the tea trees and the picking season, the yield ratio of the spring tea, the summer tea and the autumn tea is about 4:3: 3. Due to high temperature, strong sunshine, more plant diseases and insect pests and weeds in summer and autumn, tea tree buds and leaves are thin and thin, leaves are single and thin, purple buds and leaves and flowers and fruits are more, processed tea leaves have the quality defects of bitter taste, poor freshness, low aftertaste, flower impurities at leaf bottoms and the like, most tea growers do not or rarely collect summer and autumn tea, 30-40% of summer and autumn tea resources are not processed and utilized every year, and the scale and benefit upgrading of the tea industry is seriously hindered. Therefore, how to remarkably improve the aroma quality and the taste quality of summer and autumn tea products by innovating the tea product processing technology is one of the important breakthrough for improving quality and efficiency of the tea industry in China.
Practice shows that the black tea is the tea with the largest yield and the largest number of consumers in the world, and accounts for about 80 percent of the total world tea trade amount. China is the earliest country in the world where black tea is produced and processed, and china black tea dominates the world in terms of black tea production and trade before the 90's of the 20 th century. However, with the maturity of the countries such as india, kenya, sri lanka and the like in the aspects of tea plant cultivation, processing and the like and the improvement of processing technology and processing equipment, the aroma quality of the black tea in China is not as good as that of the black tea in kenya, sri lanka, india and the like, and the content level (only 0.3-0.7%) of the flavor quality component theaflavin is far lower than that of the countries (the theaflavin content is mostly higher than 1.5%), which is the main reason that the occupancy rate of the black tea in China on the international market is less than 5% at present. Although the production and sale of black tea in China have recovery signs and the market for internal sale is gradually increased under the drive of black tea such as Jinjunmei, Yinghong No. nine, Tanyang congyang and the like in recent years, the quality of the black tea in China cannot be fundamentally improved due to factors such as variety, growth environment, processing technology and the like, and the yield and the sale amount of the black tea in China have not been greatly broken through.
The eurotium cristatum is a dominant strain grown by 'flowering' in the processing process of the Fuzhuan tea under certain temperature and humidity conditions, a yellow cyst closing shell generated by the eurotium cristatum, commonly called as 'golden flower', contains rich trans-2, 4-heptadienal as a fungus aroma component, and the component is a key material basis for forming the fungus aroma quality of tea products. Therefore, whether the golden flower is flourishing or not and the content of the trans-2, 4-heptadienal in the tea product are important theoretical indexes for measuring the quality of the fungus aroma of the tea product. Research shows that eurotium cristatum has good health-care functions of reducing fat and losing weight, reducing blood sugar, regulating intestines and stomach and the like, so that the fungus scented tea product is widely popular with consumers at home and abroad. At present, tea products with mushroom flavor quality are mainly traditional Fuzhuan tea, but the market consumer group is limited due to the fact that raw materials for processing the Fuzhuan tea are coarse and old, the raw materials contain more stems, the content is less abundant, the taste quality is poorer and the like. According to the current situation and development trend of domestic and foreign tea consumption, the fresh summer and autumn tea leaves with high quality and good tenderness are taken as raw materials, and a fungus aroma quality forming process technology is integrated in the processing process of the black tea, so that the processed black tea has good taste quality and fungus aroma quality, and the method is a requirement for efficiently developing and utilizing summer and autumn tea resources in China and providing diversified, high-quality and fashionable red tea products for consumers.
Disclosure of Invention
The technical problem to be solved by the invention is as follows: aiming at the problems of low aroma, no characteristics, insufficient taste concentration, strength and freshness, serious waste of tea resources in summer and autumn and the like of the traditional black tea, the processing method of the fungus-aroma black tea is provided, wherein fresh tea leaves of which one bud of three leaves or one bud of four leaves are suitable for preparing the black tea are taken as raw materials, and the contents of furan type linalool oxide and theaflavin serving as taste quality components of the fragrance quality of the black tea are increased by adopting the process technologies of primary withering, secondary withering, cold kneading, oxygenation regulation and fermentation and the like, so that the aroma quality and the taste quality of the traditional black tea are improved; the method comprises the following steps of producing eurotium cristatum 'golden flower' and trans-2, 4-heptadienal as characteristic quality components of the fungus fragrance by adopting the process technologies of raw tea blending, variable-temperature alcoholization, steaming, pile fermentation, inoculation of eurotium cristatum, press forming, flower drying and the like to form the quality characteristic of the fungus fragrance; and the processed black tea product has fresh, mellow and thick taste quality, and also has the fragrance quality of thick golden flower, uniform particles, fresh color, rich fungus aroma and flower aroma after brewing.
In order to solve the technical problems, the technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows: a processing method of black tea with fungus fragrance comprises the following steps:
(1) primary withering: spreading fresh tea leaves suitable for making black tea from one bud of three leaves or one bud of four leaves in summer or autumn on a withering trough for withering until the water content is 62-66% and the grass smell disappears;
the fresh tea leaves are selected from semen Castanopsis Sclerophyllae leaf in summer or autumn, folium Persicae or early-growing single-bud three leaf and single-bud four leaf;
(2) and (3) secondary withering: placing the fresh tea leaves subjected to primary withering in an outdoor environment with ventilation and illumination intensity of 20000-; wherein, when the tea leaves are dried outdoors, the tea leaves are preferably turned over for 2 times;
(3) cold kneading: placing the withered fresh tea leaves in a refrigeration environment at 4-12 ℃, rolling by a rolling machine by adopting the principle of light, heavy and light pressurization until the strip forming rate is 90-96% and the cell breakage rate is more than 90%, and deblocking the fresh tea leaves;
(4) and (3) oxygenation regulation and fermentation: placing the rolled leaves in a black tea fermentation machine connected with an oxygen supply pipeline in layers according to the thickness of 10-12cm, adjusting the temperature in the fermentation machine to 28-32 ℃ and the humidity to 90-98%, introducing oxygen for aerobic fermentation (the amount of oxygen is not limited, as long as the aerobic fermentation process is carried out), and stopping fermentation until the leaves are red and yellow, the green grass gas disappears, and the flowers and fruits are fragrant;
(5) and (3) drying: the first stage is primary drying, namely drying the fermented leaves at the temperature of 100-; the second stage is drying again, drying the tea at 70-80 deg.C until the water content is lower than 5%, kneading the tea by hand to obtain powder, and spreading to cool to room temperature;
(6) splicing: blending the dried tea leaves with 2-3 grade raw dark green tea according to the weight ratio of 89-95% to 5-11%, and uniformly mixing;
(7) carrying out variable-temperature alcoholization: stacking the assembled tea leaves in a temperature control room with the humidity of 65-75%, and alternately and continuously treating for 15-21 days by heat treatment at 30-40 ℃ for 12h and then cold treatment at 10-20 ℃ for 12 h;
(8) steaming: placing the alcoholized tea in a tea steaming machine, steaming with 98-102 deg.C steam for 4-6min to soften it;
(9) pile fermentation: piling the steamed tea in a piling chamber, controlling the temperature in the tea pile at 24-28 ℃ and the humidity at 84-90% until the tea is reddish brown, pure and mild in taste and has no rough and astringent taste;
(10) inoculating eurotium cristatum: according to the proportion that 1-3ml of eurotium cristatum liquid is inoculated to every kilogram of piled tea, spraying the eurotium cristatum liquid on the tea, and uniformly mixing to obtain the crude tea;
(11) pressing and shaping: steaming the raw tea with 98-102 deg.C steam until the water content is 23-27%, placing into a mold, pressing and shaping for 2-3h, cooling to 45-55 deg.C, and taking out to obtain brick tea;
(12) and (3) drying the hair: placing the pressed brick tea in a drying room, allowing flowering for 8-12 days at 26-30 deg.C and humidity of 70-76%, gradually raising the temperature of the drying room to 42-45 deg.C, and drying for 7-10 days until the water content is below 14%.
The withering conditions in the step (1) are as follows: spreading the tea leaves at a thickness of 3-5cm, at a temperature of 28-32 deg.C and a relative humidity of 65-75%, and turning over for 2 times.
The principle of applying light, heavy and light pressure in the step (3) is a conventional technical means in the existing rolling process, and is not described herein again.
The raw dark green tea of grade 2-3 mentioned in the step (6) is a commercially available product.
And (4) piling the tea leaves in the step (9) by 15-25 cm.
The concentration of the eurotium cristatum solution in the step (10) is 1.5 × 104-2.5×104cfu/ml. The eurotium cristatum is a commercial product; can also be obtained by conventional separation and purification, and specifically comprises the following steps: selecting yellow capsule shell from Fuzhuan tea by aseptic inoculating needle, inoculating on Chaihe culture medium, culturing at 28-30 deg.C, and selecting the yellow capsule shell with good growth as culture medium when bacterial colony enters into growth vigorous stagePlates were streaked and this operation was repeated 3-4 times to obtain a purified strain of Eurotium cristatum.
The sensory quality ratio of the finished product of the mushroom-flavor black tea processed by the method and the black tea processed by the traditional process is shown in the following table 1, and the content ratio of the main flavor quality components and the taste quality components is shown in the following table 2.
TABLE 1 comparison of the sensory qualities of the products of the invention with those of the products of the conventional art
TABLE 2 comparison of the main aroma quality component and flavor quality component contents of the product of the invention and the product of the traditional process
As can be seen from tables 1 and 2, the sensory quality, aroma quality and taste quality of the product of the present invention are significantly superior to those of the conventional black tea product in terms of the sensory quality, aroma quality components and taste quality components, and especially the product of the present invention has new quality characteristics of strong fungus aroma and flower aroma.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the advantages that:
1. in the aspect of improving the quality of the traditional black tea, firstly, a withering process is divided into two stages of primary withering and secondary withering, and scientific treatment of drying, cooling, shaking and standing is carried out in the secondary withering process, so that more glucoside substances in fresh leaves are excited and converted into flower fragrance substances more quickly, and the black tea has the flower fragrance quality; secondly, a cold kneading process is adopted, the activity of polyphenol oxidase is reduced through low temperature, so that enzymatic oxidation of polyphenol substances is prevented, and the problems of early fermentation and uneven fermentation caused by combination of the polyphenol substances and the polyphenol oxidase in room-temperature kneading in the traditional black tea processing are effectively solved; thirdly, an oxygenation regulation and fermentation process is adopted, the technical defect that the existing black tea fermentation machine only can control temperature and humidity but cannot oxygenate is obviously overcome, and the enzymatic fermentation synthesis efficiency of the flavor quality components theaflavin and thearubigins is greatly improved.
2. In the aspect of the formation of the black tea fungus aroma, firstly, the raw tea is blended, and a small amount of the dark raw tea is blended, so that the mellow taste and the thick taste of the tea soup are increased; secondly, the tea is subjected to variable temperature alcoholization, so that the tea can be quickly alcoholized within 15-21 days, and the process problem that the traditional room temperature alcoholization needs 2-3 years is effectively solved; thirdly, by inoculating eurotium cristatum, the influence of other mixed bacteria on the flowering quality is avoided, and more trans-2, 4-heptadienal with the bacterial aroma quality is formed, so that the golden flower is dense, uniform in particle, fresh and alive in color and luster, and rich in bacterial aroma and floral aroma quality after brewing.
3. According to the present invention, according to the domestic and foreign tea consumption current situation and development trend, the fresh summer and autumn tea leaves with high quality and good tenderness are adopted as the raw materials, and on the basis of the processes of withering, rolling, fermentation, primary drying, secondary drying and the like of the existing black tea production, the bacterial aroma quality is blended in the black tea processing process, so that the processed black tea product has good taste quality and bacterial aroma quality, the sensory quality of the traditional summer and autumn black tea in the aspects of color, aroma, taste and shape can be obviously improved, the problem of waste of the fresh summer and autumn tea leaf resources is effectively reduced to a certain extent, and the development direction of the summer and autumn tea resource efficient development and utilization in China and the diversified, high quality and fashionable red tea products provided for consumers is met.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a GC-MS analysis spectrum of aroma components of the fungus-scented black tea prepared in example 1;
FIG. 2 is an HPLC analysis chart of the theaflavin component of the fungus-scented black tea produced in example 1;
FIG. 3 is a photograph showing quality observation of fungus-scented black tea "Jinhua" manufactured in example 1;
wherein, A is mechanical pressing; b, manual pressing.
Detailed Description
Example 1
Selecting fresh leaves of summer one-bud three-leaf tea with the leaf of the tea tree variety of the castanopsis sclerophylla as raw materials.
Placing fresh leaves of the tea plant variety of the castanopsis sclerophylla leaf in a withering tank with a thickness of 3-5cm, performing primary withering at 28 deg.C and a humidity of 65%, and turning for 2 times during the primary withering until the grass smell disappears and the water content of the leaves is 66%; placing the fresh leaves subjected to primary withering in an outdoor environment with good ventilation and illumination intensity of 2000-40000lx sunlight for 10min, turning for 2 times in the period until the leaves lose luster, the leaves are soft and have faint scent, moving the fresh leaves into an indoor cool and ventilated place for cooling for 20min, then shaking the fresh leaves by a green shaking machine for 60min, and standing for 50min until the water content is 60%, no red change exists and strong fragrance is emitted; rolling the withered fresh tea leaves in a cold room at 4 ℃ for 40min by using a rolling machine according to the principle of light weight and light weight pressurization until the strip forming rate is 90% and the cell breakage rate is more than 90%, and deblocking the fresh tea leaves by using a deblocking machine; placing the rolled leaves in a black tea fermentation machine connected with an oxygen supply pipeline in layers according to the thickness of 10-12cm, adjusting the temperature in the fermentation machine to 28 ℃ and the humidity to 90%, introducing oxygen for aerobic fermentation, and stopping fermentation until the leaves are red and yellow, the green grass gas disappears, and the flower and fruit fragrance exists; placing the fermented leaves in a tea drier, drying at 110 deg.C to water content of 20%, spreading for cooling, drying at 70 deg.C to water content below 5%, kneading into powder, and spreading for cooling to room temperature.
Blending the dried tea leaves with a commercially available 2-grade raw dark green tea material according to a weight ratio of 89% to 11%, fully mixing, stacking the blended tea leaves in a temperature control room with a humidity of 65%, alternately and continuously treating for 15 days by a method of heat treatment at 30 ℃ for 12 hours and cold treatment at 10 ℃ for 12 hours, putting the alcoholized tea leaves in a tea steaming machine, steaming for 6 minutes at 98 ℃ to soften the tea leaves, stacking the steamed tea leaves in a pile-piling room according to a pile height of 15cm, piling the piled tea leaves at a temperature of 24 ℃ and a humidity of 84% until the tea leaves are brown in color, pure and mild in taste and have no rough and astringent taste, and inoculating 1ml of eurotium cristatum liquid into each kilogram of piled tea leaves according to a ratio of inoculating 1ml of eurotium cristatum liquid, and mixing the tea leaves at a concentration of 1.5 × 104Spraying cfu/ml Eurotium cristatum liquid on tea, and mixing; steaming with 98 deg.C steam to water contentThe mixture is 23 percent and is put into a brick tea pressing mold for pressing, and the brick tea is taken out after being shaped for 2 hours and cooled to 45 ℃; placing the pressed brick tea in a drying room, growing flower for 8 days at 26 deg.C and 70% humidity, gradually raising the temperature of the drying room to 42 deg.C, and drying for 7 days until the water content is reduced to below 14%.
Through sensory evaluation, the prepared black tea product has dense golden flower, uniform particles, fresh and alive color and luster, rich and flowery flavor after being brewed, fresh, mellow and smooth taste, and through detection and analysis of main aroma quality components and taste quality components, the contents of water extracts, amino acid, theaflavin and thearubigin which are the main aroma quality components are respectively 37.24%, 4.66%, 0.76% and 6.83%, the contents of trans-2, 4-heptadienal (bacterial aroma) and linalool oxide which are the aroma quality components are respectively 7.29% and 13.52%, and the quantity of eurotium cristatum is 32 × 104CFU/g. Figure 3 shows the product obtained by mechanical and manual pressing, and the black tea in the figure shows golden flowers, while the existing black tea is not pressed and is not golden flowers.
Example 2
Selecting fresh leaves of a first bud and a fourth leaf of a first bud in autumn of peach-source big leaves of tea tree varieties as raw materials.
Placing fresh leaves of one bud and four leaves of a tea tree variety peach-source big leaves in a withering tank, wherein the thickness of the fresh leaves is 3-5cm, carrying out primary withering at the temperature of 32 ℃ and the humidity of 75%, and turning for 2 times during the primary withering until the grass smell disappears and the water content of the leaves is 62%; placing the fresh leaves after the primary withering in an outdoor environment with good ventilation and with light intensity of 20000-40000lx sunlight for 20min, turning for 2 times in the period until the leaves lose luster, the leaves are soft and have faint scent, moving the leaves into an indoor cool and ventilated place for cooling for 40min, then rocking the leaves by a rocking machine for 100 turns, and standing for 70min until the water content is 58%, no red change exists and strong fragrance is emitted; placing the withered fresh tea leaves in a refrigerating chamber at 12 ℃, rolling for 60min by a rolling machine according to the principle of light weight and light pressure until the strip forming rate is 96% and the cell damage rate is more than 90%, taking out, and deblocking by a deblocking machine; placing the rolled leaves in a black tea fermentation machine connected with an oxygen supply pipeline in layers according to the thickness of 10-12cm, adjusting the temperature in the fermentation machine to 32 ℃ and the humidity to 98%, introducing oxygen for aerobic fermentation until the leaves are red and yellow, the green grass smell disappears and the flowers and fruits smell; placing the fermented leaves in a tea drier, drying at 100 deg.C to water content of 30%, spreading for cooling, drying at 80 deg.C to water content below 5%, kneading into powder, and spreading for cooling to room temperature.
Mixing the dried tea leaves with a commercially available 2-grade raw dark green tea material according to a weight ratio of 95% to 5%, fully mixing, stacking the mixed tea leaves in a temperature control room with a humidity of 75%, alternately and continuously treating the tea leaves for 21 days by heat treatment at 40 ℃ for 12 hours and cold treatment at 20 ℃ for 12 hours, putting the tea leaves after alcoholization in a tea steaming machine, steaming the tea leaves for 4 minutes at a temperature of 102 ℃, piling the tea leaves after alcoholization in a piling room with a pile height of 25cm, piling the tea leaves after steaming in the piling room with a temperature of 28 ℃ and a humidity of 90%, piling the tea leaves after steaming for 4 minutes until the tea leaves are reddish brown, pure and mild in taste and free of coarse and astringent taste, inoculating 3ml of eurotium cristatum into the tea leaves after piling, and mixing the tea leaves with a concentration of 2.5 × 104Spraying cfu/ml Eurotium cristatum liquid on tea, and mixing; steaming with 102 deg.C steam until water content is 27%, pressing in brick tea pressing mold, shaping for 3 hr, cooling to 55 deg.C, and taking out; placing the pressed tea brick in a drying room, growing flower for 12 days at 30 ℃ and 76% humidity, gradually raising the temperature of the drying room to 45 ℃, and drying for 10 days until the water content is reduced to below 14%.
Through sensory evaluation, the prepared black tea product has dense golden flower, uniform particles, fresh and alive color and rich fungus aroma and flower aroma after being brewed, has fresh, mellow and smooth taste, and through detection and analysis of main aroma quality components and aroma quality components, the contents of water extract, amino acid, theaflavin and thearubigin of the aroma quality components are 36.0%, 4.31%, 0.82% and 7.14% in sequence, the relative contents of trans-2, 4-heptadienal (fungus aroma) and linalool oxide (flower aroma) of the aroma quality components are 7.38% and 14.16%, and the number of eurotium cristatum is 36 × 104CFU/g。
Example 3
Summer fresh leaves with three leaves in one bud and four leaves in one bud are selected as raw materials.
Placing one bud of three leaves to four leaves of fresh leaves in summer in a withering trough, wherein the thickness of the fresh leaves is 4cm, carrying out primary withering at the temperature of 30 ℃ and the humidity of 70%, and turning for 2 times in the period until the grass smell disappears and the water content of the leaves is 64%; placing the fresh leaves after the primary withering in an outdoor environment with good ventilation and with light intensity of 20000-40000lx sunlight for 15min, turning for 2 times in the period until the leaves lose luster, the leaves are soft and have faint scent, moving the leaves into an indoor cool and ventilated place for cooling for 30min, then rocking the leaves by a rocking machine for 80 turns, standing for 60min until the water content is 59%, no red change exists and strong fragrance is emitted; placing the withered fresh tea leaves in a cold room at 8 ℃, rolling for 50min by a rolling machine according to the principle of light weight and light pressure until the strip forming rate is 93% and the cell damage rate is more than 90%, taking out the fresh tea leaves, and deblocking the fresh tea leaves by a deblocking machine; placing the rolled leaves in a black tea fermentation machine connected with an oxygen supply pipeline in layers according to the thickness of 10-12cm, adjusting the temperature in the fermentation machine to 30 ℃ and the humidity to 94%, introducing oxygen for aerobic fermentation, and fermenting until the leaves are red and yellow, the green grass smell disappears, and the flowers and fruits have fragrance; placing the fermented leaves in a tea drier, drying at 105 deg.C to water content of 25%, spreading for cooling, drying again at 75 deg.C to water content below 5%, kneading into powder, and spreading for cooling to room temperature.
Mixing the dried tea leaves with a commercially available 2-grade raw dark green tea material according to a weight ratio of 92% to 8%, fully mixing, stacking the mixed tea leaves in a temperature control room with a humidity of 70%, alternately and continuously performing heat treatment at 35 ℃ for 12h and cold treatment at 15 ℃ for 12h for 18 days, putting the alcoholized tea leaves in a tea steaming machine, steaming the tea leaves for 6min at a temperature of 100 ℃, stacking the steamed tea leaves in a pile-piling room with a pile height of 20cm, piling the piled tea leaves at a temperature of 26 ℃ and a humidity of 87% until the tea leaves are brown in color, pure and mild in taste and free of coarse and astringent taste, and inoculating 2ml of eurotium cristatum liquid into each kilogram of piled tea leaves, wherein the concentration of the tea leaves is 2.0 × 104Spraying cfu/ml Eurotium cristatum liquid on tea, and mixing; steaming with 100 deg.C steam until water content is 25%, adding into brick tea, and pressingPressing in a mould, shaping for 2.5h, cooling to 50 ℃, and taking out; placing the pressed brick tea in a drying room, growing flower for 10 days at 28 deg.C and 73% humidity, gradually raising the temperature of the drying room to 44 deg.C, drying for 8.5 days, and cooling to water content below 14%.
Through sensory evaluation, the prepared black tea product has dense golden flower, uniform particles, fresh and alive color and rich fungus aroma and flower aroma after being brewed, has fresh, mellow and smooth taste, and through detection and analysis of main aroma quality components and the aroma quality components, the contents of water extract, amino acid, theaflavin and thearubigin of the aroma quality components are 36.71%, 4.27%, 0.77% and 6.58% in sequence, the relative contents of trans-2, 4-heptadienal (fungus aroma) and linalool oxide (flower aroma) of the aroma quality components are 7.29% and 13.67%, and the number of eurotium cristatum is 33 × 104CFU/g。
Comparative experiment 1 of conventional Process
Selecting fresh leaves of summer one-bud three-leaf tea with the leaf of the tea tree variety of the castanopsis sclerophylla as raw materials.
Placing fresh leaves of the tea plant variety of the castanopsis sclerophylla leaf in a withering tank, wherein the thickness is 3cm, carrying out withering for 8 hours at the temperature of 28 ℃ and the humidity of 65%, turning for 4 times in the withering tank until the grass smell disappears and the water content of the leaves is 60%, and giving out faint scent; rolling the moderately withered fresh tea leaves for 40min by using a rolling machine at room temperature according to the principle of light weight and light weight pressurization until the strip forming rate is 90% and the cell breakage rate is more than 90%, taking out the fresh tea leaves, and deblocking the fresh tea leaves by using a deblocking machine; placing the rolled leaves in a black tea fermentation machine according to the thickness of 10cm in layers, adjusting the temperature in the fermentation machine to be 28 ℃ and the humidity to be 90%, and fermenting for 3h until the leaves are red and yellow, the grass smell disappears and the fragrance is provided; primarily drying the fermented leaves in a tea dryer at the temperature of 110 ℃ until the water content is 20%, spreading for cooling, drying again in the tea dryer at the temperature of 70 ℃ until the water content is below 5%, and spreading for cooling to room temperature.
Through sensory evaluation, the prepared black tea product has tight and slightly bent and uniform cord, brownish and moist color, and orange red and bright soup after brewing, sweet and fragrant taste, bitter taste, thick and less dense; through detection and analysis of main aroma quality components and taste quality components, the contents of the aroma quality component water extract, amino acid, theaflavin and thearubigin are 30.26%, 2.86%, 0.29% and 4.15% in sequence, the relative content of aroma quality component linalool oxide (flower fragrance) is 3.02%, and eurotium cristatum and trans-2, 4-heptadienal (fungus fragrance) are not detected.
Comparative experiment 2 of conventional Process
Selecting fresh leaves of a first bud and a fourth leaf of a first bud in autumn of peach-source big leaves of tea tree varieties as raw materials.
Placing fresh leaves of a first bud and a fourth leaf tea of a peach-source large leaf of a tea tree variety in autumn in a withering tank, wherein the thickness of the fresh leaves is 5cm, carrying out withering for 8 hours at the temperature of 32 ℃ and the humidity of 75%, and turning for 4 times in the withering period until the grass smell disappears and the water content of the leaves is 62%, so as to give out faint scent; rolling the fresh tea leaves with moderate withering for 60min at room temperature according to the principle of light weight and light weight pressurization by using a rolling machine until the strip forming rate is 96% and the cell breakage rate is more than 90%, taking out, and deblocking by using a deblocking machine; layering the rolled leaves according to the thickness of 12cm, placing in a black tea fermentation machine, adjusting the temperature in the fermentation machine to 32 ℃ and the humidity to 98%, and fermenting for 4h until the leaves are red and yellow, the grass smell disappears, and the flowers and fruits are fragrant; primarily drying the fermented leaves in a tea dryer at 100 ℃ until the water content is 30%, spreading for cooling, drying again in a tea dryer at 80 ℃ until the water content is below 5%, and spreading for cooling to room temperature.
Through sensory evaluation, the prepared black tea product has tight and slightly bent and uniform cord, brownish and moist color, and orange red and bright soup after brewing, sweet and fragrant taste, bitter taste, thick and less dense; through detection and analysis of main aroma quality components and taste quality components, the contents of the aroma quality component water extract, amino acid, theaflavin and thearubigin are 31.17%, 2.81%, 0.32% and 4.23% in sequence, the relative content of aroma quality component linalool oxide (flower fragrance) is 3.16%, and eurotium cristatum and trans-2, 4-heptadienal (fungus fragrance) are not detected.
Comparative experiment 3 of conventional Process
Selecting fresh leaves of tea trees from summer three leaves at one bud to four leaves at four buds in the early green aroma period as raw materials.
Placing summer one-bud three leaves or four-leaf tea fresh leaves of a tea tree variety with a green fragrance early in a withering tank, placing summer one-bud three leaves or four-leaf tea fresh leaves of the tea tree variety with the green fragrance early in the withering tank, wherein the thickness of the tea leaves is 4cm, carrying out withering for 8 hours at the temperature of 30 ℃ and the humidity of 70%, and turning for 4 times in the process until green grass smell disappears, the water content of the leaves is 59%, and faint scent is given out; rolling the fresh tea leaves with moderate withering for 50min at room temperature according to the principle of light weight and light weight pressurization by using a rolling machine until the strip forming rate is 93% and the cell breakage rate is more than 90%, taking out, and deblocking by using a deblocking machine; layering the rolled leaves according to the thickness of 11cm, placing in a black tea fermentation machine, adjusting the temperature in the fermentation machine to be 30 ℃ and the humidity to be 94%, and fermenting for 3.5h until the leaves are red and yellow, the green grass smell disappears, and the flowers and fruits have fragrance; primarily drying the fermented leaves in a tea dryer at 105 ℃ until the water content is 25%, spreading for cooling, drying again in a tea dryer at 75 ℃ until the water content is below 5%, and spreading for cooling to room temperature.
Through sensory evaluation, the prepared black tea product has tight and slightly bent and uniform cord, brownish and moist color, and orange red and bright soup after brewing, sweet and fragrant taste, bitter taste, thick and less dense; through detection and analysis of main aroma quality components and taste quality components, the contents of the aroma quality component water extract, amino acid, theaflavin and thearubigin are 29.86%, 2.73%, 0.28% and 4.05% in sequence, the relative content of aroma quality component linalool oxide (flower fragrance) is 3.02%, and eurotium cristatum and trans-2, 4-heptadienal (fungus fragrance) are not detected.

Claims (4)

1. The processing method of the black tea with the fungus fragrance is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the following steps:
(1) primary withering: spreading fresh tea leaves suitable for making black tea from one bud of three leaves or one bud of four leaves in summer or autumn on a withering trough for withering until the water content is 62-66% and the grass smell disappears;
the fresh tea leaves are selected from semen Castanopsis Sclerophyllae leaf in summer or autumn, folium Persicae or early-growing single-bud three leaf and single-bud four leaf;
(2) and (3) secondary withering: placing the fresh tea leaves subjected to primary withering in an outdoor environment with ventilation and illumination intensity of 20000-;
(3) cold kneading: placing the withered fresh tea leaves in a refrigeration environment at 4-12 ℃, rolling by a rolling machine by adopting the principle of light, heavy and light pressurization until the strip forming rate is 90-96% and the cell breakage rate is more than 90%, and deblocking the fresh tea leaves;
(4) and (3) oxygenation regulation and fermentation: placing the rolled leaves in a black tea fermentation machine connected with an oxygen supply pipeline in layers according to the thickness of 10-12cm, adjusting the temperature in the fermentation machine to 28-32 ℃ and the humidity to 90-98%, introducing oxygen for aerobic fermentation, and stopping fermentation until the leaves are red and yellow, the green grass gas disappears, and the flowers and fruits are fragrant;
(5) and (3) drying: drying the fermented leaves at the temperature of 100-; drying at 70-80 deg.C until the water content is less than 5%, kneading the tea leaves with hands to obtain powder, and spreading to cool to room temperature;
(6) splicing: blending the dried tea leaves with 2-3 grade raw dark green tea according to the weight ratio of 89-95% to 5-11%, and uniformly mixing;
(7) carrying out variable-temperature alcoholization: stacking the assembled tea leaves in a temperature control room with the humidity of 65-75%, and alternately and continuously treating for 15-21 days by heat treatment at 30-40 ℃ for 12h and then cold treatment at 10-20 ℃ for 12 h;
(8) steaming: placing the alcoholized tea in a tea steaming machine, steaming with 98-102 deg.C steam for 4-6min to soften it;
(9) pile fermentation: piling the steamed tea in a piling chamber, controlling the temperature in the tea pile at 24-28 ℃ and the humidity at 84-90% until the tea is reddish brown, pure and mild in taste and has no rough and astringent taste;
(10) inoculating eurotium cristatum: according to the proportion that 1-3ml of eurotium cristatum liquid is inoculated to every kilogram of piled tea, spraying the eurotium cristatum liquid on the tea, and uniformly mixing to obtain the crude tea;
(11) pressing and shaping: steaming the raw tea with 98-102 deg.C steam until the water content is 23-27%, placing into a mold, pressing and shaping for 2-3h, cooling to 45-55 deg.C, and taking out to obtain brick tea;
(12) and (3) drying the hair: placing the pressed brick tea in a drying room, allowing flowering for 8-12 days at 26-30 deg.C and humidity of 70-76%, gradually raising the temperature of the drying room to 42-45 deg.C, and drying for 7-10 days until the water content is below 14%.
2. The processing method of black tea with mushroom aroma as claimed in claim 1, characterized by comprising the following steps: the withering conditions of the step (1) are as follows: spreading the tea leaves at a thickness of 3-5cm, at a temperature of 28-32 deg.C and a relative humidity of 65-75%, and turning over for 2 times.
3. The processing method of black tea with mushroom aroma as claimed in claim 1, characterized by comprising the following steps: and (3) piling the tea leaves in the step (9) at a height of 15-25 cm.
4. The method for processing black tea with mushroom flavor according to claim 1, wherein the concentration of the eurotium cristatum solution in the step (10) is 1.5 × 104-2.5×104cfu/ml。
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