CN107513448A - 城市生活垃圾制作清洁固体燃料的方法 - Google Patents

城市生活垃圾制作清洁固体燃料的方法 Download PDF

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CN107513448A
CN107513448A CN201710977875.0A CN201710977875A CN107513448A CN 107513448 A CN107513448 A CN 107513448A CN 201710977875 A CN201710977875 A CN 201710977875A CN 107513448 A CN107513448 A CN 107513448A
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foul smell
solid fuel
desiccation
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陈远志
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    • C10L5/46Solid fuels essentially based on materials of non-mineral origin on sewage, house, or town refuse
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B09DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
    • B09BDISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE
    • B09B3/00Destroying solid waste or transforming solid waste into something useful or harmless
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B09DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
    • B09BDISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE
    • B09B3/00Destroying solid waste or transforming solid waste into something useful or harmless
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Abstract

本发明提供一种城市生活垃圾制作清洁固体燃料的方法,包括以下步骤:(1)把生活垃圾破碎成25cm物料后,置于立式水洗搅拌槽进行水解酸化反应,再用螺旋压榨机进行脱水处理;(2)将步骤(1)中的脱水物料倒入生物自干燥装置中,同时加入含有助燃剂和粘合剂的辅料,产生臭气通过臭气收集处理器处理达标后排放;(3)干燥处理后的物料挤压成型,然后在温度为100~160℃条件下停留5~30min。本方法对城市生活垃圾进行机械生物预处理,再采用生物自干燥装置进行干燥处理,最后挤压成型,工艺生产方法简单,同时制作过程中对臭气进行收集,并处理达标后再排放,污染少,加入助燃和增粘辅料,提高燃烧热值和产品质量,经济效益高。

Description

城市生活垃圾制作清洁固体燃料的方法
技术领域
[0001] 本发明涉及生活垃圾处理方法,具体涉及一种城市生活垃圾制作清洁固体燃料的 方法。
背景技术
[0002] 随着国民经济的发展和汽车数量的增多,能源短缺问题日益突出,开发新能源,实 现能源多远化的举措得到全世界各国的普遍关注。日益紧张的化石能源使得新能源的研宄 和应用越来越受到各国的高度重视,大量的资金和科研人员投入到这些项目的研宄中。固 体燃料是一种常规燃料的代用品或补充品,是一种新型燃料,是随着人们对燃料的使用方 便性及其它特殊要求应运而生。而我国有13亿多人口,随着人均GDP和居民消费性支出TCE 的不断增长,全国城镇人均垃圾产生量已达1.2kg/日,还将以每年5%〜8%的速度增长。我 国垃圾年均清运量已达2.5亿吨,历年堆存垃圾已达80亿吨。
[0003] 我国的城市生活垃圾处理主要采用(1)填埋法,这种方法浪费资源、占地面积大, 且造成二次污染,给垃圾场地周围的环境和人民健康带来极大的影响。(2)垃圾焚烧法,焚 烧发电投资大,我国城市的垃圾热值低、质量差,发电时经济效益差,排出的烟气有二恶英, 造成严重的环境污染。(3)堆肥法,由于人民使用的装载厨余垃圾塑料袋均是采用再生塑料 制造,含有大量的有毒物质,生产的肥料带有毒素,肥料用于各种植物,植物也会产生严重 的污染,有害人民身体健康,堆肥法发酵时间长,用掉的垃圾量很少,经济效益也很低。因 此,采用城市生活垃圾作为原料制备固体燃料己成为一种趋势,但现有制备技术还不完善, 制造的固体燃料产品质量较差,污染大,燃烧热值低,且工艺生产方法复杂。
发明内容
[0004] 针对现有技术的不足,本发明的目的是提供一种城市垃圾制作清洁固体燃料的方 法,本方法对城市生活垃圾进行机械生物预处理,再采用生物自千燥装置进行干燥处理,最 后挤压成型,工艺生产方法简单,易于实现,同时制作过程中对臭气进行收集,并处理达标 后再排放,污染少,加入助燃和增粘辅料,提高燃烧热值和产品质量,经济效益高。
[0005] 为了达到上述目的,本发明采取的技术方案是:
[0006] 城市生活垃圾制作清洁固体燃料的方法,包括以下步骤:
[0007] (1)把生活垃圾破碎成25cm粒径物料后,置于立式水洗搅拌槽进行水解酸化反应, 立式水洗搅拌槽保持37 °C反应温度条件下、搅拌速度为0_5r/min,反应3d后固相物料由水 洗搅拌槽出料螺旋输送进螺旋压榨机进行脱水处理,获得脱水物料;
[0008] ⑵将步骤(1)中的脱水物料倒入生物自干燥装置中,生物自干燥装置包括封闭式 产热干燥腔、设于干燥腔内的旋转桨片、设于干燥腔顶端的臭气收集处理器、与干燥腔底端 进气口连接的鼓风干燥机,鼓风机运行开启4min、停止lOmin,使每立方米物料取通风量为 0.〇7m3/min,旋转桨片运行lOmin、停止3h、转速为0• 5r/min,旋转搅拌的同时加入含有助燃 剂和粘合剂的辅料,产生臭气通过臭气收集处理器处理达标后排放;
[0009] (3)将步骤⑵干燥处理后的物料在It〜5tkg的压力挤压成型,然后在温度为100 〜16〇r的条件下停留5〜30min,即制得产品。
[0010]作为优选技术方案,为了使固体燃料可充分燃烧,提高燃烧热值,同时对城市生活 垃圾有效杀菌,增加黏性,有效提高固体燃料的质量,所述辅料是下列物质重量份数的混合 物:硝酸铵15〜25份,氧化铁25〜35份,氧化镁4〜12份,煤泥1〜3份,石灰35〜45份。 作为优选技术方案,为了保证脱水物料后充分干燥,同时保证脱水物料与辅料充 分混合,有利于提高固体燃料的质量,所述步骤(2)中脱水物料置于生物自干燥装置中干燥 处理7d后出仓。
[0012]本发明辅料中的煤泥低热值,应用范围低,粘度大,既可以减少制作成本,又可将 其作为粘合剂使用;石灰既可以起到杀菌作用,也可以起到助燃作用,还具有粘结作用。 [0013]与现有技术相比,本发明具有的效益:
[00M] 1、本方法对城市生活垃圾进行机械生物预处理,再采用生物自干燥装置进行干燥 处理,最后挤压成型,工艺生广方法简单,易于实现,同时制作过程中对臭气进行收集,并处 理达标后再排放,污染少,加入助燃和增粘辅料,提高燃烧热值和产品质量,经济效益高。 [0015] 2、辅料成分选择科学,且配比合理,使固体燃料可充分燃烧,提高燃烧热值,同时 对城市生活垃圾有效杀菌,增加黏性,有效提高固体燃料的质量。
[0016] 3、干燥时间合理,保证脱水物料后充分干燥,同时保证脱水物料与辅料充分混合, 有利于提高固体燃料的质量。
[0017]经大量实验证实,以城市生活垃圾为原料,按本方法制作固体燃料,平均1吨城市 生活垃圾可以产生500kg的固体燃料,且固体燃料中塑料含量为62.6%,平均低为热值为 17263kJ/kg,灰分为36• 9%,氯元素含量低于〇• 5%,重金属含量也是在合理的范围内。
具体实施方式
[0018]下面结合具体实施例对本发明作进一步地说明。
[0019] 实施例1
[0020]城市生活垃圾制作清洁固体燃料的方法,包括以下步骤:
[0021] (1)把生活垃圾破碎成25cm粒径物料后,置于立式水洗搅拌槽进行水解酸化反应, 立式水洗搅拌槽保持37 C反应温度条件下、搅拌速度为〇• 5r/mj_n,反应3d后固相物料由水 洗搅拌槽出料螺旋输送进螺旋压榨机进行脱水处理,获得脱水物料; _2]⑵将步骤⑴中的脱水物料倒入生物自干燥装置中,生物自干燥装置包括封闭式 产热干燥腔、设于千燥腔内的旋转桨片、设于干燥腔顶端的臭气收集处理器、与干燥腔底端 进气^连接的~鼓风干燥机,鼓风机运行开启4min、停止1〇min,使每立方米物料取通风量为 0 • 〇7m3/min,旋转桨片运行10min、停止3h、转速为〇 • 5r/min,旋转搅拌的同时加入含有助燃 剂和粘合剂的辅料,所述辅料是下列物质重量份数的混合物:硝酸铵15份,氧化铁25份,氧 化镁12份,煤泥3份,石灰45份,产生臭气通过臭气收集处理器处理达标后排放;
[0023] ^⑶将步骤⑵干燥处理后的物料在丨认^的压力挤压成型,然后在温度为1⑻。c的 条件下停留5m i n,即制得产品。
[0024]实施例2
[0025]城市生活垃圾制作清洁固体燃料的方法,包括以下步骤:
[0026] (1)把生活垃圾破碎成25cm粒径物料后,置于立式水洗搅拌槽进行水解酸化反应, 立式水洗搅拌槽保持37 C反应温度条件下、搅拌速度为〇 • 5r/min,反应3d后固相物料由水 洗搅拌槽出料螺旋输送进螺旋压榨机进行脱水处理,获得脱水物料; ^027] (2)将步骤(1)中的脱水物料倒入生物自干燥装置中,生物自干燥装置包括封闭式 产热干燥腔、设于干燥腔内的旋转桨片、设于干燥腔顶端的臭气收集处理器、与干燥腔底端 进气口连接的鼓风干燥机,鼓风机运行开启4min、停止lOmin,使每立方米物料取通风量为 0.07m3/min,旋转桨片运行l〇min、停止3h、转速为〇.5r/min,旋转搅拌的同时加入含有助燃 剂和粘合剂的辅料,所述辅料是下列物质重量份数的混合物:硝酸铵2〇份,氧化铁3〇份,^ 化镁8份,煤泥2份,石灰40份,产生臭气通过臭气收集处理器处理达标后排放,干燥处理7d 后出仓后;
[0028] ⑶将步骤⑵干燥处理的物料在2_5tkg的压力挤压成型,然后在温度为130。〇的 条件下停留15min,即制得产品。
[0029] 实施例3
[0030]城市生活垃圾制作清洁固体燃料的方法,包括以下步骤:
[0031] (1)把生活垃圾破碎成25cm粒径物料后,置于立式水洗搅拌槽进行水解酸化反应, 立式水洗搅拌槽保持37°C反应温度条件下、搅拌速度为〇.5r/min,反应3(1后固相物料由水 洗搅拌槽出料螺旋输送进螺旋压榨机进行脱水处理,获得脱水物料;
[2032] (2)将步骤(1)中的脱水物料倒入生物自干燥装置中,生物自干燥装置包括封闭式 产热干燥腔、设于干燥腔内的旋转桨片、设于干燥腔顶端的臭气收集处理器、与干燥腔底端 进气口连接的鼓风干燥机,鼓风机运行开启4min、停止lOmin,使每立方米物料取通风量为 0_07m3/min,旋转桨片运行lOmin、停止3h、转速为〇_5r/min,旋转搅拌的同时加入含有助燃 剂和粘合剂的辅料,所述辅料是下列物质重量份数的混合物:硝酸铵23份,氧化铁32份,氧 化镁9份,煤泥1份,石灰35份,产生臭气通过臭气收集处理器处理达标后排放,干燥处理7d 后出仓后,产生臭气通过臭气收集处理器处理达标后排放;
[0033]⑶将步骤⑵干燥处理后的物料在It〜5tkg的压力挤压成型,然后在温度为100 〜16CTC的条件下停留5〜30tnin,即制得产品。
[0034]应当指出,以上案例仅是本发明有代表性的例子。显然,本发明的技术方案并不限 于上述实施例,还可以有许多变性。

Claims (3)

1.城市生活垃圾制作清洁固体燃料的方法,其特征在于,包括以下步骤: (1)把生活垃圾破碎成25cm粒径物料后,置于立式水洗搅拌槽进行水解酸化反应,立式 水洗搅拌槽保持37 C反应温度条件下、搅拌速度为〇• 5r/min,反应3d后固相物料由水洗搅 拌槽出料螺旋输送进螺旋压榨机进行脱水处理,获得脱水物料; ⑵将步骤(1)中的脱水物料倒入生物自干燥装置中,生物自干燥装置包括封闭式产热 干燥腔、设于干燥腔内的旋转桨片、设于干燥腔顶端的臭气收集处理器、与干燥腔底端进气 口连接的鼓风干燥机,鼓风机运行开启4min、停止lOmin,使每立方米物料取通风量为 0 • 07m3/min,旋转桨片运行lOmin、停止3h、转速为〇 • 5r/min,旋转搅拌的同时加入含有助燃 剂和粘合剂的辅料,产生臭气通过臭气收集处理器处理达标后排放; ''' (3)将步骤⑵干燥处理后的物料在lt〜5tkg的压力挤压成型,然后在温度为1〇0〜160 °C的条件下停留5〜30min,即制得产品。
2.根据权利要求1所述的城市生活垃圾制作清洁固体燃料的方法,其特征在于:所述辅 料是下列物质重量份数的混合物:硝酸铵15〜25份,氧化铁25〜35份,氧化镁4〜12份,煤泥 1〜3份,石灰35〜45份。
3.根据权利要求1或2所述的城市生活垃圾制作清洁固体燃料的方法,其特征在于:所 述步骤⑵中脱水物料置于生物自干燥装置中干燥处理7(1后出仓。
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CN101619252A (zh) * 2009-07-30 2010-01-06 李龙 生活垃圾回收制固体燃料的方法
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CN101619252A (zh) * 2009-07-30 2010-01-06 李龙 生活垃圾回收制固体燃料的方法
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