CN107472063B - A kind of battery failures check system and electric car - Google Patents

A kind of battery failures check system and electric car Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107472063B
CN107472063B CN201710680861.2A CN201710680861A CN107472063B CN 107472063 B CN107472063 B CN 107472063B CN 201710680861 A CN201710680861 A CN 201710680861A CN 107472063 B CN107472063 B CN 107472063B
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battery
monomer
battery cell
power
driving
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CN107472063A (en
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陈雷
王祖光
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Hangzhou Hengyuan Automobile Technology Co Ltd
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Hangzhou Hengyuan Automobile Technology Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L58/00Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles
    • B60L58/10Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries

Abstract

This application discloses a kind of battery failures detection system and electric cars, it is detected for the power-driven system to electric car, the power-driven system is applied to electric car, including driving motor and power supply unit, power supply unit includes cell apparatus, cell apparatus includes multiple monomer chains being connected in parallel, and monomer chain includes the battery cell of multiple series connections, and battery failures detection system includes multiple monomer detection circuits.Wherein the quantity of monomer detection circuit and the quantity of battery cell match;Monomer detection circuit is arranged on battery cell, and monomer detection circuit is used to determine whether battery cell breaks down according to the output voltage of battery cell.By determining that respective battery monomer breaks down, system or user can make according to the fault message and timely dispose, to avoid cell apparatus that catastrophe failure occurs, and then can be avoided electric car and can not work normally or even cast anchor.

Description

A kind of battery failures check system and electric car
Technical field
This application involves electric vehicle engineering field, more specifically to a kind of battery failures detection system and electronic Automobile.
Background technique
Electric car refers to using vehicle power supply as power, with motor driven wheels travel, meets road traffic, security legislation The vehicle of requirements.Since effect on environment is smaller with respect to orthodox car, its prospects are considered optimistic wildly, but current techniques are still not Maturation needs to do various perfect.
Electric car generally includes at least vehicle-mounted power supply unit and driving motor, electric energy of the driving motor in power supply unit The lower work of supply.The driving power as needed for electric car is larger, under the premise of meeting relatively high power, power supply is set Standby to need biggish cell apparatus, current cell apparatus is generally connected by multiple battery cells by series-parallel system, with full Demand of the sufficient electric car to driving voltage and power.In the course of work of cell apparatus, because of manufacture quality and building ring The reason of border, percentage of batteries monomer will lead to entire battery dress it is possible that failure if it cannot detected in time Generation catastrophe failure is set, so that electric car be caused to can not work normally or even cast anchor.
Summary of the invention
In view of this, the application provides a kind of battery failures detection system and electric car, for the electricity to electric car Cell apparatus in power-driven system carries out fault detection, to avoid due to some or the certain battery cells in cell apparatus because Failure and cause cell apparatus occur catastrophe failure.
To achieve the goals above, it is proposed that scheme it is as follows:
A kind of battery failures detection system, applied to the power-driven system of electric car, the power-driven system packet Driving motor and power supply unit are included, the power supply unit includes cell apparatus, and the cell apparatus includes multiple is connected in parallel Monomer chain, the monomer chain include the battery cell of multiple series connections, and the battery failures detection system includes multiple monomers Detection circuit, in which:
The quantity of the monomer detection circuit and the quantity of the battery cell match;
The monomer detection circuit is arranged on the battery cell, and the monomer detection circuit is used for according to the battery The output voltage of monomer determines whether the battery cell breaks down.
Optionally, the monomer detection circuit includes voltage detection unit, data transceiving unit and fault verification unit, In:
The voltage detection unit is used to detect the output voltage of the battery cell, as the first output voltage;
The data receipt unit is connected by data/address bus with the data transceiving unit of other battery cells, for connecing The multiple output voltages for receiving other battery cells, as multiple second output voltages;
The fault verification unit is used for average value and first output voltage when the multiple second output voltage When mismatch, determine that the battery cell breaks down.
Optionally, monomer cut-off circuit is provided on each battery cell, in which:
The monomer cut-off circuit is connected with the monomer detection circuit, the battery cell for will break down It is cut off from the battery chain.
Optionally, the monomer cut-off circuit includes normally closed switch and normal open switch, in which:
The normally closed switch and the battery cell are connected in series, for the disconnection when the battery cell breaks down;
The normal open switch is connected in parallel with the concatenated battery cell and the normally closed switch, for working as the battery Closure when monomer breaks down.
Optionally, the normally closed switch and the normal open switch link.
The driving motor includes rotor and stator, and more set driving coils, the power supply unit are provided on the stator It is connected respectively with more set coils, for simultaneously to more set driving coils power supplies or individually a set of to certain selected Driving coil power supply, driving coil described in every set includes three-phase coil, the wiring construction of the three-phase coil be star or Person's triangle.
Optionally, the corresponding single phase winding of driving coil described in every set is an independent coil.
Optionally, the corresponding single phase winding of driving coil described in every set is the different segmentations in a complete coil, The lead at the both ends of the segmentation is the centre tap of the complete coil.
Optionally, the power supply unit includes multiple cell apparatus and multiple driving devices, in which:
The cell apparatus includes multiple battery cells, and the multiple battery cell is connected by series connection with parallel way;
The electrical energy inputs of each driving device are connected with the corresponding cell apparatus respectively, electric energy output end It is connected with the corresponding driving coil.
A kind of electric car, including power-driven system, the power-driven system are provided with battery event as described above Hinder detection system.
It can be seen from the above technical scheme that this application discloses a kind of battery failures detection system and electric car, Applied to the power-driven system of electric car, including driving motor and power supply unit, the power supply unit includes cell apparatus, The cell apparatus includes multiple monomer chains being connected in parallel, and the monomer chain includes the battery cell of multiple series connections, institute Stating battery failures detection system includes multiple monomer detection circuits.The wherein quantity of the monomer detection circuit and the battery list The quantity of body matches;The monomer detection circuit is arranged on the battery cell, and the monomer detection circuit is used for basis The output voltage of the battery cell determines whether the battery cell breaks down.By determining that event occurs in respective battery monomer Barrier, system or user can make according to the fault message and timely dispose, to avoid cell apparatus that serious event occurs Barrier, and then can be avoided electric car and can not work normally or even cast anchor.
Detailed description of the invention
In order to illustrate the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present application or in the prior art more clearly, to embodiment or will show below There is attached drawing needed in technical description to be briefly described, it should be apparent that, the accompanying drawings in the following description is only this Some embodiments of application for those of ordinary skill in the art without creative efforts, can be with It obtains other drawings based on these drawings.
Fig. 1 is a kind of structural schematic diagram of power-driven system embodiment provided by the present application;
Fig. 1 a is another structural schematic diagram of power-driven system provided by the present application;
Fig. 1 b is another structural schematic diagram of power-driven system provided by the present application;
Fig. 2 is a kind of structural schematic diagram of battery failures detection system embodiment provided by the present application;
Fig. 2 a is a kind of structural schematic diagram of battery failures detection system provided by the present application;
Fig. 2 b is the structural schematic diagram of another battery failures detection system provided by the present application.
Specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with the attached drawing in the embodiment of the present application, technical solutions in the embodiments of the present application carries out clear, complete Site preparation description, it is clear that described embodiments are only a part of embodiments of the present application, instead of all the embodiments.It is based on Embodiment in the application, it is obtained by those of ordinary skill in the art without making creative efforts every other Embodiment shall fall in the protection scope of this application.
The research and development of the electric car major scientific and technological projects in China start from 2001, and the science and technology by two five-year plans is attacked It closes and the Olympic Games, the application of Expo, " ten thousand, cities " Demonstration Platform pulls, from scratch, technology is in and holds Electric Cars in China Continuous progress state, it is established that the full industrial chain technical system of electric car with independent intellectual property rights.
Currently, in the technology path of various electric cars, it is with hybrid power, pure electric automobile and fuel cell car The electric car of representative is generally considered the Main way of future automobile energy power system Transformation Development, has become the world Automobile power and Main Auto manufacturer development priority.China has been world car great industry nation, but " greatly without strong ", China Following auto industry must seek new thinking.Ev industry is expected to open up new growth point for Chinese Automobile Industry '.
From the point of view of development abroad situation, although the electrically-charging equipment construction of external Main Developed Countries is still in infancy, But governmental support dynamics is very big.From the point of view of domestic development situation, Chinese electrically-charging equipment construction Primary Actor includes country The enterprises such as grid company, Southern Power Grid Company, general day sea oil, middle petrochemical industry, BYD.In recent years, China had gone into operation one The charging station and charging pile of fixed number amount, it is subsequent construction that charging modes, which such as have fast charge, trickle charge, change battery at a variety of, earlier work, Provide invaluable experience.Instantly, the enterprises such as State Grid Corporation of China, Southern Power Grid Company, general day sea oil, middle petrochemical industry with majority Local government has signed strategic cooperation agreement, has formulated more specific construction object and plan, and charging station construction starts to present The impetus of accelerated development.
The famous automobile factory commercial city in countries in the world is stepping up to develop all kinds of electric cars, and achieve it is a degree of into Exhibition and breakthrough.
First, Japan all the time, for the concern to energy crisis and environmental protection and captures future world automobile city The considerations of field, Japan attach great importance to the development and exploitation of electric car.From the point of view of instantly worldwide entire situation, Japan It is electric vehicle engineering one of a few countries with the fastest developing speed, especially in the product development side of hybrid vehicle Face, Japan occupy first place in the world.Enterprise, only Japanese Toyota and Honda Liang Jia motor corporation.In December, 1997, Toyota's vapour Che company is proposed the hybrid power car PRIUS of first item batch production in the world in the Japanese market first.The car in Start in July, 2000 to export North America, the same year September starts outlet Europe, in the national list marketing in more than 20, the whole world.Instantly The product of release has been multiple improved second generation product, and production technology is more mature.According to Toyota Motor Corporation Test, PRIUS car is under the operating condition of city than the corolla car fuel-economizing 44.4% of same discharge capacity;In suburbs, fuel-economizing 29.7%, comprehensive Close fuel-economizing 40.5%.Related statistical data shows that Toyota Motor Corporation has occupied the part in global hybrid vehicle market 90% Volume.On September 15th, 2004, the First Automobile Group and Toyota Motor company have held hybrid vehicle collaborative project label in Beijing Word ceremony announces both sides in 2005.Co-production Toyota PRIUS hybrid power car.PRIUS hybrid power car will be The same year enters Chinese market.
After PRIUS hybrid power car, Toyota Motor Corporation is also proposed ESTIMA hybrid vehicle and carrying The CROWN car of soft hybrid power system.Low burn consumption, low emission and improvement of the Toyota Motor Corporation in universal hybrid power system It has walked in terms of driving performance in the forefront in the world.Furthermore.The Insight hybrid electric vapour of Honda Motors Co.'s exploitation Vehicle has also launched, and supply falls short of demand.Civic hybrid power has been launched on American market by April, 2002, Honda Motors Co. Automobile.Nissan Motor announces, will sell Ahima board hybrid vehicle to American market in 2006, this be it in First product of Joint Production hybrid vehicle agreement is signed within 2002 with Toyota Motor Corporation.
Second, the U.S..The motor corporation in the U.S. is more inferior than the colleague from Japan many in terms of electric vehicle industrialization, Only small lot produced and sold pure electric automobile for big three automakers, and hybrid power and fuel cell electric vehicle are also not It is able to achieve industrialization, the mixing power electric automobile from Japan occupies leading position on American market.
Third, Norway.Norway's electric car sales volume in 2012 has reached 10,000, and the ratio of Zhan Dangnian new car sales volume reaches 5.2%, this is quite noticeable for the population only Norway of 5,000,000 populations.The electric car in Norway market is mostly to produce Leaf daily Vehicle, daily output Leaf type vehicle is ranked first 3 in the market in Norway's sale of automobile within 2012, and the electric car of other brands has Revas and KewetBuddies etc..
Climate change, energy and environmental problem are the long-standing problems that human society faces jointly.As the U.S. indicates to return COP15 (the 15th meeting of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contracting party) and using China, India is the emerging nation of representative It is included into wherein and major country actively implements the energy and environment protection strategy, the whole world, which enters, really solves mankind society The epoch of meeting common issue.Whether greenhouse gas emission, energy consumption and the exhaust emissions three major issues of traffic and transport field have Effect solves to directly affect mankind's common issue and can effectively solve the problem that, for this purpose, government, global major country, tissue, car manufactures, Energy supplier, risk investment enterprise common action get up, and push the upgrading of Global Auto industrial structure change and dynamical system electricity Dynamicization strategic transformation promotes the electric car social base industry with multilayered structure to be formed and protects with corresponding policy, tissue Hinder System Construction, the formation of sustainable development needs electric car society.
As world energy consumption big country and environmental protection important force, China actively implements electric car science and technology development strategy, Promote auto industry industrial structure upgrading and the transition of dynamical system motorized, cultivates and Development of EV is social, and achieve Certain effect, but still be faced with policy environment and need that perfect, industrial foundation is weak, international competitiveness is weak, open collaborative innovation Environment is poor, intellectual property protection and standardizing consciousness are low, individual key technologies have to be strengthened, vehicle is at high cost, business model visit The problems such as rope is insufficient.This report is on the basis of brief analysis foreign countries electric car social development status and stage characteristic, emphatically The development course of Electric Cars in China society is summarized, the basic industry design feature of Electric Cars in China society, electronic vapour are constituted Policy needed for vehicle social construction, standard, organization system current situation, and combine new-energy automobile strategic emerging industries It cultivates and the suggestion of Electric Cars in China social development is improved in development, proposition.
Reducing field of traffic greenhouse gas emission is to solve Global climate change important means, is construction sustainable development electricity Electrical automobile society precondition.Main Countries government, tissue have all formulated stringent automobile exhaust emission standard, it is intended to subtract Few field of traffic is influenced caused by global climate and environment.
In addition, Los Angeles,U.S photochemical fog, world oil crisis, middle-east situation turmoil, Beijing thick weather etc. one A little events propose safely an urgent demand to emphasis environmental protection, guarantee national oil, have pushed automotive engineering in world wide Progress accelerates electric car social construction.
When 2000, under environmental protection and the promotion of national oil security strategy, electric car society quilt is built Schedule is mentioned, China enters electric car society " science and technology guidance " initial stage of development.(the Tenth Five-Year Plan period and " ten in stage Early period First Five-Year Plan ") with electric car key technology research and develop for main feature, emphatically carry out the original innovation of electric car key technology and System integration innovation, test environmental construction, professional technician culture, Technical Standard System are built, open collaborative innovation environment A series of activities such as construction, transformation of scientific and technical result activity.
Tenth Five-Year Plan Period, to capture electric car Scientific And Technical Problems as point of penetration, fully taking into account, Chinese industrial basis is thin The statuses such as weak, research strength is not strong, enterprise's R&D input is limited, it is excellent to play the socialist system that China concentrates our resources to get big jobs done More property, Department of Science and Technology's creativeness propose " three vertical three is horizontal " electric car research and development strategical planning layout, make the overall arrangement for electric car pass Key technology tackling key problem is innovated so as to complete the original innovation and the system integration of Electric Cars in China key technology.The Eleventh Five-Year Plan phase Between, on the basis of conscientiously summarizing previous research, power system of electric automobile technology platform and key components and parts research and development are focused, Reinforce scale industrialization research of technique.
The type of electric car mainly includes pure electric automobile (BEV), hybrid vehicle (PHEV) and fuel cell vapour Vehicle (FCEV).
Pure electric automobile by motor drive automobile.It is for fuel-engined vehicle, main difference is that four big portions Part: driving motor, speed setting controller, power battery and onboard charger.It is four big that the quality discrepancy of pure electric automobile depends on this Component, value height also depend on the quality of this four big component.The purposes of pure electric automobile is also matched in the selection of four big components It sets directly related.
The speed per hour speed of pure electric automobile and starting speed depend on the power and performance of driving motor, mileages of continuation it Length depends on the size of vehicle mounted dynamic battery capacity, and the weight of vehicle mounted dynamic battery depends on selecting which kind of power battery, such as Plumbic acid, zinc carbon and lithium battery etc., their volumes, specific gravity, specific power, specific energy, cycle life are different from, it is specific choose and what Kind of battery depend on manufacturer the positioning of vehicle class and purposes and market are defined, the market segments.
The driving motor of pure electric automobile be divided into DC brush, it is brushless, have permanent magnetism, electromagnetism, then have exchange stepper motor Deng their selection is also related with vehicle configuration, purposes, class.In addition the speed regulating control of driving motor also divide step speed regulation and Stepless speed regulation is divided into using electronic speed controller and does not have to speed setting controller.Motor has hub motor, internal rotor electricity Machine, have single motor driving, multi-motor driving and composition motor driving etc..
The relatively easy maturation of the technology of pure electric automobile can charge as long as there is the place of power supply.But there is also Certain disadvantage, the energy such as battery cell's weight storage is very little, also because the battery of electric vehicle is more expensive, and does not form economic rule Mould, therefore purchasing price is more expensive, as use cost, some are more expensive than automobile using price, some prices are only the 1/3 of automobile, this Depend primarily on the service life of battery and oil, the electricity price lattice of locality.
Hybrid vehicle refers to the automobile that power is at least obtained from the energy of following two classes on-board storages, respectively Consume the engine and rechargeable storage device of fuel.It can be divided into tandem mixing according to power system architecture form and move Power automobile (SHEV), parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and Series-Parallel HEV (CHEV).
The driving force of serial type hybrid automobile (SHEV) derives from the hybrid power of motor.It is structurally characterized in that and starts Machine drives electrical power generators, and electric energy is conveyed to motor by electric machine controller, by motor drive running car.In addition, dynamic Power battery individually can also provide electrical energy drive running car to motor.
The driving force of parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is concurrently or separately supplied by motor and engine.Structure is special Point is that parallel drive system can be used alone engine or motor as power source, can also simultaneously using motor with Engine is as power source drive running car.
Series-Parallel HEV (CHEV) has the characteristics that tandem, parallel driving method.Structure is can be It works, can also work under parallel hybrid mode, and combined the excellent of series and parallel type under series hybrid mode Point.
In addition, with the development of mixed power electric car technology, type be not limited to it is above several, can also be according to it Its pattern divides.On domestic market, the mainstream of hybrid vehicle is all gasoline hybrid power, and diesel oil on international market Hybrid electric vehicle develops also quickly.
For hybrid vehicle, using after hybrid power can by averagely need to power determine the internal combustion engine most It is high-power, it is now under the optimum operating condition that oil consumption is low, pollution is few and works.When needing heavy duty underpower, by electricity Pond supplements;When load is few, power more than needed can generate electricity and charge the battery, and due to the sustainable work of internal combustion engine, battery again can be with It is continuously available charging, therefore its stroke is as general-utility car.
Because there is battery, when can very easily recycle braking, energy when descending, when idling.In bustling urban district, Internal combustion engine can be shut down, is operated alone by battery, realizes the zero-emission of pollutant.There is internal combustion engine that can very easily solve to consume The problem that the pure electric automobiles such as air-conditioning, heating, defrosting that can be big encounter.It can use existing gas station to refuel, it is not necessary to throw again Money.Battery can be allowed to be maintained at good working order, do not overcharge, over-discharge, prolong its service life, reduce cost.Disadvantage It is that run at high speed substantially cannot be fuel-efficient over long distances.
Fuel cell is the automobile using fuel cell as electrical source of power.The chemical reaction process of fuel cell will not generate Noxious products, therefore fuel-cell vehicle is pollution-free automobile, the energy conversion efficiency of fuel cell is higher than internal combustion engine by 2~3 Times, therefore in terms of the utilization of the energy and environmental protection, fuel cell car is a kind of ideal vehicle.
Single fuel cell must be combined into fuel cell unit, to obtain required power, meet what vehicle used It is required that.
In recent years, fuel cell technology had been achieved great progress.World-renowned automobile factory, such as wears nurse Le-Chrysler, Ford, Toyota and General Motors Corporation have announced, plan to throw fuel cell car before 2004 To market.Instantly, the sample car of fuel-cell car is being tested, and is the transport motor bus of power in North America using fuel cell Several cities in carrying out demonstrative project.Technical challenges, such as fuel are remained in exploitation fuel cell car The integration of battery pack improves commercialization electric car fuel processor and assisted parts automobile factory all towards integrated component Direction effort with component costs are reduced, and has achieved significant progress.
Compared with orthodox car, fuel cell car has the advantage that zero-emission or approximate zero-emission;Reduce machine oil Reveal bring water pollution;Reduce the discharge of greenhouse gases;Improve fuel economy;Improve engine combustion efficiency; It runs smoothly, noiseless.
For above-mentioned any electric car, basic composition may include: to be driven by electricity and control substantially Mechanical systems, the equipments for completing assigned tasks such as system, driving force transmission etc..It is driven by electricity and control system is electronic vapour The core of vehicle, and be different from the maximum difference of internal-combustion engines vehicle, other devices of electric car are substantially and internal-combustion engines vehicle It is identical.Wherein, it is driven by electricity and control system is made of the speed-regulating control device etc. of drive motor, power supply and motor.
Power supply provides electric energy for the drive motor of electric car, and the electric energy of power supply is converted mechanical energy by motor.It answers It is lead-acid accumulator with most commonly used power supply, but with the development of electric vehicle engineering, lead-acid accumulator is filled since energy is low Electric speed is slow, and the service life is short, gradually replaced other batteries.The power supply developed mainly have sodium-sulphur battery, nickel-cadmium cell, Lithium battery, fuel cell etc., the application of these novel power supplies open wide prospect for the development of electric car.
As component most important in electric car, power battery performance determines its mileages of continuation and cost.Electricity The R&D work of electrical automobile battery experienced the development process from lead-acid battery, nickel-metal hydride battery to lithium battery, each battery is each There are pros and cons.
Lead-acid battery occurs earliest, the time used also longest, belongs to battery series.The security performance of lead-acid battery Preferably, seldom there is phenomena such as explosion, kindling, only energy storage effect is not satisfactory.Later, people had developed nickel-metal hydride battery, The effect of electric energy and power is stored all than lead-acid battery ideal, but since the hydrogen that nickel-metal hydride battery generates during the charging process holds It easily explodes, so enterprise is in available or unavailable state to nickel-metal hydride battery.
To before and after 2000, people have succeeded in developing lithium battery.The electric energy of lithium battery storage is the 2-3 of lead-acid battery Times, but since the lithium ion that it contains is active in layer on surface of metal, situations such as being easy to appear spontaneous combustion in air, explode, danger It is dangerous higher.So various countries mainly control the research and development of lithium battery its safety and stability.
Lithium battery probably can be cycle charging 1000 times or so, and wherein the energy storage effect of ferric phosphate lithium cell compares cobalt acid lithium battery It is weaker with the effect of lithium manganate battery, but its security performance is best, stored energy ratio lead-acid battery is much higher, so now Ferric phosphate lithium cell is most expected.Current driving force battery includes following several:
1) supercapacitor
The advantage of supercapacitor is that quality specific power is high, has extended cycle life, and weakness is that specific energy is low, acquisition price It is expensive, but cycle life is up to 500,000~1,000,000 times, therefore single cycle is inexpensive, with lead-acid battery, energy type lithium-ion electric Pond parallel connection can be excellent with component property dynamic power system.
2) lead-acid battery
Lead-acid battery production technology is mature, and safety is good, cheap, the easy reclaiming of refuse battery.In recent years, passing through New technology, specific energy is low, cycle life is short, charging when acid mist occurs, may have the shortcomings that Lead pollution environment not in production Breaking in overcoming, indices improve a lot, it can be not only well used as the power supply of electric bicycle and battery-operated motor cycle, but also Good effect can be also played on electric car.
It 3) is positive lithium ion battery with LiFePO4
Cathode is that carbon, the lithium battery integrated performance of just extremely LiFePO4 are good, and safety is higher, without expensive raw material, Without harmful element, cycle life is up to 2000 times, and has overcome the low disadvantage of conductivity.The mass-energy density of energy-type cells Reachable 120Wh/kg is measured, it is used in parallel with supercapacitor, it can be with the comprehensive electrical source of power of component property.The mass ratio of power-type Energy also has 70~80Wh/kg, can be used alone without super capacitors in parallel.
4) using lithium titanate as the lithium ion battery of cathode
Lithium titanate volume change in recharge-discharge is minimum, ensure that the motor mechanism stable long-life with battery;Metatitanic acid Lithium electrode point is higher (being 1.5V relative to Li+/Li electrode), can not generate lithium dendrite arm in battery charging, ensure that electricity The high security in pond.But also because lithium titanate electrode potential is higher, even if being matched with the higher lithium manganate cathode of electrode potential, battery Voltage also only about 2.2V, so the specific energy of battery only has about 50~60Wh/kg.Even so, this battery high security, The outstanding advantages of long-life and other batteries are unrivaled.
The effect of drive motor is to convert mechanical energy for the electric energy of power supply, passes through transmission device or direct drive of wheel And equipment.But dc motor is due to there are commutation spark, and power is small, low efficiency, and maintenance work amount is big;With electricity The development of machine control technology, certainly will gradually by DC Brushless Motor (BLDCM), switched reluctance motor (SRM) with exchange it is different It walks replaced motor, such as non-shell disk axial magnetic field D.C. series motor.
According to driving principle, the driving motor of electric car can be divided into following 4 kinds:
1) dc motor.
Early stage Development of Electric Vehicles, many electric cars are all using dc motor scheme.It is primarily to see and suffers The product of direct current generator is mature, and control mode is easy, and adjusts the speed excellent feature.But very due to the short slab of dc motor itself Prominent, its own complicated mechanical structure (brush and mechanical commutator etc.), momentary overload capacity and the motor for constraining it turns Speed further increases;And in the case where working long hours, the mechanical structure of motor can generate loss, improve maintenance at This.In addition, spark when motor operation can make rotor heating, energy is wasted, heat dissipation is difficult, also will cause high-frequency electromagnetic Interference, these factors can all influence specific vehicle performance.
The shortcomings that due to dc motor, is very prominent, and current electric car eliminates direct current generator.
2) AC asynchronous motor.
AC induction motor is in current industry using very extensive a kind of motor, its main feature is that stator and rotor are by silicon steel Piece is overrided to form, and both ends are encapsulated with aluminium lid, and the mechanical part not contacted with each other between stator and rotor, structure is simple, reliable for operation It is durable, it is easy to maintenance.AC induction motor is more efficient compared with the dc motor with power, the about light half of quality Left and right.If the controllability to compare favourably with direct current generator and broader speed regulation can be obtained using the control mode of vector controlled Range.Due to there is the advantages such as high-efficient, specific power is larger, is suitable for running at high speed, alternating current asynchronous machine is current high-power electricity Most widely used motor on electrical automobile.
But in the case where running at high speed, the rotor heating of motor is serious, and when work will guarantee that motor is cooling, while asynchronous The driving of motor, control system are very complicated, and the cost of motor body is also higher, also need frequency converter to provide when in addition running additional Reactive power establish magnetic field, therefore mutually compared with magneto and switched reluctance machines, the efficiency and power of asynchronous machine are close Spend it is relatively low, be not efficiency optimize selection.
The more area of asynchronous motor application is the U.S., this is also artificially related with road conditions.In the U.S., high speed is public Road has had certain scale, and other than big city, automobile is generally persistently travelled with certain high speed, so can allow at a high speed It operates and there is the asynchronous motor of greater efficiency to be used widely in high speed.
3) permanent magnet motor.
Permanent magnet motor can be divided into two types according to the difference of the current waveform of stator winding, and one is brushless direct-currents Motor, it has rectangular wave pulse electric current;Another kind is permanent magnet synchronous motor, it has sine-wave current.Both motors exist Be substantially the same in structure and working principle, rotor is all permanent magnet, reduces loss brought by excitation, be equipped on stator around Group generates torque by alternating current, so cooling relatively easy.Since this kind of motor does not need installation brush and mechanical commutation Structure, when work, will not generate commutation spark, and safe and reliable to operation, easy to maintenance, capacity usage ratio is higher.
The control system of permanent magnet motor is simpler compared to for the control system of AC induction motor.But by It is limited in by permanent-magnet material itself, under conditions of high temperature, vibration and overcurrent, it is existing that the permanent magnet of rotor can generate demagnetization As so permanent-magnetic electric machine is easy to happen damage, therefore this part need to be continued to develop to change under relative complex operating condition It is kind.
And permanent-magnet material price is higher, therefore entire electric motor and controller system cost is higher, and only rare earth provides at present Source China abundant relatively tends to the electric car drive scheme using magneto.It as Japan, Europe or is using light The permanent-magnet material of rare earth makees magneto or is directly to use instead without rare earth material, but require controller design higher Switched reluctance machines.
4) switched reluctance machines.
Switched reluctance machines are as a kind of New-type electric machine, for comparing other kinds of driving motor, switched reluctance machines Structure it is the simplest, stator and rotor are the double-salient-pole structure that oOrdinary silicon steel sheet is overrided to form, and do not have winding, stator on rotor Equipped with simple concentratred winding, with structure simple rigid, high reliablity, light weight, at low cost, high-efficient, temperature rise is low, is easy to Many advantages, such as maintenance.And its good good characteristic of the controllability with Direct Current Governor System, while being suitable for adverse circumstances, The driving motor for being highly suitable as electric car uses.
But switched reluctance machines have that torque ripple is big, needs position detector, mission nonlinear characteristic, and magnetic field is jumping characteristic Rotation, control system are complicated;The disadvantages of very big pulse current can be generated to DC power supply.In addition switched reluctance motor is double Salient-pole structure, is inevitably present torque ripple, and noise is the most important disadvantage of switched reluctance motor.
But recent studies indicate that using reasonable design, manufacture and control technology, the noise of switched reluctance motor Complete available good inhibition.As current Japanese, the switch of Nidec more deep to the research of switched reluctance machines Reluctance motor is also widely used in all kinds of industries such as electric car, household electrical appliances.China also has producer to pay close attention to this gradually at present The future thrust of block driving motor for electric automobile
Speed regulation control device of motor is for settings such as the speed change of electric car and direction transformations, and effect is control electricity The voltage or electric current of motivation, complete the driving torque of motor and the control of direction of rotation.
On the electric car of early stage, the speed regulation of dc motor is using series resistor or the circle of change motor field coil Number is to realize.Because its speed regulation has grade, and additional energy consumption can be generated or structure is complicated using motor, very It is few to use.Using it is wide be thyristor chopping regulating speed, by equably changing the end voltage of motor, control motor Electric current, the stepless speed regulation of Lai Shixian motor.In the continuous development of electron electric power technology, it is also gradually by other electric power crystal It manages replaced (such as GTO, MOSFET, BTR and IGBT etc.) chopper speed regulating device.From the point of view of the development of technology, along with novel drive The application of dynamic motor, the speed regulating control of electric car are changed into the application of DC inversion technology, will become inevitable trend.
In the rotation direction transformation control of drive motor, dc motor changes the electric current in armature or magnetic field by contactor Direction, realizes the rotation direction transformation of motor, this reduces circuit complexity, reliability.It is driven when using AC asynchronous motor When, the change that motor turns to need to only convert the phase sequence of magnetic field three-phase current, and control circuit can be made to simplify.In addition, using Ac motor and its Frequency Conversion and Speed Regulation Technique make the Brake energy recovery of electric car control more convenient, control circuit It is simpler.
The effect of transmission device of electric vehicle is that the driving torque of motor is transmitted to the drive shaft of automobile, when using electronic When wheel drive, most components of transmission device can usually be ignored.Because motor can be started with bringing onto load, electric car The upper clutch without traditional combustion engine automobile.Because the rotation direction of driving motor can be realized by circuit control and be converted, Electric car is without the reverse gear in internal-combustion engines vehicle speed changer.When using motor stepless speed regulation control, electric car can be with Ignore the speed changer of orthodox car.When using In-wheel-motor driving, electric car also can be omitted traditional combustion engine vehicle transmission The differential mechanism of system.
The effect of mobile devices is that the driving moment of motor is become active force to ground by wheel, drives wheel Walking.It with the composition of other automobiles be it is identical, be made of wheel, tire and suspension etc..
Transfer is arranged to realize the turning of automobile, by turning machine, steering wheel, steering mechanism and deflecting roller etc. Composition.The control force of effect on the steering wheel makes deflecting roller deflect certain angle, realizes vapour by turning machine and steering mechanism The steering of vehicle.Most electric cars are front-wheel steer, and the electri forklift in industry usually uses rear-axle steering.Electric car Transfer has the types such as mechanical steering, fluid-link steering and hydraulic power-assisted steering.
The brake apparatus of electric car is the same with other automobiles, is to be arranged for car deceleration or parking, usually by making Dynamic device and its manipulation device composition.
General there are also electro-magnetic braking device on electric car, the control circuit that it can use drive motor is realized electronic The generator operation of machine makes energy when retarding braking be converted into the electric current to charge to battery, to obtain regeneration.It is domestic Electric car is had legs NAILI sliding-vane air compressor, mainly to air damping equipment is provided in high-power passenger car The mode of braking of compressed air.
Equipment is that commercial power electrical automobile is to fulfil assignment to require and be specially arranged, as the raising of electri forklift fills It sets, door frame, pallet fork etc..The raising of pallet fork and the inclination of door frame are usually completed by the hydraulic system of motor drive.
As shown in Figure 1, power-driven system provided by the present application is applied to electric car, for substituting traditional internal combustion hair Motivation specifically includes driving motor M and power supply unit to drive electric car to operate.
The driving motor can be direct-drive motor or AC driven motor, and no matter the motor of that all includes corresponding Stator and rotor.Wherein, stator is for receiving power supply unit output electric energy, and to drive rotor to rotate, rotor is then in stator It is rotated by, electric car operating is driven by rotation.
In the application driving motor compared to traditional motor for, it is mutually indepedent that difference is to be provided with more sets in stator Driving coil, every set driving coil can work under the driving for the electric energy that power supply unit exports, can be using only The electrical energy drive rotor rotation of power supply unit output.
The structure of driving coil is specifically described by taking 3 sets of driving coils as an example in the present embodiment.Every set driving coil Including three-phase coil L1, i.e. 3 single phase windings, this 3 single phase windings connect into triangular structure or star structure, thus structure At above-mentioned single set driving coil.
For covering for coil more, the position phase of the single phase windings for covering every suit driving coil in coil in the stator more Together.For example, three bundle conductors can be wound in stator at one, every conducting wire is then used as respective drive line in three conducting wires The single phase winding of circle.Also it can use single wire coiling in the stator, then this challenge by oneself by tapped mode and is led Line is divided into three parts, as shown in Figure 1a.Three mutually independent corresponding single phase windings of single wire coiling can also be utilized, This three mutually independent single wires can be layered structure, be also possible to other structures mixed.
Power supply unit is used to power to driving motor, specifically includes multiple cell apparatus 10 and multiple driving devices 20, and two Person's quantity is identical.Cell apparatus therein can be called battery group again, currently as electric car driving electrical storage cell group It is generally made of lithium battery monomer, because lithium battery has many advantages relative to lead storage battery, and with the raising and skill of yield The promotion of art also has comparable cost advantage.
Cell apparatus generally comprises multiple battery cell (not shown), and battery cell here may include a lithium battery Monomer or one group of lithium battery monomer.The output voltage of battery cell is generally inadequate to the driving motor fortune of driving electric car Turn, therefore is combined by the way of series and parallel.It can be by the way that battery cell be connected into a monomer chain, each monomer The output voltage of chain can match the driving voltage of driving motor;Then multiple monomer chains are subjected to parallel connection, to meet driving electricity The power demand of machine.First parallel connection can also be used, in concatenated structure.
Power supply unit includes multiple driving devices, and the quantity of driving device can be with the quantity phase of above-mentioned driving coil Together, i.e., the corresponding driving device of a set of driving coil, as shown in Figure 1 b.The electrical energy inputs of each driving device respectively with electricity Pool device is connected, i.e., can receive the electric energy of cell apparatus output;The electric energy output end of driving device then with driving coil It is connected, i.e., each driving device is connected with corresponding driving coil.
It can be powered, can also be driven to certain selected set to all driving coils simultaneously by the control to driving device Coil power supply makes all or part of driving coil of driving motor work by the switch control to driving device.Both every set Driving coil can work independently, and the work of driving motor will not be influenced the damage of part driving coil.
Power supply unit further includes the charging module (not shown) for charging to cell apparatus, the electric power of charging module Source is generally charging pile, charges after receiving charging pile inputing power to cell apparatus, i.e., to the cell apparatus All battery cells charge simultaneously, and so charging module needs biggish charging current.Charging module can be with benefit It is formed with multiple charhing units, each charhing unit one passes through the negative of charhing unit for charging to a battery cell Lotus is shared, and obtains overall load pressure so as to reduce charging module.Each charhing unit is also for the progress of several battery cells Charging, the i.e. number of charhing unit can not equivalent and battery cells.
Embodiment one
Fig. 2 is a kind of structural schematic diagram of battery failures detection system embodiment provided by the present application.
As shown in Fig. 2, battery failures detection system provided in this embodiment is used for the power-driven system to electric car Middle cell apparatus carries out fault detection.The power-driven system has been described in detail with above-described embodiment, no longer superfluous here It states, the cell apparatus of the system includes the monomer chain of multiple parallel connections, and monomer chain is made of multiple concatenated battery cell B.
The battery failures detection system includes multiple monomer detection circuits, the quantity and battery cell of monomer detection circuit 30 Quantity it is identical, i.e., on each battery cell be arranged a monomer detection circuit, monomer detection circuit pass through 40 phase of data/address bus Connection.It generally can be that its output voltage is abnormal when being broken down due to battery cell, the application passes through to corresponding electricity The method that the output voltage of pond monomer is detected determines whether it breaks down.
In general, the output voltage of battery cell can become smaller with the discharge time of battery, this is also detection battery list The method of the remaining capacity of body, but battery cell has difference in technique and output voltage is caused to have a difference, but this difference It can be smaller.In consideration of it, the monomer detection circuit includes voltage detection unit 31, data transceiving unit 32 and fault verification unit 33, as shown in Figure 2 a.
The output voltage is described as the here for detecting to the output voltage of battery cell by voltage detection unit One output voltage;Data transceiving unit is connected by data/address bus with the data transceiving unit of other monomers detection circuit, is led to The output voltage that the data/address bus receives other battery cells is crossed, output voltage here is described as the second output voltage, by In other battery cells be it is multiple, the second output voltage here is similarly multiple;Fault verification unit is first according to multiple Two output voltages find out average voltage, then judge whether the first transmission of electricity pressure matches with the average voltage, i.e., average electric with this Within the range of permission whether, this range can determine the difference of pressure previously according to the concrete engineering parameter of battery cell, If the two do not match, then determine that the battery cell breaks down, otherwise the battery cell is normal condition.
It can be seen from the above technical proposal that present embodiments providing a kind of battery failures detection system, it is applied to electronic The power-driven system of automobile, including driving motor and power supply unit, power supply unit include cell apparatus, and cell apparatus includes more A monomer chain being connected in parallel, monomer chain include the battery cell of multiple series connections, and battery failures detection system includes multiple Monomer detection circuit.Wherein the quantity of monomer detection circuit and the quantity of battery cell match;The setting of monomer detection circuit exists On battery cell, monomer detection circuit is used to determine whether battery cell breaks down according to the output voltage of battery cell.It is logical The failure of judgement respective battery monomer is crossed, system or user can make according to the fault message and timely dispose, from And avoid cell apparatus that catastrophe failure occurs, and then can be avoided electric car and can not work normally or even cast anchor.
Monomer cut-off circuit is additionally provided on battery cell in the present embodiment, which is used for the battery that will be broken down Monomer is cut off from cell apparatus.The monomer cut-off circuit specifically includes normally closed switch K1 and normal open switch K2, such as Fig. 2 b It is shown, and the control equipment of two switches is connected with monomer detection circuit, breaks down for the battery cell according to characterization Fault-signal two switches are controlled.
Normally closed switch and battery cell are connected in series, and form a small power supply branch, normal open switch then with this power supply branch Road is connected in parallel, and under the battery cell normal condition, is connected on monomer chain by the normally closed switch, just frequently as battery The working cell of device;When monomer detection circuit exports above-mentioned fault-signal, normally closed switch is opened, and stops the battery cell Work, while normal open switch being closed, guarantee the complete of battery chain, the failure of multiple battery cells can be avoided.
And the collaborative work in order to guarantee normal open switch and normally closed switch, the two switches are linkage action, specific implementation When can use a switch element normally opened contact and normally-closed contact as the normal open switch and normally closed switch.
Embodiment two
A kind of electric car is present embodiments provided, which is provided with provided by above example and is driven by electricity System, the power-driven system include driving motor and power supply unit.Driving motor includes rotor and stator, is provided on stator More set driving coils;Power supply unit is connected with more set coils respectively, for while to more set driving coil power supplies or individually To a set of driving coil power supply of certain selected.And power supply unit includes cell apparatus, which is provided with above-mentioned reality Battery failures detection system provided by example is applied, is checked for the failure to cell apparatus.It can be with by above-mentioned arrangement Make the every set driving coil more covered in driving coil that can work independently, other drove when failure occurs for driving coil in part Moving winding can also drive working rotor.In the case where being applied to the higher environment of this reliability of electric car, can be avoided due to driving The partial fault of moving winding and the problem of cause electric car to be unable to run.
Each embodiment in this specification is described in a progressive manner, the highlights of each of the examples are with other The difference of embodiment, the same or similar parts in each embodiment may refer to each other.To the upper of the disclosed embodiments It states bright, can be realized professional and technical personnel in the field or using the application.Various modifications to these embodiments are to ability It will be apparent for the professional technician in domain, the general principles defined herein can not depart from the application's In the case where spirit or scope, realize in other embodiments.Therefore, the application be not intended to be limited to it is shown in this article these Embodiment, and it is to fit to the widest scope consistent with the principles and novel features disclosed herein.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of battery failures detection system, applied to the power-driven system of electric car, the power-driven system includes Driving motor and power supply unit, the power supply unit include cell apparatus, and the cell apparatus includes multiple lists being connected in parallel Body chain, the monomer chain include the battery cell of multiple series connections, which is characterized in that the battery failures detection system includes Multiple monomer detection circuits, in which:
The quantity of the monomer detection circuit and the quantity of the battery cell match;
The monomer detection circuit is arranged on the battery cell, and the monomer detection circuit is used for according to the battery cell Output voltage determine whether the battery cell breaks down;
The monomer detection circuit includes voltage detection unit, data transceiving unit and fault verification unit, in which:
The voltage detection unit is used to detect the output voltage of the battery cell, as the first output voltage;
The data receipt unit is connected by data/address bus with the data transceiving unit of other battery cells, for receiving The multiple output voltages for stating other battery cells, as multiple second output voltages;
The fault verification unit be used for when the average value of the multiple second output voltage and first output voltage not Timing determines that the battery cell breaks down;
Monomer cut-off circuit is provided on each battery cell, in which:
The monomer cut-off circuit is connected with the monomer detection circuit, for by the battery cell to break down from institute It states and is cut off on battery chain;
The monomer cut-off circuit includes normally closed switch and normal open switch, in which:
The normally closed switch and the battery cell are connected in series, for the disconnection when the battery cell breaks down;
The normal open switch is connected in parallel with the concatenated battery cell and the normally closed switch, for working as the battery cell Closure when breaking down;
The normally closed switch and the normal open switch link.
2. battery failures detection system as described in claim 1, the driving motor includes rotor and stator, on the stator More set driving coils are provided with, the power supply unit is connected with more set coils respectively, for driving simultaneously to the mostly set Moving winding powers or individually to a set of driving coil power supply of certain selected, which is characterized in that driving coil described in every set Including three-phase coil, the wiring construction of the three-phase coil is star or triangle.
3. battery failures detection system as claimed in claim 2, which is characterized in that driving coil described in every set it is corresponding Single phase winding is an independent coil.
4. battery failures detection system as claimed in claim 2, which is characterized in that driving coil described in every set it is corresponding Single phase winding is the different segmentations in a complete coil, and the lead at the both ends of the segmentation is that the intermediate of the complete coil is taken out Head.
5. battery failures detection system as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the power supply unit includes multiple battery dresses It sets and multiple driving devices, in which:
The cell apparatus includes multiple battery cells, and the multiple battery cell is connected by series connection with parallel way;
The electrical energy inputs of each driving device are connected with the corresponding cell apparatus respectively, electric energy output end and phase The driving coil answered is connected.
6. a kind of electric car, including power-driven system, which is characterized in that the power-driven system setting is wanted just like right Seek 1~5 described in any item battery failures detection systems.
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CN110293876B (en) * 2019-06-05 2022-10-18 东北电力大学 On-line cutting-off/replacing circuit for fault battery/battery module of battery pack
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