CN107571706B - A kind of fork truck anti-rollover control method - Google Patents

A kind of fork truck anti-rollover control method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107571706B
CN107571706B CN201710865908.2A CN201710865908A CN107571706B CN 107571706 B CN107571706 B CN 107571706B CN 201710865908 A CN201710865908 A CN 201710865908A CN 107571706 B CN107571706 B CN 107571706B
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fork truck
level
rollover
roll
transform
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CN201710865908.2A
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CN107571706A (en
Inventor
夏光
谢海
高飞
张洋
杨猛
滑杨莹
郭东云
闫瑞琦
郑友
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合肥工业大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of fork truck anti-rollover control methods, carry out the classification of fork truck posture by calculating the transverse load rate of transform of fork truck, and according to safety height, when fork truck is in stable state, carry out free control;When fork truck is in level-one roll-over state, the control of level-one anti-rollover is carried out;When fork truck is in second level roll-over state, the control of second level anti-rollover is carried out, to improve the anti-rollover ability of fork truck.The present invention can carry out stability contorting to fork truck, so that fork truck is being carried and can be being prevented fork truck from turning on one's side in job engineering, to promote fork truck lateral stability and active safety.

Description

A kind of fork truck anti-rollover control method

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of truck stability control method field, specifically a kind of fork truck prevents rollover controlling party Method.

Background technique

Internal combustion counterbalance forklift truck is the fork truck type being most widely used, with the fast development of market economy, fork truck Application field is more and more extensive, also becomes increasingly complex using working environment, also proposed to the safety of fork truck higher and higher Requirement.The characteristics of because of internal combustion counterbalance forklift truck structure, lateral stability is poor;Because fork truck is material carrying machine, Operation or operation when its position of centre of gravity can with transport goods and the difference of operating condition and change, if misoperation, Yi Fa Rollover event occurs for raw Cross deformation.

Fork truck front is furnished with the equipment of handling goods, and front-wheel is driving wheel, and rear-wheel is deflecting roller, is turned using double trapezoid To mechanism.There is a hinge joint to connect with vehicle frame in the middle part of steeraxle, vehicle frame can carry out the upper bottom with respect to steeraxle by hinge joint It is dynamic.Due to hinged, fork truck supporting plane is the hinge joint composition of two front wheels supporting point and rear axle and vehicle frame, and fork truck traveling plane is Two front wheels supporting point and two rear wheel supports point line midpoint form, and since supporting plane is not overlapped with traveling plane and generate folder Angle, commonly referred to as supporting plane inclination angle.This hinge connection type of fork truck, although improve forklift workability flexibility and By the stationarity of car body when concave, convex road surface, but due to causing vehicle frame to swing there are supporting plane inclination angle, support fork truck Plane is not overlapped with traveling plane, is easy to happen Cross deformation by centrifugal forces affect when turning and even turned on one's side, causes operator With the security risk of cargo.

Summary of the invention

The present invention is to avoid above-mentioned existing deficiencies in the technology, proposes a kind of fork truck anti-rollover control method, To which stability contorting can be carried out to fork truck, fork truck is set to carry and can prevent fork truck from turning on one's side in job engineering, to promote fork truck Lateral stability and active safety.

The present invention to achieve the above object of the invention, adopts the following technical scheme that

A kind of the characteristics of fork truck anti-rollover control method of the invention is to carry out as follows:

Step 1, fork truck angle of heel, the roll angle acceleration, yaw velocity, Zong Xiangjia acquired by gyro sensor Speed and systemic velocity, and systemic velocity is calculated in the change rate of the component and component of X-axis and Y-axis;

Step 2, the transverse load rate of transform I that fork truck is calculated according to formula (1)LTR:

In formula (1), IxIt is vehicle around the product of inertia of XZ axis;KαFor tire cornering stiffness;M is complete vehicle quality;m1For vehicle frame matter Amount;ayFor longitudinal acceleration;ω is the yaw velocity of fork truck about the z axis;vx、vyRespectively fork truck systemic velocity is in X-axis, Y-axis Component;φ is vehicle frame angle of heel;φ " is vehicle frame roll angle acceleration;h1For height of center of mass;B1For front tread;B2For rear-wheel Wheelspan;L is front and back wheel base;A, b is respectively horizontal distance of the mass center to preceding bridge, rear axle;hxFor steeraxle hinged shaft height;

Step 3, the level-one rollover threshold I for determining the transverse load rate of transformLTR1With second level rollover threshold ILTR2

Fork truck posture is divided into stable state, level-one roll-over state and second level roll-over state by step 4;

Step 5, when fork truck is in stable state, by carrying out free control to hydraulic support oil cylinder off-load;

When fork truck is in level-one roll-over state, adjusted between vehicle body and vehicle bridge according to the size of the transverse load rate of transform The pressure of hydraulic support oil cylinder carries out the control of level-one anti-rollover, rolls posture to improve fork truck;

When fork truck is in second level roll-over state, the hydraulic support oil cylinder between locking vehicle body and vehicle bridge carries out the anti-side of second level Control is turned over, to improve the anti-rollover ability of fork truck.

The characteristics of fork truck anti-rollover control method of the present invention, lies also in:

The level-one rollover threshold ILTR1Are as follows: the fork truck when forklift frame and vehicle bridge splice angle are design maximum angle is horizontal To load transfer rate;

The second level rollover threshold ILTR2Are as follows: the fork when the quality of fork truck inboard wheel is transferred completely into outboard wheels The vehicle transverse load rate of transform, it may be assumed that ILTR2=1.

The stable state, level-one roll-over state and second level roll-over state are divided in accordance with the following methods:

When the transverse load rate of transform is less than or equal to level-one rollover threshold ILTR1When, indicate that fork truck is in stable state;

When the transverse load rate of transform is greater than level-one rollover threshold ILTR1And it is less than second level rollover threshold ILTR2When, indicate fork truck In level-one roll-over state;

When the transverse load rate of transform is greater than or equal to second level rollover threshold ILTR2When, indicate that fork truck is in second level rollover shape State.

Compared with the prior art, the invention has the advantages that:

1, the present invention is by calculating the transverse load rate of transform of fork truck, and carries out fork truck posture point according to safety height Grade carries out free control when fork truck is in stable state;When fork truck is in level-one roll-over state, level-one anti-rollover is carried out Control;When fork truck is in second level roll-over state, carries out the control of second level anti-rollover and passed through with improving the anti-rollover ability of fork truck It to fork truck Safety classification and grading control, improves body gesture, prevent fork truck from turning on one's side, improve the lateral stability of fork truck And active safety.

2, the present invention carries out the judgement of fork truck posture by calculating the transverse load rate of transform of fork truck, passes through observation wheel with current The fork truck posture judgment mode whether tire is liftoff is compared, and precision with higher can accurately and timely judge the posture of fork truck, for fork The anti-rollover control of vehicle provides control foundation.

3, the calculation method of the fork truck transverse load rate of transform of the invention is by establishing rationally effective fork truck kinetic simulation Type is derived by, and the variable parameter in the calculation formula of the fork truck transverse load rate of transform can be by installing additional in current product extensively The gyro sensor of application obtains, strong operability.

4, the present invention takes different anti-rollover control methods according to the different state of fork truck, and intelligence degree is high, works as fork When vehicle is in stable state, free control is carried out, the function of following an example of forklift frame Yu vehicle frame hinging structure road pavement can be effectively played Can, improve the ride quality of fork truck;When fork truck is in level-one roll-over state, the control of level-one anti-rollover is carried out, to the maximum extent Body gesture is adjusted, converts fork truck posture to stable state;When fork truck is in second level roll-over state, second level anti-rollover is carried out Control, provides maximum lateral support, prevents fork truck from turning on one's side.

Detailed description of the invention

Fig. 1 is fork truck transverse load rate of transform computation model schematic diagram of the invention.

Specific embodiment

In the present embodiment, a kind of fork truck anti-rollover control method is to carry out as follows:

Step 1, the centroid position that gyroscope is mounted on to fork truck, the fork truck angle of heel acquired by gyro sensor, Roll angle acceleration, yaw velocity, longitudinal acceleration and systemic velocity, and calculate systemic velocity in the component of X-axis and Y-axis and The change rate of component;

Step 2, refering to fig. 1 is that Y direction establishes coordinate perpendicular to ground using the hinged shaft line of car body and rear axle as X-axis Car body and rear axle equivalent substitution are two Rigid Mass blocks by system, and since hinged shaft constrains, Full Vehicle System shares 11 freedom degrees, Respectively vehicle mass center is along the displacement in X, Y, Z axis direction, and vehicle is around Y, the rotation of Z axis and car body around the rotation and steering of X-axis Rotation of the bridge around X-axis, the vertical deformation of four wheels.

In modeling process, by the vertical elastic linearization process of tire, tire vertical stiffness is Kt;Do not consider that tire is vertical Influence to power;Since rear axle quality is smaller relative to car body mass, do not consider that rear axle rotates the influence to vehicle body.

The equation of motion of model is as follows:

Transverse movement equilibrium equation:

may-m1φ″(h1-hx)=Fy11+Fy12+Fy21cosδ1+Fy22cosδ2 (1)

Weaving equilibrium equation:

Roll motion equilibrium equation:

In formula (1)~formula (3), m is complete vehicle quality;m1For vehicle frame quality;ayFor longitudinal acceleration;φ " is vehicle frame angle of heel Acceleration;h1For height of center of mass;B1For front tread;B2For rear track;L is front and back wheel base;A, b is respectively mass center to preceding The horizontal distance of bridge, rear axle;hxFor steeraxle hinged shaft height;IxIt is vehicle around the product of inertia of XZ axis;IzIt is vehicle around the used of XY axis Property product;KαFor tire cornering stiffness;Fy11、Fy12Respectively front-wheel left and right wheels tire cornering power;Fy21、Fy22Respectively rear-wheel or so Take turns lateral deviation power;Fz11、Fz12Respectively front-wheel or so tire ground holding power;δ1、δ2Respectively rear-wheel left and right wheels corner.

ax=vx′-ωvy (4)

ay=vy′+ωvx (5)

Fy1j=Kαα1j (8)

In formula (4)~formula (8), α1jFor front axle wheel slip angle of tire, α2jFor rear axle wheel slip angle of tire, δjFor rear rotation Angle, j=1 indicate that revolver, j=2 indicate right wheel;

The transverse load rate of transform is the difference of left and right wheel load and the ratio of the sum of two wheel loads:

ILTRWhen being 0, preceding bridge or so load is equal, and fork truck is in a safe condition;ILTRWhen being 1, side tire liftoff, fork truck It turns on one's side;Then the transverse load rate of transform can be used as the rollover early warning factor of fork truck, the judgment basis as fork truck rollover.

But since the vertical load of forklift front wheel changes at any time, it is not easy directly to measure, is difficult directly to be calculated according to definition, root According to formula (1)~(8) equation obtain can online observation fork truck transverse load rate of transform calculation formula:

By formula (9) it is found that needing the semaphore acquired is car body roll angle accelerationSystemic velocity is in X-axis and Y-axis The change rate of component and component, these parameters can be measured by gyroscope.

Step 3, the level-one rollover threshold I for determining the transverse load rate of transformLTR1With second level rollover threshold ILTR1, ILTR1With ILTR1It carries out in accordance with the following methods:

The preceding bridge driving wheel of two of counterbalanced lift truck and vehicle frame are rigidly connected, and rear steering bridge and vehicle frame are articulated and connected, Vehicle frame can be swung up and down around the hinge joint of rear steering bridge and vehicle frame, and hinge angle is generally at 2 °~3 °.

Fork truck because body gesture shifts, is caused because gravity is to nosewheel contact center and hinge joint in the process of moving The moment resulting from sidesway that the stabilizing moment and centrifugal force that the roll axis of line is formed form roll axis changes, when fork truck vehicle The fork truck transverse load rate of transform is level-one rollover threshold I when frame and vehicle bridge splice angle are design maximum angleLTR1

As the fork truck transverse load rate of transform continues to increase, when the fork truck transverse load rate of transform is greater than level-one rollover threshold ILTR1When, the one front wheel of fork truck will be liftoff, if taking measures to will lead to not in time, ipsilateral rear-wheel is liftoff, the inclination of fork truck Axis will become the inclination that the line of centres is grounded by ipsilateral two wheel from the roll axis at nosewheel contact center and hinge joint line Axis, the fork truck transverse load rate of transform when the quality of fork truck inboard wheel is transferred completely into outboard wheels are second level rollover Threshold value ILTR2, it may be assumed that ILTR2=1.

Fork truck posture is divided into stable state, level-one roll-over state and second level roll-over state by step 4, according to lower section Method is divided:

When the transverse load rate of transform is less than or equal to level-one rollover threshold ILTR1When, indicate that fork truck is in stable state;

When the transverse load rate of transform is greater than level-one rollover threshold ILTR1And it is less than second level rollover threshold ILTR2When, indicate fork truck In level-one roll-over state;

When the transverse load rate of transform is greater than or equal to second level rollover threshold ILTR2When, indicate that fork truck is in second level rollover shape State.

Step 5, when fork truck is in stable state, need to keep the function of following an example of fork truck, fork truck made to pass through uneven road surface When, so that the freely hinged rotation between vehicle frame and vehicle bridge is kept the safety of fork truck cargo, by making to hydraulic support oil cylinder off-load Freely hinged rotation between the vehicle frame and vehicle bridge of fork truck freely adjusts control to the posture progress of fork truck, reduces fork truck and travelling When sense of jolting;

When fork truck is in level-one roll-over state, fork truck has the danger of rollover, in order to prevent the lateral stability of fork truck into One step deteriorates, and carries out pro-active intervention to it, adjusts the hydraulic branch between vehicle body and vehicle bridge according to the size of the transverse load rate of transform The pressure for supportting oil cylinder carries out the control of level-one anti-rollover, changes the anti-roll force of fork truck by adjusting the pressure of hydraulic support oil cylinder Square rolls posture to improve fork truck, and the big minor adjustment of hydraulic support oil cylinder pressure can be determined by fuzzy control method, specifically It is as follows:

According to gyro sensor acquisition fork truck angle of heel, roll angle acceleration, yaw velocity, longitudinal acceleration and Systemic velocity, and systemic velocity is calculated in the change rate of the component and component of X-axis and Y-axis, resulting cross will be calculated according to formula (9) To load transfer rate, as the input quantity of fuzzy control, using hydraulic support oil cylinder pressure as output quantity;When fork truck is in level-one When roll-over state, the transverse load rate of transform range I of fork truckLTR1~1, domain is (1,1/ILTR1), quantizing factor KLTR=1/ ILTR1, fuzzy language be all small (S), and in (M), it is big (B) }, the variation range of hydraulic support oil cylinder pressure F is 0~FmaxN, opinion Domain is [0,1], quantizing factor KF=1/Fmax, fuzzy language be very little (VS), it is small (S), in (M), big (B), very big (VB) }. Input selects Triangleshape grade of membership function with the subordinating degree function of output quantity, and formulates fuzzy rule, according to fuzzy rule into The big minor adjustment of row hydraulic support oil cylinder pressure controls.

When fork truck is in second level roll-over state, fork truck is critical in turning on one's side, and needs the liquid between locking vehicle body and vehicle bridge Pressure support cylinder carries out the control of second level anti-rollover, to provide maximum support force to improve the anti-rollover ability of fork truck.

Embodiment: by fork truck anti-rollover control method of the invention using on 2.5 tons of counterbalanced lift trucks of Mr. Yu's type, this is flat The parameter of load retaining wall fork truck is as follows:

Product of inertia I of the vehicle around XZ axisx=18313kg.m2;Tire cornering stiffness Kα=135kN.m-1;Complete vehicle quality m= 4639kg;Vehicle frame quality m1=1160kg;Height of center of mass h1=702mm;Front tread B1=1000mm;Rear track B2= 970mm;Front and back wheel base L=1700mm;Mass center to preceding bridge horizontal distance a=212mm;Mass center to rear axle horizontal distance b =1488mm;Steeraxle hinged shaft height hx=275mm;

Gyroscope is mounted on to the centroid position of fork truck, by the fork truck angle of heel φ of gyro sensor acquisition, is rolled Angular acceleration φ ", yaw velocity ω, longitudinal acceleration ayAnd systemic velocity, and systemic velocity is calculated in point of X-axis and Y-axis Measure vx、vyWith the change rate v of componentx′、v′y, the transverse load rate of transform I of fork truck is calculated according to formula (9)LTR=0.84, determine institute State the level-one rollover threshold I of the transverse load rate of transformLTR1=0.35, second level rollover threshold ILTR2=1;

According to horizontal calculating to load transfer rate ILTR=0.84 is greater than level-one threshold value ILTR1=0.35 and be less than secondary threshold ILTR2=1, then fork truck is in level-one anti-rollover state;

When fork truck is in level-one roll-over state, the lateral stability of fork truck further deteriorates in order to prevent, carries out to it Pro-active intervention carries out one according to the pressure that the size of the transverse load rate of transform adjusts the hydraulic support oil cylinder between vehicle body and vehicle bridge Grade anti-rollover control, changes the anti-moment resulting from sidesway of fork truck by adjusting the pressure of hydraulic support oil cylinder, carries out level-one anti-rollover Control rolls posture to improve fork truck, and the big minor adjustment of hydraulic support oil cylinder pressure can be determined by fuzzy control method, be had Body is as follows:

Select transverse load rate of transform ILTRAs the input quantity of fuzzy control, using hydraulic support oil cylinder pressure as output Amount;When fork truck is in level-one roll-over state, the transverse load rate of transform range 0.35~1 of fork truck, domain is (1,1/0.35), Quantizing factor KLTR=1/0.35, fuzzy language be all small (S), and in (M), it is big (B) }, the variation model of hydraulic support oil cylinder pressure F It encloses for 0~10000N, domain is [0,1], quantizing factor KF=1/10000, fuzzy language be very little (VS), it is small (S), in (M), big (B), very big (VB) }, according to the fuzzy rule of formulation, output control hydraulic support oil cylinder pressure improves fork truck and rolls Posture is allowed to convert to stable state, improves the active safety of fork truck.

In conclusion can effectively identify that truck stability state is gone forward side by side using fork truck anti-rollover control method of the invention Row stability contorting prevents fork truck from carrying and fork truck rollover in job engineering, promotion fork truck lateral stability and active safety.

Claims (3)

1. a kind of fork truck anti-rollover control method, it is characterized in that carrying out as follows:
Step 1, by gyro sensor acquire fork truck angle of heel, roll angle acceleration, yaw velocity, longitudinal acceleration and Systemic velocity, and systemic velocity is calculated in the change rate of the component and component of X-axis and Y-axis;
Step 2, the transverse load rate of transform I that fork truck is calculated according to formula (1)LTR:
In formula (1), IxIt is vehicle around the product of inertia of XZ axis;KαFor tire cornering stiffness;M is complete vehicle quality;m1For vehicle frame quality;ay For longitudinal acceleration;ω is the yaw velocity of fork truck about the z axis;vx、vyRespectively point of the fork truck systemic velocity in X-axis, Y-axis Amount;φ is vehicle frame angle of heel;φ " is vehicle frame roll angle acceleration;h1For height of center of mass;B1For front tread;B2For rear wheel rotation Away from;L is front and back wheel base;A, b is respectively horizontal distance of the mass center to preceding bridge, rear axle;hxFor steeraxle hinged shaft height;
Step 3, the level-one rollover threshold I for determining the transverse load rate of transformLTR1With second level rollover threshold ILTR2
Fork truck posture is divided into stable state, level-one roll-over state and second level roll-over state by step 4;
Step 5, when fork truck is in stable state, by carrying out free control to hydraulic support oil cylinder off-load;
When fork truck is in level-one roll-over state, adjusted according to the size of the transverse load rate of transform hydraulic between vehicle body and vehicle bridge The pressure of support cylinder carries out the control of level-one anti-rollover, rolls posture to improve fork truck;
When fork truck is in second level roll-over state, the hydraulic support oil cylinder between locking vehicle body and vehicle bridge carries out the control of second level anti-rollover System, to improve the anti-rollover ability of fork truck.
2. fork truck anti-rollover control method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:
The level-one rollover threshold ILTR1Are as follows: the fork truck when forklift frame and vehicle bridge splice angle are design maximum angle laterally carries The lotus rate of transform;
The second level rollover threshold ILTR2Are as follows: the fork truck when the quality of fork truck inboard wheel is transferred completely into outboard wheels is horizontal To load transfer rate, it may be assumed that ILTR2=1.
3. fork truck anti-rollover control method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the stable state, level-one rollover shape State and second level roll-over state are divided in accordance with the following methods:
When the transverse load rate of transform is less than or equal to level-one rollover threshold ILTR1When, indicate that fork truck is in stable state;
When the transverse load rate of transform is greater than level-one rollover threshold ILTR1And it is less than second level rollover threshold ILTR2When, indicate that fork truck is in Level-one roll-over state;
When the transverse load rate of transform is greater than or equal to second level rollover threshold ILTR2When, indicate that fork truck is in second level roll-over state.
CN201710865908.2A 2017-09-22 2017-09-22 A kind of fork truck anti-rollover control method CN107571706B (en)

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CN108680364B (en) * 2018-03-29 2020-09-04 南京航空航天大学 Automobile rollover evaluation index and evaluation method
CN108995709A (en) * 2018-08-06 2018-12-14 合肥工业大学 It is a kind of for improving the control method of counterbalanced lift truck cornering stiffnesses
CN109733382B (en) * 2018-12-19 2020-07-07 南京航空航天大学 Automobile rollover prevention method based on model predictive control
CN109878579B (en) * 2019-01-24 2020-07-31 厦门大学 Active safety control system of articulated vehicle based on control moment gyroscope

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CN204674465U (en) * 2015-05-08 2015-09-30 温州华路交通建设工程有限公司 A kind of construction machinery and equipment anti-rollover system
KR20160063640A (en) * 2014-11-27 2016-06-07 주식회사 두산 Control Method for Forklift
CN105848992A (en) * 2013-08-28 2016-08-10 帕斯夸尔·维拉 Anti-rollover device for vehicles

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CN202671130U (en) * 2012-06-12 2013-01-16 山东省特种设备检验研究院济宁分院 Anti-overload and anti-rollover forklift with alarm function
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KR20160063640A (en) * 2014-11-27 2016-06-07 주식회사 두산 Control Method for Forklift
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