CN107215223B - Fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle system - Google Patents

Fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107215223B
CN107215223B CN201710381552.5A CN201710381552A CN107215223B CN 107215223 B CN107215223 B CN 107215223B CN 201710381552 A CN201710381552 A CN 201710381552A CN 107215223 B CN107215223 B CN 107215223B
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fuel cell
storage battery
power
inductor
diode
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CN107215223A (en
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唐棣
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唐棣
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Priority to CN201510586584.XA priority patent/CN105059133B/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L58/00Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles
    • B60L58/10Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries
    • B60L58/12Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries responding to state of charge [SoC]
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L50/00Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle
    • B60L50/50Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L58/00Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles
    • B60L58/40Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for controlling a combination of batteries and fuel cells
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/40Drive Train control parameters
    • B60L2240/54Drive Train control parameters related to batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/40Application of hydrogen technology to transportation, e.g. using fuel cells

Abstract

The invention discloses a hybrid power automobile system, which comprises a fuel cell pack, an independent step-up inverter, a storage battery pack and a motor, wherein the fuel cell pack is used as an input power supply of the independent step-up inverter, the independent step-up inverter is connected with the storage battery pack and finally connected to the motor, and the fuel cell hybrid power automobile system can reduce the system cost, simplify the system structure, improve the system reliability and prolong the service life.

Description

Fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle system
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of new energy hybrid electric vehicles, relates to a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle system, and belongs to the classification field of B60W or B60K on the international classification chart. The present application is a division of 201510586584X (a fuel cell hybrid vehicle system).
Background
The fuel cell is used for driving vehicles, and provides an effective solution for energy problems and environmental pollution problems. The pure fuel cell vehicle only has one power source of the fuel cell, and all power loads of the vehicle are provided by the fuel cell, and the pure fuel cell vehicle has the defects of (1) high power and high cost: (2) high requirements are put on the dynamic property and the reliability of the fuel cell system; (3) braking energy recovery cannot be performed. The characteristics of the fuel cell determine that it is best to operate in a constant power region to prolong its service life and improve efficiency, however, the power of the driving motor is varied, so in order to balance the two power and absorb braking feedback energy, the current fuel cell vehicle adopts a hybrid driving form, i.e., a fuel cell-based vehicle is added with a battery or super capacitor as another power source, including a combination of "fuel cell + battery" (FC + B), "fuel cell + super capacitor" (FC + C) and "FC + B + C". The FC + B System architecture diagram As shown in FIG. 1, the combination of FC + B reduces the power and dynamic performance requirements of the fuel cell while reducing cost, but increasing the weight, volume and complexity of the drive system. The basic components of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle include a fuel cell stack, a battery pack, a power converter, and a traction motor. The fuel cell is used as a main power source, the storage battery is used as an auxiliary power source, the power required by the vehicle is mainly provided by the fuel cell, the storage battery only provides power when the vehicle is started, climbs a slope or accelerated, and the braking energy is recovered when the vehicle is braked.
There are four modes of operation for the FC + B system, as shown in FIGS. 2(a), (B), (c), and (d), respectively. Mode a: when the vehicle runs normally, power flows from the fuel cell to the motor, and if the charge of the storage battery is low, the fuel cell also provides power for the storage battery; mode b: when the fuel cell is started, climbed or accelerated, power flows to the motor from the fuel cell and the storage battery, the storage battery can improve response time, improve dynamic performance and simultaneously ensure that the fuel cell works in a safe and efficient state; and a mode c: when the vehicle runs at a low speed, if the fuel cell supplies power to the motor, the efficiency is low, so that the storage battery supplies power to the motor, and if the charge of the storage battery is low, the fuel cell supplies power to the storage battery; mode d: when the vehicle is in a downhill or braking state, the motor outputs electric power to the storage battery, and the fuel cell supplies power to the storage battery only when the charge capacity of the storage battery is low.
Conventional voltage source inverters suffer from the following disadvantages: the DC/AC power conversion circuit belongs to a step-down conversion circuit, and needs an additional DC/DC step-up converter on the occasions of DC/AC power conversion with lower direct-current voltage and higher alternating-current output voltage; the upper and lower devices of each bridge arm cannot be conducted simultaneously, and the problem of through connection caused by false triggering caused by electromagnetic interference is the main killer of the reliability of the converter. Because the output voltage of the fuel cell is lower than the power bus voltage of the electric automobile, and the characteristic is softer, namely, the voltage drop amplitude is larger along with the increase of the output current, and the power is also larger along with the change of the output current. Therefore, if the traditional voltage source inverter is directly adopted, the direct current voltage is generally determined by the output voltage of the fuel cell, so that the rotating speed range of the constant torque output of the driving motor is determined by the voltage of the battery, and further the speed is increased, the constant power range is entered, and the acceleration capability of the vehicle is reduced; on the other hand, the fuel cell output voltage decreases as the current increases, and the high-speed drivability of the motor will further decrease. Therefore, a first-stage boost converter is usually added at the front stage to boost and regulate the direct-current voltage, so that the control performance of the vehicle is effectively improved; while a one-level bidirectional DC-DC converter is used to control the charge of the battery, as shown in fig. 3. Such approaches increase the cost and control complexity of the system, reduce conversion efficiency, and do not address the problems presented in conventional voltage source inverters described above.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a control system of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle based on a single-stage step-up inverter, which can reduce the system cost, simplify the system structure, improve the system reliability and prolong the service life and overcome the defects in the prior art.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
the invention relates to a fuel cell hybrid power automobile system, which comprises a fuel cell set, an independent step-up inverter, a storage battery set and a motor, wherein the fuel cell set is used as an input power supply of the independent step-up inverter, the independent step-up inverter is connected with the storage battery set and is finally connected to the motor, the independent step-up inverter comprises a coupling inductor tightly coupled with a primary side winding and a secondary side winding, an excitation inductor is connected in parallel with two ends of a primary side winding of the coupling inductor, the dotted end of the primary side winding of the coupling inductor is connected with a leakage inductor and one end of an excitation inductor, the other end of the leakage inductor is respectively connected with a cathode of a blocking diode, a cathode of a second diode, an anode of a third diode and one end of a first capacitor, the other end of the excitation inductor is connected with an anode of a fourth diode, the anode of the blocking diode is connected with a positive pole of a power supply, and, the other end of the secondary winding is respectively connected with the cathode of the fourth diode and the positive end of the direct current bus of the inverter bridge, the second capacitor is connected with the storage battery in parallel, one end of the second capacitor is connected with the positive end of the direct current bus, the other end of the second capacitor is respectively connected with the negative electrode of the power supply and the anode of the second diode, the other end of the first capacitor is respectively connected with the negative end of the direct current bus of the inverter bridge and one end of the inductor, the other end of the inductor is connected with the negative electrode of the power supply, and the output of the inverter bridge is connected with the.
Preferably, the first capacitor and the second capacitor are both polar capacitors.
Has the advantages that: the invention has the advantages that: (1) the traditional voltage source type inverter only has one control variable, and the output alternating voltage is regulated by controlling a modulation ratio (m); the single-stage step-up inverter has two control variables, and can control alternating-current voltage output to the motor, adjust the charge quantity of the storage battery and control the output power of the fuel cell by adjusting the direct duty ratio (D0) and the modulation ratio (m). It should be noted that the "through zero vector" state refers to the state that the upper and lower switching tubes of the three-phase inverter bridge are through, because the direct zero vector is injected into the conventional zero vector, and the effect of the through zero vector and the conventional zero vector on the load is equivalent, the direct zero vector has no influence on the alternating current output voltage of the inverter, the action time of the through zero vector is adjusted, the controllable promotion of the direct current bus voltage (Vb) on the input side of the inverter can be realized, and the expected alternating current voltage is output by inversion. (2) By adjusting the turn ratio of the coupling inductor (N-N2/N1) and the duty ratio of the direct zero vector (D0), the single-stage boost inverter can provide larger boost capacity, improve and stabilize the bus voltage, obtain improved inverter voltage, simplify the system structure and reduce the system cost compared with the traditional scheme of adding a DC-DC converter. (3) The single-stage boost inverter uses a 'direct zero vector' state, avoids the problem of device damage caused by false triggering caused by electromagnetic interference, and improves the reliability of the system.
Drawings
FIG. 1 shows a block diagram of a "fuel cell + battery" system;
FIG. 2 shows the operating mode of the "fuel cell + battery" system;
FIG. 3 shows a block diagram of a system with a bidirectional converter;
fig. 4 shows a block diagram of a system employing a single-stage step-up inverter according to the present invention.
Detailed Description
As shown in fig. 4, the single step-up inverter control system for a fuel cell hybrid vehicle according to the present invention includes a fuel cell stack, a single step-up inverter, a battery pack, and a motor. The fuel cell set is used as an input power Vin of an independent step-up inverter, and the independent step-up inverter is connected with a storage battery set (Bat) and finally connected to a motor. A coupling inductor with the primary and secondary windings N1, N2 tightly coupled and N1 < N2 (turn ratio N1/N2 < 1), the equivalent model is the parallel connection of an ideal transformer and an excitation inductor Lm, and then the coupling inductor is connected in series with a leakage inductor Lk, the other end of the leakage inductor Lk is connected with the cathode of a blocking diode D1, and simultaneously connected with the cathode of a second diode D2, the anode of a third diode D3 and one end of a first capacitor C1, the other end of the excitation inductor Lm is connected with the anode of a fourth diode D4, the anode of the blocking diode D1 is connected with the positive pole of a power Vin, the cathode of the third diode D3 is connected with one end of a coupling inductor secondary winding N2, the other end of the secondary winding N2 is connected with the cathode of a fourth diode D4 and is connected with the positive pole of a DC bus of an inverter bridge B, a second capacitor C2 is connected in parallel with a battery pack Bat, one end of which is connected with the DC bus, and the other end of the DC bus is, and the other end of the first capacitor C1 is connected with the negative end of a direct-current bus of the inverter bridge B and is connected with one end of an inductor L, the other end of the inductor L is connected with the negative electrode of a power supply Vin, and the output of the inverter bridge is connected with a three-phase motor.
The single-stage boost inverter comprises a coupling inductor, diodes D3 and D4, a capacitor C1 and C2, an inductor L and an inverter bridge B, wherein the coupling inductor is formed by tightly coupling an original side winding N1 and an original side winding N2, the N1 is smaller than the N2, the coupling inductor is connected in parallel with an ideal transformer and an excitation inductor Lm, and then is connected in series with a leakage inductor Lk. The voltage boosting control mode of the circuit for the DC bus of the inverter utilizes the direct connection state of the upper and lower switching tubes of the three-phase inverter bridge to adjust the action time of the circuit, thereby realizing the controllable boosting of the DC bus voltage at the input side of the inverter. In a direct-connection zero vector state, the inverter bridge is in a direct-connection state, and the direct-current voltage source Vin charges the excitation inductor Lm of the coupling inductor; in a non-direct-through zero vector state, energy in the primary winding N1 of the coupling inductor is sensed into a secondary winding N2, the secondary winding is connected with an input direct-current voltage source Vin in series and supplies power to a direct-current bus of an inverter bridge B, so that the direct-current bus voltage of the inverter is improved, and the improved inverter voltage is obtained; when the bridge arm is open, the capacitors C1 and C2 and the inductor L provide a closed loop, so that voltage spikes on the direct current bus are avoided.
The control system of the fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle based on the single-stage step-up inverter provided by the invention has three power flows: the fuel battery group is larger than the motor, the fuel battery group is larger than the storage battery, and the storage battery is larger than the motor. If only two of the three power flows are controlled, the third power flow is automatically adjusted to realize system balance. Ideally, the voltage of the second capacitor C2 in the single-stage step-up inverter and the input voltage V are neglected to influence the leakage inductance LkinIn a relationship of
The above formula also shows the voltage across the battery pack (Bat) and the fuel cell stack input voltage (V)in) The relationship (2) of (c). A second capacitance (C)2) Voltage and bus voltage (V)b) In a relationship of
Vc2=(1-D0)Vb(2)
Input voltage (Vin) and bus voltage (V)b) In a relationship of
When the system hardware design is finished, namely the turn ratio (N) of the coupling inductor is determined, the relation is only related to the through duty ratio (D)0) It is related. Outputting the peak value (Vphase) of the AC phase voltage and the bus voltage (V)b) In a relationship of
Therefore, an AC phase voltage peak value (Vphase) and a fuel cell stack input voltage (V) are outputin) In a relationship of
The relation between the peak value (Vphase) of the output alternating-current phase voltage and the voltage at two ends of the storage battery (Bat) is
The output power (Po) can be expressed as
Where Irms is the effective value of the load current. To obtain a power flowing to the battery pack of
Pbat=VinIin-Po (8)
The above relationship indicates that the charge amount of the battery and the drive motor power can be controlled simultaneously.
The fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle system based on the single-stage step-up inverter is suitable for four operation modes shown in fig. 2, wherein the operation modes are as follows: when the vehicle runs normally, power flows from the fuel cell to the motor, and if the charge of the storage battery is low, the fuel cell also provides power for the storage battery; mode b: upon start-up, hill climbing or acceleration, power flows from the fuel cell and battery to the motor; and a mode c: when the vehicle runs at a low speed, the storage battery supplies power to the motor, and if the charge of the storage battery is low, the fuel cell supplies power to the storage battery; mode d: when the vehicle is in a downhill or braking state, the motor outputs electric power to the storage battery, and the fuel cell supplies power to the storage battery only when the charge capacity of the storage battery is low. By adjusting the through duty cycle (D)0) And the modulation ratio (m) can control the alternating voltage output to the motor, adjust the charge of the storage battery and control the output power of the fuel cell.
For the four modes (a), (b), (c) and (d), the single-stage boost inverter in the mode a and the mode b operates similarly: the output power of the fuel cell is controlled by a direct duty ratio D0, the alternating current output power is determined by output voltage and current, and the difference is that in the mode b, the alternating current output power is larger than the input output power of the fuel cell, and the storage battery pack is in a discharging state; in the mode a, the storage battery is charged and discharged according to the charge of the storage battery, and the output power of the fuel cell is higher or lower than the alternating current output power. In mode c, the fuel cell stack is bypassed by the second diode D2 and the ac output power is controlled by adjusting the modulation ratio (m). In mode d, the ac output power is fed back to the battery for charging. In the above mode, if the charge amount of the secondary battery is too low, the fuel cell stack charges the secondary battery with the output power.
According to different running conditions of the hybrid electric vehicle, a power instruction is given by an upper computer communication module, a system control module calculates power required to be provided by the fuel cell according to the matching degree of the fuel cell, the storage battery and the output power of the alternating current side at the previous moment, sends a fuel cell power control signal and a direct duty ratio D0 to the fuel cell control module and the motor driving module respectively, and controls the required input and output power respectively; the storage battery charge detection module detects information such as the charge of the storage battery, the system control module calculates and determines whether to charge the storage battery, and the charge and discharge of the storage battery are controlled by sending a fuel cell power control signal and a direct duty ratio D0.
Although particular embodiments of the invention have been described and illustrated in detail, it should be understood that various equivalent changes and modifications could be made to the above-described embodiments in accordance with the spirit of the invention, and the resulting functional effects would still fall within the scope of the invention, without departing from the spirit of the description and the accompanying drawings. The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and is not intended to limit the present invention, and any minor modifications, equivalent replacements and improvements made to the above embodiment according to the technical spirit of the present invention should be included in the protection scope of the technical solution of the present invention.

Claims (1)

1. A fuel cell hybrid vehicle system comprising four operating modes, mode a: when the vehicle runs normally, power flows from the fuel cell to the motor, and if the charge of the storage battery is low, the fuel cell also provides power for the storage battery; mode b: upon start-up, hill climbing or acceleration, power flows from the fuel cell and battery to the motor; and a mode c: when the vehicle runs at a low speed, the storage battery supplies power to the motor, and if the charge of the storage battery is low, the fuel cell supplies power to the storage battery; mode d: when the electric vehicle runs down a slope or is in a braking state, the motor outputs electric power to the storage battery, and the fuel cell provides power for the storage battery only when the charge capacity of the storage battery is low; by adjusting the through duty cycle (D)0) And the modulation ratio (m), can control the alternating voltage outputted to the electric motor, regulate the electric charge of the storage battery and control the output power of the fuel cell; the fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle system comprises a fuel cell set, an independent step-up inverter, a storage battery set and a motor, wherein the fuel cell set is used as the input of the independent step-up inverterThe single-stage boost inverter comprises a coupling inductor with a primary winding N1 and a secondary winding N2 which are tightly coupled, an excitation inductor (Lm) is connected in parallel at two ends of a primary winding N1 of the coupling inductor, the dotted end of the primary winding N1 of the coupling inductor is connected with a leakage inductor (Lk) and one end of an excitation inductor (Lm), the other end of the leakage inductor (Lk) is respectively connected with the cathode of a blocking diode (D1), the cathode of a second diode (D2), the anode of a third diode (D3) and one end of a first capacitor (C1), the other end of the excitation inductor (Lm) is connected with the anode of a fourth diode (D4), the anode of the blocking diode (D1) is connected with the anode of the power supply (Vin), the cathode of the third diode (D3) is connected with one end of a secondary winding N2 of the coupling inductor, the other end of the secondary winding N2 is respectively connected with the cathode of a fourth diode (D4) and the positive end of a direct current bus of an inverter bridge (B), a second capacitor (C2) is connected with a storage battery pack (Bat) in parallel, one end of a second capacitor (C2) is connected with the positive end of the direct current bus, the other end of the second capacitor (C2) is respectively connected with the cathode of a power supply (Vin) and the anode of a second diode (D2), the other end of a first capacitor (C1) is respectively connected with the negative end of the direct current bus of the inverter bridge (B) and one end of an inductor (L), the other end of the inductor (L) is connected with the cathode of the power supply (Vin), the output of the inverter bridge is connected with a three-phase motor, and the first capacitor (C1) and the second capacitor (C2) are polar capacitors; in the mode a, charging and discharging are carried out on the storage battery according to the charge quantity of the storage battery, and the output power of the fuel cell is higher or lower than the alternating current output power; in mode c, the fuel cell stack is bypassed by a second diode (D2), and the ac output power is controlled by adjusting the modulation ratio (m); in mode d, the ac output power is fed back to the battery for charging.
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