CN107318551B - Seedling growing method of five-star loquats - Google Patents

Seedling growing method of five-star loquats Download PDF

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CN107318551B
CN107318551B CN201710471730.3A CN201710471730A CN107318551B CN 107318551 B CN107318551 B CN 107318551B CN 201710471730 A CN201710471730 A CN 201710471730A CN 107318551 B CN107318551 B CN 107318551B
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parts
cutting
fertilizer
dregs
star
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CN107318551A (en
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吴长国
伍朝友
吴洪凯
施永斌
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PUDING LYUYUAN SEEDLING INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT CO LTD
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PUDING LYUYUAN SEEDLING INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT CO LTD
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N41/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a sulfur atom bound to a hetero atom
    • A01N41/02Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a sulfur atom bound to a hetero atom containing a sulfur-to-oxygen double bond
    • A01N41/04Sulfonic acids; Derivatives thereof
    • A01N41/08Sulfonic acid halides; alpha-Hydroxy-sulfonic acids; Amino-sulfonic acids; Thiosulfonic acids; Derivatives thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N65/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing material from algae, lichens, bryophyta, multi-cellular fungi or plants, or extracts thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N65/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing material from algae, lichens, bryophyta, multi-cellular fungi or plants, or extracts thereof
    • A01N65/40Liliopsida [monocotyledons]
    • A01N65/42Aloeaceae [Aloe family] or Liliaceae [Lily family], e.g. aloe, veratrum, onion, garlic or chives
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B7/00Fertilisers based essentially on alkali or ammonium orthophosphates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05CNITROGENOUS FERTILISERS
    • C05C11/00Other nitrogenous fertilisers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05DINORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C; FERTILISERS PRODUCING CARBON DIOXIDE
    • C05D3/00Calcareous fertilisers
    • C05D3/02Calcareous fertilisers from limestone, calcium carbonate, calcium hydrate, slaked lime, calcium oxide, waste calcium products
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of seedling cultivation, and particularly relates to a seedling cultivation method of five-pointed star loquats; the method comprises the following steps: female parent treatment, cutting matrix, cutting and daily management; the seedling raising method forms a set of scientific and reasonable seedling raising management mode, can effectively promote the rooting of the cutting, is beneficial to the development of root system growth, promotes the growth of fibrous roots of the cutting, draws nutrients in the rooting process, regulates the content of endogenous hormones and the activity of important enzymes of plants, regulates the metabolic strength of the plants, and has high survival rate, less plant diseases and insect pests and good root system growth condition.

Description

Seedling growing method of five-star loquats
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of seedling cultivation, and particularly relates to a seedling cultivation method of five-star loquats.
Background
Loquat, another name: tangerine, golden pill and reed branch. The flower of the plant of the genus Eriobotrya of the family Rosaceae is named as the original loquat in southeast China because the shape of the leaf is similar to the musical instrument of lute, and can be used as a medicine. The tree is 3-5 m high, the leaves are large and long, thick and hairy, and in an oblong shape like a Chinese lute. Also called as luju, luzhi, jin wan, yanguo and jiao zi. Unlike most fruit trees, loquat flowers in autumn or early winter, and fruits ripen earlier from spring to early summer than other fruits, so it is called "the fruit tree with unique four seasons of qi". The flower of loquat is white or light yellow, has five petals, has a diameter of about 2cm, is bundled by five to ten flowers, and can be used as a honey source crop. The loquat has a relatively high nutritive value and is reflected in the following aspects: 1. the organic acid contained in the loquat can stimulate the secretion of digestive glands, and has the considerable effects of stimulating appetite, helping digestion and absorption, quenching thirst and relieving summer heat; 2. the loquat contains amygdalin, and can moisten lung, relieve cough, eliminate phlegm and treat various coughs; 3. the loquat fruits and leaves have the function of inhibiting influenza viruses, and can prevent the common cold in four seasons if people frequently eat the loquat fruits and leaves; 4. the loquat leaves can be dried to prepare tea leaves, has the effects of clearing heat and descending qi, harmonizing stomach and lowering adverse qi, is a good product for stopping vomit, and can treat various vomiting and hiccup. Moreover, the loquat also has a great food therapy effect, which is reflected in that: the fruit taste is sweet and sour, mild in nature, and capable of clearing lung-heat, promoting production of body fluid and quenching thirst; it has bitter taste and mild nature, and can eliminate phlegm and relieve cough, and is mainly used for treating lung heat, cough, chronic cough, dry throat, thirst and stomach-qi deficiency.
The loquat is a fruit with rich nutrition, moderate sweetness and more varieties of loquats, wherein the variety of large five stars has round and orange red fruits, rusty spots on the sunny side, large open sepals and five star shapes, is obviously distinguished from other loquat varieties (such as Longquan I) with closed sepals, has thick fruit pulp (1CM), soft and thick sweet meat, more juice, 13-15% of soluble solid content and 3-5 seeds, is mature in the Longquan region in the middle and late 5 months, belongs to the current domestic first-choice fresh food variety, but the leaf spot disease resistance of the variety is slightly poor, and the management and control of rich water diseases should be enhanced, in the aspect of loquat seedling culture, a large number of research reports exist, but the growth characteristics and the stress resistance of each variety are different, so the loquat seedling culture method under a large range is not necessarily suitable for each variety, and aims at the five-star loquats, from the research reports of related patents and documents at present, a great blank exists in the aspect of raising the seedlings of the five-star loquats at present.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a seedling raising method of five-star loquats to solve the technical problems.
The method is realized by the following technical scheme:
a seedling raising method of five-star loquats comprises the following steps:
(1) mother parent treatment: selecting five-pointed star loquats which are 5-6 years old, good in growth situation, free of mechanical damage and free of diseases and insect pests as female parents, replacing the fertilizer originally used by the female parents with a special fertilizer for the five-pointed star loquats one month before cuttage, selecting branches with 3-5 bud heads and stem thicknesses of 18-22 cm on the female parents as cutting slips, and spraying a control solution on the cutting slips and the periphery of the cutting slips every 3-5 days;
(2) cutting medium: is prepared by mixing humus soil, loess, peat and Chinese medicinal residue;
(3) cuttage: cutting the cutting slips, soaking the wounds in a rooting agent for 40-50 min, taking out the cutting slips, dipping the wounds of the cutting slips in a wrapping agent, and taking out the cutting slips for cutting;
(4) daily management: and (3) after the cuttage is finished, watering thoroughly, applying a special fertilizer for the five-star loquats for the gardens for 10-15 days, and spraying the functional liquid for the cuttings for once every 5-8 days.
The special fertilizer for the five-star loquat comprises the following raw materials in parts by weight: 35-45 parts of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, 2-4 parts of zinc sulfate, 1-2 parts of manganese sulfate, 1-2 parts of magnesium sulfate, 3-5 parts of salt, 0.8-1.2 parts of sodium selenate, 8-12 parts of bentonite, 5-8 parts of phosphogypsum, 15-25 parts of rapeseed dregs, 12-18 parts of vinasse, 8-12 parts of bagasse, 10-20 parts of edible fungus dregs, 10-20 parts of chicken manure, 12-18 parts of peanut shells, 6-8 parts of kelp dregs and 10-15 parts of cassava dregs.
The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer has the mass ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of 1: 0.4-0.5: 0.8 to 1.2.
The preparation method of the special fertilizer for the five-star loquat comprises the following steps:
(1) preparing an inorganic fertilizer: mixing nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, magnesium sulfate, salt, sodium selenate, bentonite and phosphogypsum, adding water which is 0.8-1.2 times of the amount of the mixture, heating to dissolve the mixture, cooling, dehydrating and drying to obtain inorganic fertilizer;
(2) preparing an organic fertilizer: mixing rapeseed dregs, vinasse, bagasse, edible fungus dregs, chicken manure, peanut shells, kelp dregs and cassava dregs, conveying the mixture to a fermentation chamber, fermenting for 4-5 days, and fishing out and drying to obtain an organic fertilizer;
(3) mixing materials: mixing the prepared organic fertilizer and the inorganic fertilizer, crushing, sieving and preparing into particles with the particle size of 0.1-0.2 mm by a granulator.
The fermentation is carried out at the temperature of 38-42 ℃ and the relative humidity of 35-40%.
The control solution is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 3-6 parts of rumex japonicus roots, 8-12 parts of tripterygium wilfordii, 8-12 parts of sedum lineare, 10-20 parts of corydalis ochracea, 5-8 parts of smoked beef, 6-9 parts of common knotweed herbs, 10-20 parts of omphalia, 3-5 parts of ethylicin and 2-4 parts of onion juice.
The control liquid is prepared by weighing and mixing rumex japonicus root, tripterygium wilfordii, herb of speedwell, corydalis ochracea, smoked beef, herb of Chinese knotweed and omphalia according to a formula, adding water with the mass being 2-3 times of that of the mixture, heating and decocting for 65-75 min, filtering, and mixing the filtrate with ethylicin and onion juice.
The cutting medium is prepared by mixing humus soil, loess, peat and Chinese medicine residues according to the weight ratio of 1.2-1.5: 2-2.5: 0.5-0.8: 0.2-0.4 by weight ratio.
The loess is 50-100 cm below the ground.
The rooting agent is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 2-4 parts of naphthylacetic acid, 8-12 parts of chitosan, 5-8 parts of No. 2 ABT rooting powder, 6-9 parts of pine needle powder, 6-9 parts of Chinese violet powder, 4-8 parts of cowherb seed powder, 2-4 parts of honey, 1-3 parts of tryptophan, 8-12 parts of seabuckthorn dung powder and 30-40 parts of glucose solution with the content of 20-30%.
The wrapping agent is one of plant ash, yellow muddy water and tea residue powder.
The functional liquid is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 30-40% of a glucose solution with the content of 40%, 8-12% of urea, 6-9% of monopotassium phosphate, 2-4% of plant ash water extract, 0.8-1.2% of salt, 1-2% of honey, 1-2% of VC1, 1-3% of sesame oil, 3-6% of lime water solution with the content of 10%, 3-6% of hydrogen peroxide with the concentration of 10%, and 10-20% of Japanese raspberry water extract.
In conclusion, the beneficial effects of the invention are as follows: through the steps of female parent treatment, cutting matrix, cutting and daily management, a set of scientific and reasonable seedling raising management mode is formed, the rooting of the cutting slips can be effectively promoted, the development of root system growth is facilitated, the growth of the fibrous roots of the cutting slips is promoted, nutrients are drawn in the rooting process, the content of endogenous hormones and the activity of important enzymes of plants are regulated and controlled, the metabolic strength of the plants is regulated, the survival rate is high, the plant diseases and insect pests are few, and the growth condition of the root system is good.
Particularly, the method applies special fertilizer to the cutting female parent and sprays the disease and pest control liquid, so that the growth of the female parent is met, the risk of damage of the female parent by disease and pest is reduced to the maximum extent, the healthy and safe growth of the female parent is ensured, the quality of the cutting is ensured, and the morbidity of the cutting and the survival rate after cutting are further reduced; cutting the cutting, soaking by a rooting agent, effectively activating plant cells, facilitating cell differentiation, regulating and controlling the content of endogenous hormones and the activity of important enzymes in plants, promoting the developed growth of the root system of the cutting, improving the stress resistance of the cutting, improving the survival rate of the cutting, protecting cuts, avoiding infection of pathogenic bacteria, promoting wound healing, improving the survival rate and reducing the seedling raising cost; in addition, the cutting medium prepared by mixing humus soil, loess, peat and Chinese herb residues according to a certain proportion has rich nutrition, on one hand, the oxygen content in soil can be increased, the air permeability of the soil is improved, and a good living environment is provided for the development of seedling root systems, on the other hand, the Chinese herb residues are added in the base bed, so that the fertility of the soil can be improved by using substances such as minerals, vitamins and the like in the Chinese herb residues, the nutritional requirements of the cutting slips are enriched, and the pesticide effect of the Chinese herb residues can be utilized to kill insect eggs, provide a safe and harmless growth environment for the root systems, and effectively promote the extension development of the root systems of the cutting slips, in addition, after cutting, the cutting slips are scientifically managed, the cutting medium comprises spraying functional liquid, on the one hand, the nutritional requirements of the cutting slips at the later stage can be met, meanwhile, the invasion of later-stage plant diseases and insect pests to the cutting slips can be reduced, the growth of seedling root hairs is improved, a large-scale seedling system can be effectively formed through a scientific and reasonable cultivation management mode, and the economic and practical value of the five-star loquat is realized to the maximum extent.
Detailed Description
The following is a detailed description of the embodiments of the present invention, but the present invention is not limited to these embodiments, and any modifications or substitutions in the basic spirit of the embodiments are included in the scope of the present invention as claimed in the claims.
Example 1
A seedling raising method of five-star loquats comprises the following steps:
(1) mother parent treatment: selecting five-pointed star loquats which are 5-6 years old, good in growth situation, free of mechanical damage and free of diseases and insect pests as female parents, replacing the fertilizer originally used by the female parents with a special fertilizer for the five-pointed star loquats one month before cuttage, selecting branches with 3-5 bud heads and stem thicknesses of 18-22 cm on the female parents as cutting slips, and spraying a control solution on the cutting slips and the periphery of the cutting slips every 3-5 days;
the control solution is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 3kg of rumex japonicus root, 8kg of tripterygium wilfordii, 8kg of sedum sibiricum, 10kg of corydalis ochracea, 5kg of smoked beef, 6kg of herb of Chinese knotweed, 10kg of omphalia, 3kg of ethylicin and 2kg of onion juice;
(2) cutting medium: humus soil, loess, peat and Chinese medicine dregs are mixed according to the proportion of 1.2: 2: 0.5: 0.2 weight ratio;
(3) cuttage: cutting the cutting slips, soaking the wounds in a rooting agent for 40-50 min, taking out the cutting slips, dipping the wounds of the cutting slips in plant ash, and taking out the cutting slips for cutting;
the rooting agent is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 2kg of naphthylacetic acid, 8kg of chitosan, 5kg of No. 2 ABT rooting powder, 6kg of pine needle powder, 6kg of Chinese violet powder, 4kg of cowherb seed powder, 2kg of honey, 1kg of tryptophan, 8kg of seabuckthorn powder and 30kg of glucose solution with the content of 20%;
(4) daily management: after cutting, watering thoroughly, applying a special fertilizer for the five-star loquat for 10-15 days to the garden, and spraying a functional liquid to the cutting shoots every 5-8 days;
the functional liquid is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 30kg of 40% glucose solution, 8kg of urea, 6kg of monopotassium phosphate, 2kg of plant ash water extract, 0.8kg of salt, 1kg of honey, VC1kg, 1kg of sesame oil, 3kg of 10% lime water solution, 3kg of 10% hydrogen peroxide and 10kg of cayratia japonica water decoction;
the special fertilizer for the five-star loquat comprises the following raw materials in parts by weight: 35kg of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, 2kg of zinc sulfate, 1kg of manganese sulfate, 1kg of magnesium sulfate, 3kg of salt, 0.8kg of sodium selenate, 8kg of bentonite, 5kg of phosphogypsum, 15kg of rapeseed dregs, 12kg of vinasse, 8kg of bagasse, 10kg of edible fungus residues, 10kg of chicken manure, 12kg of peanut shells, 6kg of kelp residues and 10kg of cassava residues;
the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer has the mass ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of 1: 0.4: 0.8.
the preparation method of the special fertilizer for the five-star loquat comprises the following steps:
(1) preparing an inorganic fertilizer: mixing nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, magnesium sulfate, salt, sodium selenate, bentonite and phosphogypsum, adding water which is 0.8-1.2 times of the amount of the mixture, heating to dissolve the mixture, cooling, dehydrating and drying to obtain inorganic fertilizer;
(2) preparing an organic fertilizer: mixing rapeseed dregs, vinasse, bagasse, edible fungus dregs, chicken manure, peanut shells, kelp dregs and cassava dregs, conveying the mixture to a fermentation chamber, fermenting for 4-5 days, and fishing out and drying to obtain an organic fertilizer;
(3) mixing materials: mixing the prepared organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer, pulverizing, sieving, and granulating with granulator to obtain granule with particle diameter of 0.1 mm.
Example 2
A seedling raising method of five-star loquats comprises the following steps:
(1) mother parent treatment: selecting five-pointed star loquats which are 5-6 years old, good in growth situation, free of mechanical damage and free of diseases and insect pests as female parents, replacing the fertilizer originally used by the female parents with a special fertilizer for the five-pointed star loquats one month before cuttage, selecting branches with 3-5 bud heads and stem thicknesses of 18-22 cm on the female parents as cutting slips, and spraying a control solution on the cutting slips and the periphery of the cutting slips every 3-5 days;
the control solution is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 6kg of rumex japonicus root, 12kg of tripterygium wilfordii, 12kg of sedum sibiricum, 20kg of corydalis ochracea, 8kg of smoked beef, 9kg of herb of common knotweed, 20kg of omphalia, 5kg of ethylicin and 4kg of onion juice;
(2) cutting medium: humus soil, loess, peat and Chinese medicine dregs are mixed according to the proportion of 1.5: 2.5: 0.8: 0.4 by weight ratio;
(3) cuttage: cutting the cutting slips, soaking the wounds in a rooting agent for 40-50 min, taking out the cutting slips, dipping the wounds of the cutting slips in yellow muddy water, and taking out the cutting slips for cutting;
the rooting agent is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 4kg of naphthylacetic acid, 12kg of chitosan, 8kg of No. 2 ABT rooting powder, 9kg of pine needle powder, 9kg of Chinese violet powder, 8kg of cowherb seed powder, 4kg of honey, 3kg of tryptophan, 12kg of seabuckthorn powder and 40kg of glucose solution with the content of 30%;
(4) daily management: after cutting, watering thoroughly, applying a special fertilizer for the five-star loquat for 10-15 days to the garden, and spraying a functional liquid to the cutting shoots every 5-8 days;
the functional liquid is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 40kg of 40% glucose solution, 12kg of urea, 9kg of monopotassium phosphate, 4kg of plant ash water extract, 1.2kg of salt, 2kg of honey, VC2kg, 3kg of sesame oil, 6kg of 10% lime water solution, 6kg of 10% hydrogen peroxide and 20kg of cayratia japonica water decoction;
the special fertilizer for the five-star loquat comprises the following raw materials in parts by weight: 45kg of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, 4kg of zinc sulfate, 2kg of manganese sulfate, 2kg of magnesium sulfate, 5kg of salt, 1.2kg of sodium selenate, 12kg of bentonite, 8kg of phosphogypsum, 25kg of rapeseed meal, 18kg of vinasse, 12kg of bagasse, 20kg of edible fungus residues, 20kg of chicken manure, 18kg of peanut shell, 8kg of kelp residues and 15kg of cassava residues.
The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer has the mass ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of 1: 0.5: 1.2.
the preparation method of the special fertilizer for the five-star loquat comprises the following steps:
(1) preparing an inorganic fertilizer: mixing nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, magnesium sulfate, salt, sodium selenate, bentonite and phosphogypsum, adding water which is 0.8-1.2 times of the amount of the mixture, heating to dissolve the mixture, cooling, dehydrating and drying to obtain inorganic fertilizer;
(2) preparing an organic fertilizer: mixing rapeseed dregs, vinasse, bagasse, edible fungus dregs, chicken manure, peanut shells, kelp dregs and cassava dregs, conveying the mixture to a fermentation chamber, fermenting for 4-5 days, and fishing out and drying to obtain an organic fertilizer;
(3) mixing materials: mixing the prepared organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer, pulverizing, sieving, and granulating with granulator to obtain granule with particle diameter of 0.2 mm.
Example 3
A seedling raising method of five-star loquats comprises the following steps:
(1) mother parent treatment: selecting five-pointed star loquats which are 5-6 years old, good in growth situation, free of mechanical damage and free of diseases and insect pests as female parents, replacing the fertilizer originally used by the female parents with a special fertilizer for the five-pointed star loquats one month before cuttage, selecting branches with 3-5 bud heads and stem thicknesses of 18-22 cm on the female parents as cutting slips, and spraying a control solution on the cutting slips and the periphery of the cutting slips every 3-5 days;
the control solution is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 5kg of rumex japonicus roots, 10kg of tripterygium wilfordii, 10kg of sedum lineare, 15kg of corydalis citrina, 7kg of smoked beef, 8kg of Chinese knotweed herbs, 15kg of omphalia, 4kg of ethylicin and 3kg of onion juice;
(2) cutting medium: humus soil, loess, peat and Chinese medicine dregs are mixed according to the proportion of 1.3: 2.2: 0.7: 0.3 weight ratio;
(3) cuttage: cutting the cutting slips, soaking the wounds in a rooting agent for 40-50 min, taking out the cutting slips, dipping the wounds of the cutting slips in tea leaf residue powder, and taking out the cutting slips for cutting;
the rooting agent is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 3kg of naphthylacetic acid, 10kg of chitosan, 7kg of No. 2 ABT rooting powder, 8kg of pine needle powder, 8kg of Chinese violet powder, 6kg of cowherb seed powder, 3kg of honey, 2kg of tryptophan, 10kg of seabuckthorn powder and 35kg of 25% glucose solution;
(4) daily management: after cutting, watering thoroughly, applying a special fertilizer for the five-star loquat for 10-15 days to the garden, and spraying a functional liquid to the cutting shoots every 5-8 days;
the functional liquid is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 35kg of 40% glucose solution, 10kg of urea, 8kg of monopotassium phosphate, 3kg of plant ash water extract, 1kg of salt, 1.5kg of honey, 1.5kg of VC1, 2kg of sesame oil, 5kg of 10% lime water solution, 4kg of 10% hydrogen peroxide and 15kg of cayratia japonica water decoction;
the special fertilizer for the five-star loquat comprises the following raw materials in parts by weight: 40kg of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, 3kg of zinc sulfate, 1.5kg of manganese sulfate, 1.5kg of magnesium sulfate, 4kg of salt, 1kg of sodium selenate, 10kg of bentonite, 7kg of phosphogypsum, 20kg of rapeseed dregs, 15kg of vinasse, 10kg of bagasse, 15kg of edible fungus residues, 15kg of chicken manure, 15kg of peanut shells, 7kg of kelp residues and 13kg of cassava residues.
The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer has the mass ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of 1: 0.45: 1.
the preparation method of the special fertilizer for the five-star loquat comprises the following steps:
(1) preparing an inorganic fertilizer: mixing nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, magnesium sulfate, salt, sodium selenate, bentonite and phosphogypsum, adding water which is 1 time of the mixture, heating to dissolve the mixture, cooling, dehydrating and drying to obtain inorganic fertilizer;
(2) preparing an organic fertilizer: mixing rapeseed dregs, vinasse, bagasse, edible fungus dregs, chicken manure, peanut shells, kelp dregs and cassava dregs, conveying the mixture to a fermentation chamber, fermenting for 4-5 days, and fishing out and drying to obtain an organic fertilizer;
(3) mixing materials: mixing the prepared organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer, pulverizing, sieving, and granulating with granulator to obtain granule with particle diameter of 0.15 mm.
Example 4
A seedling raising method of five-star loquats comprises the following steps:
(1) mother parent treatment: selecting five-pointed star loquats which are 5-6 years old, good in growth situation, free of mechanical damage and free of diseases and insect pests as female parents, replacing the fertilizer originally used by the female parents with a special fertilizer for the five-pointed star loquats one month before cuttage, selecting branches with 3-5 bud heads and stem thicknesses of 18-22 cm on the female parents as cutting slips, and spraying a control solution on the cutting slips and the periphery of the cutting slips every 3-5 days;
the control solution is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 3kg of rumex japonicus roots, 12kg of tripterygium wilfordii, 8kg of sedum sarmentosum, 20kg of corydalis ochracea, 5kg of smoked beef, 9kg of herb of Chinese knotweed, 10kg of omphalia, 5kg of ethylicin and 2kg of onion juice;
(2) cutting medium: humus soil, loess, peat and Chinese medicine dregs are mixed according to the proportion of 1.2: 2.5: 0.5: 0.4 by weight ratio;
(3) cuttage: cutting the cutting slips, soaking the wounds in a rooting agent for 40-50 min, taking out the cutting slips, dipping the wounds of the cutting slips in yellow muddy water, and taking out the cutting slips for cutting;
the rooting agent is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 2kg of naphthylacetic acid, 12kg of chitosan, 5kg of No. 2 ABT rooting powder, 9kg of pine needle powder, 6kg of Chinese violet powder, 8kg of cowherb seed powder, 2kg of honey, 3kg of tryptophan, 8kg of seabuckthorn powder and 30kg of glucose solution with the content of 30%;
(4) daily management: after cutting, watering thoroughly, applying a special fertilizer for the five-star loquat for 10-15 days to the garden, and spraying a functional liquid to the cutting shoots every 5-8 days;
the functional liquid is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 30kg of 40% glucose solution, 12kg of urea, 6kg of monopotassium phosphate, 4kg of plant ash water extract, 0.8kg of salt, 2kg of honey, VC1kg, 3kg of sesame oil, 3kg of 10% lime water solution, 6kg of 10% hydrogen peroxide and 10kg of cayratia japonica water decoction;
the special fertilizer for the five-star loquat comprises the following raw materials in parts by weight: 35kg of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, 4kg of zinc sulfate, 1kg of manganese sulfate, 2kg of magnesium sulfate, 3kg of salt, 1.2kg of sodium selenate, 8kg of bentonite, 8kg of phosphogypsum, 15kg of rapeseed meal, 18kg of vinasse, 8kg of bagasse, 20kg of edible fungus residues, 10kg of chicken manure, 18kg of peanut shell, 6kg of kelp residues and 15kg of cassava residues.
The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer has the mass ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of 1: 0.4: 1.2.
the preparation method of the special fertilizer for the five-star loquat comprises the following steps:
(1) preparing an inorganic fertilizer: mixing nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, magnesium sulfate, salt, sodium selenate, bentonite and phosphogypsum, adding water which is 1.2 times of the mixture, heating to dissolve the mixture, cooling, dehydrating and drying to obtain inorganic fertilizer;
(2) preparing an organic fertilizer: mixing rapeseed dregs, vinasse, bagasse, edible fungus dregs, chicken manure, peanut shells, kelp dregs and cassava dregs, conveying the mixture to a fermentation chamber, fermenting for 4-5 days, and fishing out and drying to obtain an organic fertilizer;
(3) mixing materials: mixing the prepared organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer, pulverizing, sieving, and granulating with granulator to obtain granule with particle diameter of 0.1 mm.
Example 5
A seedling raising method of five-star loquats comprises the following steps:
(1) mother parent treatment: selecting five-pointed star loquats which are 5-6 years old, good in growth situation, free of mechanical damage and free of diseases and insect pests as female parents, replacing the fertilizer originally used by the female parents with a special fertilizer for the five-pointed star loquats one month before cuttage, selecting branches with 3-5 bud heads and stem thicknesses of 18-22 cm on the female parents as cutting slips, and spraying a control solution on the cutting slips and the periphery of the cutting slips every 3-5 days;
the control solution is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 3kg of rumex japonicus roots, 8kg of tripterygium wilfordii, 12kg of sedum sibiricum, 20kg of corydalis ochracea, 5kg of smoked beef, 6kg of herb of common knotweed, 20kg of omphalia, 5kg of ethylicin and 2kg of onion juice;
(2) cutting medium: humus soil, loess, peat and Chinese medicine dregs are mixed according to the proportion of 1.2: 2.5: 0.8: 0.2 weight ratio;
(3) cuttage: cutting the cutting slips, soaking the wounds in a rooting agent for 40-50 min, taking out the cutting slips, dipping the wounds of the cutting slips in tea leaf residue powder, and taking out the cutting slips for cutting;
the rooting agent is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 2kg of naphthylacetic acid, 8kg of chitosan, 8kg of No. 2 ABT rooting powder, 9kg of pine needle powder, 6kg of Chinese violet powder, 4kg of cowherb seed powder, 4kg of honey, 3kg of tryptophan, 8kg of seabuckthorn powder and 30kg of glucose solution with the content of 30%;
(4) daily management: after cutting, watering thoroughly, applying a special fertilizer for the five-star loquat for 10-15 days to the garden, and spraying a functional liquid to the cutting shoots every 5-8 days;
the functional liquid is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 30kg of 40% glucose solution, 8kg of urea, 9kg of monopotassium phosphate, 4kg of plant ash water extract, 0.8kg of salt, 1kg of honey, VC2kg, 3kg of sesame oil, 3kg of 10% lime water solution, 3kg of 10% hydrogen peroxide and 20kg of cayratia japonica water decoction;
the special fertilizer for the five-star loquat comprises the following raw materials in parts by weight: 45kg of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, 2kg of zinc sulfate, 1kg of manganese sulfate, 2kg of magnesium sulfate, 5kg of salt, 0.8kg of sodium selenate, 8kg of bentonite, 8kg of phosphogypsum, 25kg of rapeseed meal, 12kg of vinasse, 8kg of bagasse, 20kg of edible fungus residues, 20kg of chicken manure, 12kg of peanut shells, 6kg of kelp residues and 15kg of cassava residues.
The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer has the mass ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of 1: 0.5: 1.2.
the preparation method of the special fertilizer for the five-star loquat comprises the following steps:
(1) preparing an inorganic fertilizer: mixing nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, magnesium sulfate, salt, sodium selenate, bentonite and phosphogypsum, adding water which is 0.8 times of the mixture, heating to dissolve the mixture, cooling, dehydrating and drying to obtain inorganic fertilizer;
(2) preparing an organic fertilizer: mixing rapeseed dregs, vinasse, bagasse, edible fungus dregs, chicken manure, peanut shells, kelp dregs and cassava dregs, conveying the mixture to a fermentation chamber, fermenting for 4-5 days, and fishing out and drying to obtain an organic fertilizer;
(3) mixing materials: mixing the prepared organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer, pulverizing, sieving, and granulating with granulator to obtain granule with particle diameter of 0.15 mm.
The field test is respectively carried out on any piece of planting soil of the Baba street in the city town of Pudingcounty in Anshun city, Guizhou province;
the difference is that the first five experiments are respectively carried out by adopting the seedling raising method of the embodiment 1-5 of the invention for seedling raising, the sixth experiment is carried out by adopting the method disclosed in the application No. 201610716652.4 'A method for rapidly raising loquat seedlings' as a contrast, the survival rate and the morbidity of the cutting seedlings and the acre yield of the five-star loquat are respectively counted in the same harvesting time, and the results are shown in table 1:
table 1:
item Survival rate% The incidence of disease% Average yield per mu kg
Example 1 98.9 9.88 1968.5
Example 2 98.5 0.95 1972.1
Example 3 99.3 0.85 2026.3
Example 4 99.2 0.93 1980.8
Example 5 98.8 0.89 1975.4
Control group 98.6 1.18 1812.5

Claims (3)

1. A seedling raising method of five-star loquats is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) mother parent treatment: selecting five-pointed star loquats which are 5-6 years old, good in growth situation, free of mechanical damage and free of diseases and insect pests as female parents, replacing the fertilizer originally used by the female parents with a special fertilizer for the five-pointed star loquats one month before cuttage, selecting branches with 3-5 bud heads and stem thicknesses of 18-22 cm on the female parents as cutting slips, and spraying a control solution on the cutting slips and the periphery of the cutting slips every 3-5 days; the special fertilizer for the five-star loquat comprises the following raw materials in parts by weight: 35-45 parts of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, 2-4 parts of zinc sulfate, 1-2 parts of manganese sulfate, 1-2 parts of magnesium sulfate, 3-5 parts of salt, 0.8-1.2 parts of sodium selenate, 8-12 parts of bentonite, 5-8 parts of phosphogypsum, 15-25 parts of rapeseed dregs, 12-18 parts of vinasse, 8-12 parts of bagasse, 10-20 parts of edible fungus dregs, 10-20 parts of chicken manure, 12-18 parts of peanut shells, 6-8 parts of kelp dregs and 10-15 parts of cassava dregs; the control solution is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 3-6 parts of rumex japonicus roots, 8-12 parts of tripterygium wilfordii, 8-12 parts of sedum lineare, 10-20 parts of corydalis ochracea, 5-8 parts of smoked beef, 6-9 parts of Chinese knotweed herbs, 10-20 parts of omphalia, 3-5 parts of ethylicin and 2-4 parts of onion juice;
(2) cutting medium: humus soil, loess, peat and Chinese medicine residues are mixed according to the weight ratio of 1.2-1.5: 2-2.5: 0.5-0.8: 0.2-0.4 by weight ratio;
(3) cuttage: cutting the cutting slips, soaking the wounds in a rooting agent for 40-50 min, taking out the cutting slips, dipping the wounds of the cutting slips in a wrapping agent, and taking out the cutting slips for cutting; the wrapping agent is one of plant ash, yellow muddy water and tea residue powder; the rooting agent is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 2-4 parts of naphthylacetic acid, 8-12 parts of chitosan, 5-8 parts of No. 2 ABT rooting powder, 6-9 parts of pine needle powder, 6-9 parts of Chinese violet powder, 4-8 parts of cowherb seed powder, 2-4 parts of honey, 1-3 parts of tryptophan, 8-12 parts of seabuckthorn dung powder and 30-40 parts of glucose solution with the content of 20-30%;
(4) daily management: after cutting, watering thoroughly, applying a special fertilizer for the five-star loquat for 10-15 days to the garden, and spraying a functional liquid to the cutting shoots every 5-8 days; the functional liquid is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 30-40% of a glucose solution with the content of 40%, 8-12% of urea, 6-9% of monopotassium phosphate, 2-4% of plant ash water extract, 0.8-1.2% of salt, 1-2% of honey, 1-2% of VC1, 1-3% of sesame oil, 3-6% of lime water solution with the content of 10%, 3-6% of hydrogen peroxide with the concentration of 10%, and 10-20% of Japanese raspberry water extract.
2. The loquat seedling raising method according to claim 1, wherein the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer has a mass ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of 1: 0.4-0.5: 0.8 to 1.2.
3. The method for growing seedlings of loquat ofume of claim 1, wherein the fertilizer specially used for loquat of wuxing comprises the following steps:
(1) preparing an inorganic fertilizer: mixing nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, magnesium sulfate, salt, sodium selenate, bentonite and phosphogypsum, adding water which is 0.8-1.2 times of the amount of the mixture, heating to dissolve the mixture, cooling, dehydrating and drying to obtain inorganic fertilizer;
(2) preparing an organic fertilizer: mixing rapeseed dregs, vinasse, bagasse, edible fungus dregs, chicken manure, peanut shells, kelp dregs and cassava dregs, conveying the mixture to a fermentation chamber, fermenting for 4-5 days, and fishing out and drying to obtain an organic fertilizer;
(3) mixing materials: mixing the prepared organic fertilizer and the inorganic fertilizer, crushing, sieving and preparing into particles with the particle size of 0.1-0.2 mm by a granulator.
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