CN107342331B - 一种t型顶电极背反射薄膜太阳电池的生产工艺 - Google Patents

一种t型顶电极背反射薄膜太阳电池的生产工艺 Download PDF

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CN107342331B
CN107342331B CN201710441834.XA CN201710441834A CN107342331B CN 107342331 B CN107342331 B CN 107342331B CN 201710441834 A CN201710441834 A CN 201710441834A CN 107342331 B CN107342331 B CN 107342331B
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王强
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Abstract

一种T型顶电极背反射薄膜太阳电池的生产工艺,步骤包括:制备平板式透明顶电极;透明顶电极表面制备若干条状透明导电凸棱,该凸棱与透明顶电极形成T型结构;第3步、在透明顶电极表面逐次淀积厚度均匀的P型非晶硅薄膜、本征非晶硅薄膜、N型非晶硅薄膜、透明导电过渡薄膜,使P型非晶硅薄膜、本征非晶硅薄膜、N型非晶硅薄膜、透明导电过渡薄膜在凸棱对应区域向外凸起形成条状鼓包;在透明导电过渡薄膜表面淀积底电极,所述底电极与透明导电过渡薄膜的接触面形成若干与所述凸棱一一对应的弧形反射面。

Description

一种T型顶电极背反射薄膜太阳电池的生产工艺
技术领域
[0001]本发明涉及一种T型顶电极背反射薄膜太阳电池,属于太阳能电池技术领域。
背景技术
[0002]光子、电子和声子都是能量的载体。太阳能电池作为光电能量转换器件,主要是光 子和电子之间相互交换能量,同时有声子参与这个交换过程。这种能量的相互作用主要发 生在太阳电池材料表面数微米的范围内,这为制造薄膜太阳电池提供了物理基础。
[0003]非晶硅薄膜太阳电池因其可以显著降低硅的使用量,制备工艺温度低等优点,成 为了降低太阳电池成本最有吸引力的硅基太阳电池之一。但是,与其它硅基太阳电池相比, 非晶硅薄膜太阳电池的转换效率偏低。
[0004] —般来说,提高电池性能的方法主要有:采用多结结构,提高电池对不同波长光的 吸收;采用不同的电池材料构成异质结电池;采用特形基板,提高电池对光的吸收等。但这 些方法对于电池的制备成本的降低和电池性能的提高有限。因此,研发新型薄膜太阳电池 对降低电池成本,提高电池性能有重要的意义。
[0005]通常薄膜太阳电池的电极都是采用与薄膜平行的方式。该方式制备的薄膜电极, 制备方法简单,性能稳定,但是,该方式的电极对电池性能的提高有限。因此,研宄新型薄膜 太阳电池电极,提高电池对光的吸收和增加电池受光面积有重要的意义。
[0006]现在人们生产的主流薄膜太阳能电池的结构如图1所示,从上而下分别为:绝缘 衬底5、透明顶电极1、P型非晶硅薄膜2、本征非晶硅薄膜6、N型非晶硅薄膜3、底电极LP 型非晶硅薄膜2和本征非晶硅薄膜6叠合连接,本征非晶硅薄膜6和N型非晶硅薄膜3再叠 合连接,构成一个P-i-N结,顶电极1和底电极4分别置于p型非晶硅薄膜2上端面和N型 非晶硅薄膜3下端面,最终形成一单结非晶硅薄膜太阳能电池。
发明内容
[0007]本发明的目的在于:克服上述现有技术的缺陷,提出一种T型顶电极背反射薄膜太 阳电池及其生产工艺,电池具有更高的光电转换效率,其生产工艺简单易行。
[000S]为了达到上述目的,本发明提出的一种T型顶电极背反射薄膜太阳电池,从上至下 包括依次连接的透明顶电极、P型非晶硅薄膜、本征非晶硅薄膜、N型非晶硅薄膜、透明导电 过渡薄膜、底电极,其特征在于:所述透明顶电极的下表面制有与若干条状透明导电凸棱, 使顶电极局部形成T型结构,所述凸棱下方的P型非晶硅薄膜、本征非晶硅薄膜、N型非晶硅 薄膜、透明导电过渡薄膜下表面向下凸起形成条状鼓包,对应位置的底电极与透明导电过 渡薄膜的接触面具有与凸棱一一对应的条状弧形反射面。
[0009]本发明T型顶电极背反射薄膜太阳电池,进一步的改进在于:
[0010] 1、所述P型非晶硅薄膜、本征非晶硅薄膜、N型非晶硅薄膜、透明导电过渡薄膜的厚 度均匀。
[0011 ] 2、所述透明顶电极为TC0玻璃,透明顶电极的导电薄膜和透明导电过渡薄膜为掺 氟氧化锌或氧化铟硒的薄膜,所述底电极为铝或银材料制成的面状金属电极。
[0012] 3、所述凸棱的高宽比为1:3〜1:2,凸棱之间互相平行,凸棱的间距范围为:1-2um, 高度范围为:100-300nm。
[0013] 4、所述P型非晶硅薄膜中硼元素的掺杂浓度为1017〜1019/(:1113的;所述本征非晶硅 薄膜中无杂质掺杂,所述N型非晶硅薄膜中磷元素的掺杂浓度为1〇17〜i〇19/cm3,所述p型非 晶硅薄膜的沉积厚度范围为:l8〇-220nm,本征非晶硅薄膜的沉积厚度范围为:〇.5-lum,NS 非晶娃薄膜的沉积厚度范围为:180-220nm。
[0014]此外,本发明还提供了一种T型顶电极背反射薄膜太阳电池的生产工艺,其特征在 于包括如下步骤:
[0015]第涉、制备平板式透明顶电极;
[0016]第2步、透明顶电极表面制备若干条状透明导电凸棱,该凸棱与透明顶电极形成T 型结构;
[0017]第3步、在透明顶电极表面逐次淀积厚度均匀的p型非晶硅薄膜、本征非晶硅薄膜、 N型非晶硅薄膜、透明导电过渡薄膜,使P型非晶硅薄膜、本征非晶硅薄膜、非晶硅薄膜、 透明导电过渡薄膜在凸棱对应区域向外凸起形成条状鼓包;
[0018] 第4步、在透明导电过渡薄膜表面淀积底电极,所述底电极与透明导电过渡薄膜的 接触面形成若千与所述凸棱一一对应的弧形反射面。
[0019] 本发明T型顶电极背反射薄膜太阳电池的制造工艺的进一步改进在于:
[0020] 1、所述第2步中,将开有若干长条形窗口的掩模覆盖于平板式透明顶电极表面,并 对掩模的窗口进行掺氟氧化锌或氧化铟硒的透明材料二次淀积,获得与透明顶电极材质相 同的凸棱,使顶电极局部形成T型结构。
[0021] 2、所述第1步中,在平板玻璃表面采用磁控溉射法制备掺氟氧化锌或氧化铟硒的 导电薄膜,形成透明顶电极;第2、第3步中,分别采用磁控溅射法制备掺氟氧化锌或氧化铟 硒的凸棱、透明导电过渡薄膜。
[0022] 3、第4步中、底电极是通过磁控溉射铝或银在透明导电过渡薄膜上形成导电的铝 薄膜或银薄膜。
[0023] 4、第3步中,所述p型非晶硅薄膜、本征非晶硅薄膜和N型非晶硅薄膜都采用等离子 化学增强气相沉积仪进行的淀积。
[0024] 本发明的薄膜太阳能电池与现有的薄膜太阳能电池相比,电池的顶电极具有T型 结构,其凸棱(可视为顶电极的一部分)深入薄膜内,提高电极对电流的收集能力;电极上后 续^积的薄膜材料在凸棱对应位置形成的弧形鼓包,增加了薄膜电池的面积,增加了电池 的受光面;最后淀积的金属底电极覆盖于弧形薄膜上,形成具有凹面镜结构的背反射面,增 加了电池对反射光的利用,从而提高了电池对光的吸收和利用,进一步提高电池的转换效 率。
[0〇25^本发明薄膜太阳能电池的制备工艺与现有薄膜电池生产工艺兼容,可利用现有设 备进行生产,仅仅在制备过程中增加了凸棱(可视为顶电极的一部分)的二次淀积步骤,在 几乎不额外增加成本的前提下,提高了电池性能。
附图说明 L〇〇26」 卜囱结合附图对本发明作进一步的说明。
[0027]图1是现有薄膜太阳电池结构示意图。
[0028]图2是本发明了型顶电极背反射薄膜太阳电池结构示意图。
[0029]图3是本发明电池与传统薄膜电池的光谱响应曲线对比图。
具体实施方式
[0030]下面结合附图和具体实施例对本发明做进一步说明。
[0031]产品实施例
[0032]如图2所示为本发明T型顶电极背反射薄膜太阳电池,从上至下包括依次连接的透 明顶电极1、P型非晶桂薄膜2、本征非晶硅薄膜6、N型非晶硅薄膜3、透明导电过渡薄膜8、底 电极4,本发明的改进之处在于透明顶电极丨的下表面制有与透明导电凸棱7,使顶电极局部 形成T型结构,凸棱7下方的P型非晶硅薄膜2、本征非晶硅薄膜6、N型非晶硅薄膜3、透明导电 过渡薄膜8下表面向下凸起形成条状鼓包,对应位置的底电极4与透明导电过渡薄膜的接触 面具有与凸棱7 对应的条状弧形反射面。本例中透明顶电极选用TC0玻璃(透明导电氧 化物镀膜玻璃),其导电薄膜和透明导电过渡薄膜8中掺有氟氧化锌(也可选择掺氧化铟 硒)。P型非晶桂薄膜、本征非晶硅薄膜、N型非晶硅薄膜、透明导电过渡薄膜的厚度均匀。其 中P型非晶硅薄膜中硼元素的掺杂浓度为1〇17〜l〇19/cm3的;本征非晶硅薄膜中无杂质掺杂, N型非晶硅薄膜中磷元素的掺杂浓度为⑽7〜10,cm3。
[0033] 本实施例中P型非晶硅薄膜的沉积厚度为:2〇〇mn,本征非晶硅薄膜的沉积厚度为: 700um,N型非晶硅薄膜的沉积厚度为:2〇〇nm,透明导电过渡薄膜的沉积厚度为4〇-50nm,凸 棱的尚度为l〇〇nm,宽度为200nm,间距为2 um。
[0034] 电池的P型非晶硅薄膜2、本征非晶硅薄膜5、N型非晶硅薄膜3三者结合,形成P-i-N 结,光线照射到P- i -N结表面产生电子空穴对,电子在电场作用下向电极移动,使电池产生 电能。
[0035]本发明电池的顶电极通过两次淀积形成T型结构。在此电极上淀积硅薄膜和底电 极后,形成了一个弧形的鼓包,使底电极形成了凹面镜结构的反射面,有利于对入射的阳光 进行汇聚,提高对光的利用。由于形成的T型电极的面积较大,所以在T型电极上形成的电池 的面积较大,所以电池的受光面更大。以上两个优点,提高了电池的光电转换效率。
[0036]对本实施例薄膜电池进行了光谱响应仿真试验,并与传统薄膜电池进行比较,该 试验的结果请参见图3,图中颜色较深的为本发明电池光谱响应曲线,颜色较浅的为传统薄 膜电池的光谱响应曲线。
[0037]实验结果表明,两种电池的光谱响应变化趋势相同,都是在300〜60〇11111波段随着 波长的增加而增加,到600nm以后光谱响应强度下降。而本发明电池则在整个太阳光谱区的 响应强度较普通非晶硅薄膜太阳能电池均有所增强。
[0038]通过对整个光谱响应的积分可以看出,本发明电池的光谱响应比普通非晶硅薄膜 太阳能电池增强约6%。这表明本发明电池中的T型电极可以有效的提高非晶硅薄膜电池的 光谱响应。这是因为本发明电池中的T型电极增大了电池受光面积,同时凹面镜型的底电极 可以实现对入射光的汇聚,提高电池对光的吸收,因此,仿真的所有波段的光谱响应都有所 增加,且效果较为明显。
[0039] 工艺实施例
[0040]本实施例T型顶电极背反射薄膜太阳电池的生产工艺,采用“倒装”的生产工艺,包 括如下步骤:
[0041]第1步、制备平板式透明顶电极:采用磁控溉射法在玻璃表面制备掺氟氧化锌导电 薄膜,获得平板式透明顶电极(本例中为TC0玻璃);
[0042]第2步、透明顶电极表面制备若干条状透明导电凸棱,该凸棱与透明顶电极形成T 型结构;本步骤中,将开有若干长条形窗口的掩模覆盖于平板式透明顶电极表面,并对掩模 的窗口进行掺氟氧化锌的透明材料二次淀积,获得与透明顶电极导电薄膜材质相同(导电 薄膜材质可以选用TC0、IT0等透明导电材料)的凸棱,使顶电极局部形成T型结构;本例中, 同样采用磁控派射法制备掺氟氧化锌的凸棱;
[0043]第3步、在透明顶电极表面逐次淀积厚度均匀的P型非晶硅薄膜、本征非晶硅薄膜、 N型非晶硅薄膜、透明导电过渡薄膜,使P型非晶硅薄膜、本征非晶硅薄膜、N型非晶硅薄膜、 透明导电过渡薄膜在凸棱对应区域向外凸起形成条状鼓包;其中,p型非晶硅薄膜、本征非 晶硅薄膜、和N型非晶硅薄膜、采用等离子化学增强气相沉积仪进行的淀积,淀积厚度依次 约为200nm、0.711111、20〇11111;?型非晶硅薄膜中硼元素的掺杂浓度为1〇17〜1〇19/(;1113小型非晶 硅薄膜中磷元素的掺杂浓度为1017〜1019/cm3;本例中透明导电过渡薄膜则通过磁控溅射法 进行淀积,淀积厚度约为40-50nm;
[OO44]第4步、在透明导电过渡薄膜表面淀积底电极,底电极与透明导电过渡薄膜的接触 面形成若干与凸棱一一对应的弧形反射面;本例中底电极是通过磁控溅射铝在透明导电过 渡薄膜上形成导电的铝薄膜。
[0045]可见,本发明制备工艺与现有薄膜电池生产工艺兼容,可利用现有设备进行生产, 仅仅在制备过程中增加了凸棱的二次淀积步骤,在几乎不额外增加成本的前提下,提高了 电池性能。
[0046]除上述实施例外,本发明还可以有其他实施方式。凡采用等同替换或等效变换形 成的技术方案,均落在本发明要求的保护范围。

Claims (5)

1. 一种T型顶电极背反射薄膜太阳电池的生产工艺,其特征在于包括如下步骤: 第1步、制备平板式透明顶电极; ’ 第2步、透明顶电极表面制备若干条状透明导电凸棱,该凸棱与透明顶电极形成T型结 构;所述凸棱的咼宽比为1:3〜I:2,凸棱之间互相平行,凸棱的间距范围为:l-2um,高度范 围为:100-300nm; 第3步、在透明顶电极表面逐次淀积厚度均匀的P型非晶硅薄膜、本征非晶硅薄膜、N型 非晶硅薄膜、透明导电过渡薄膜,使P型非晶硅薄膜、本征非晶硅薄膜、N型非晶硅薄膜、透明 导电过渡薄膜在凸棱对应区域向外凸起形成条状鼓包; 第4步、在透明导电过渡薄膜表面淀积底电极,所述底电极与透明导电过渡薄膜的接触 面形成若干与所述凸棱一一对应的弧形反射面。
2.根据权利要求1所述的T型顶电极背反射薄膜太阳电池的生产工艺,其特征在于:所 述第2步中,将开有若干长条形窗口的掩模覆盖于平板式透明顶电极表面,并对掩模的窗口 进行掺氟氧化锌或氧化铟硒的透明材料二次淀积,获得与透明顶电极材质相同的凸棱,使 顶电极局部形成T型结构。
3. 根据权利要求1所述的T型顶电极背反射薄膜太阳电池的生产工艺,其特征在于:所 述第1步中,在平板玻璃表面采用磁控溅射法制备掺氟氧化锌或氧化铟硒的导电薄膜,形成 透明顶电极;第2、第3步中,分别采用磁控溅射法制备掺氟氧化锌或氧化铟硒的凸棱、透明 导电过渡薄膜。
4. 根据权利要求1所述的T型顶电极背反射薄膜太阳电池的生产工艺,其特征在于:第4 步中,底电极是通过磁控灘射铝或银在透明导电过渡薄膜上形成导电的铝薄膜或银薄膜。
5. 根据权利要求4所述的T型顶电极背反射薄膜太阳电池的生产工艺,其特征在于:第3 步中,所述P型非晶硅薄膜、本征非晶硅薄膜和N型非晶硅薄膜都采用等离子化学增强气相 沉积仪进行的淀积。
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