CN107182336B - Method for improving saline resistance of coastal saline-alkali soil by paving film under plough layer - Google Patents

Method for improving saline resistance of coastal saline-alkali soil by paving film under plough layer Download PDF

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CN107182336B
CN107182336B CN201710361769.XA CN201710361769A CN107182336B CN 107182336 B CN107182336 B CN 107182336B CN 201710361769 A CN201710361769 A CN 201710361769A CN 107182336 B CN107182336 B CN 107182336B
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film
width
soil
laying
depth
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CN107182336A (en
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宋付朋
诸葛玉平
娄燕宏
王会
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Shandong Agricultural University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0256Ground coverings
    • A01G13/0268Mats or sheets, e.g. nets or fabrics
    • A01G13/0275Films

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of agricultural production, and particularly relates to a method for improving saline-alkali soil plough layer lower mulching film resistance of a coastal saline-alkali soil, which comprises the steps of selecting a corresponding scheme below the plough layer of the saline-alkali soil according to the field soil saline-alkali soil of the coastal saline-alkali soil, the texture condition of the field soil saline-alkali soil, the salt content of underground water and the variation range of the underground water, paving a film below the plough layer of the saline-alkali soil according to the required depth of crop root growth, and improving the soil of the plough layer on the cured film; according to the invention, the salt-blocking diaphragm is paved under the plough layer, the plough layer soil is irrigated to wash salt, and the decomposed organic fertilizer is applied in combination, so that saline groundwater can be prevented from transferring to the plough layer, the salt content of the plough layer soil is reduced by leaching, the plough layer soil is improved, the ploughed plough layer soil is fertilized, the cultivation and planting are not affected, the purposes of improving the saline-alkali soil and protecting seedlings and increasing the yield are achieved, and the method has the advantages of light weight, simplicity, strong applicability and easiness in popularization, and has remarkable economic, ecological and social benefits when being popularized and applied in a large area in the coastal saline-alkali soil.

Description

Method for improving saline resistance of coastal saline-alkali soil by paving film under plough layer
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of agricultural production, and particularly relates to a method for improving saline resistance of a lower mulching film of a plough layer of a coastal saline-alkali land.
Background
The coastal saline-alkali soil in China is widely distributed in coastal areas, is seriously salted, has large area and tends to increase year by year, and is an important reserve land resource to be developed and utilized. The improvement and development and agricultural utilization of the coastal saline-alkali soil can not only enlarge the cultivated land area of the coastal area and improve the crop yield, but also play the potential value of the saline-alkali soil, promote the production development of the agriculture of the coastal area and improve the regional economic benefit, and have important practical significance for solving the contradiction between people and land in China and guaranteeing the national food safety.
The problems of coastal saline-alkali soil mainly lie in the problems of high underground water level, high mineralization degree of underground water, high saline-alkali content of plough layer soil of the saline-alkali soil, low soil development degree, poor soil body profile layering, over-sanding or over-sticking of soil texture, low fertility of plough layer soil, low productivity and the like.
The existing improvement technology mainly reduces the underground water level, removes salt and alkali from plough layer soil, and cultivates fertilizer in soil, wherein, the technical measures for reducing the underground water level include water conservancy project technical measures such as vertical shaft drainage, shallow group well alkali removal, deep groove alkali removal, terrace planting, farming and fishing, underground pipe alkali removal and the like, the technical measures can effectively reduce the underground water level, but the vertical shaft or shallow group well or deep groove alkali removal project amount is huge, the cost is high, and the deep groove side slope is easy to collapse and become shallow and damaged; the alkali-changed concealed pipe laying technology is difficult, the maintenance cost is high, the using effect is good, but the large-area long-term use is easy to block and discard; the measures such as planting in the terrace and getting on and off the farm and fishing have large engineering quantity, and are only suitable for local small-area application.
The prior art has different advantages and disadvantages, and has the problems of high later maintenance cost, high technical difficulty, low efficiency, easy damage and abandonment, salt return and alkali return and the like; therefore, how to overcome the above problems becomes one of the problems to be solved in the art.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at various defects in the prior art, the invention provides a method for improving saline resistance of a plough layer under a coastal saline-alkali land, which comprises the steps of selecting the improvement depth, the inclination direction, the inclination angle and the trend as well as the transverse and up-down stubble pressing width of the soil below the plough layer of the saline-alkali land according to the field soil saline-alkali and texture condition of the coastal saline-alkali land, the salt content of underground water and the variation range of the underground water, paving a geomembrane or a thick-layer saline-alkali resistant polyethylene mulching film under the plough layer of the saline-alkali land according to the growth requirement of crop roots, irrigating, sprinkling a rotten organic fertilizer with a dosage determined according to the soil saline-alkali and texture condition, ploughing. According to the invention, the salt-blocking diaphragm is paved under the plough layer, the plough layer soil is irrigated to wash salt, and the decomposed organic fertilizer is applied in combination, so that saline groundwater can be prevented from transferring to the plough layer, the salt content of the plough layer soil is reduced by leaching, the plough layer soil is improved, the ploughed plough layer soil is fertilized, the cultivation and planting are not affected, the purposes of improving the saline-alkali soil and protecting seedlings and increasing the yield are achieved, and the method has the advantages of light weight, simplicity, strong applicability and easiness in popularization, and has remarkable economic, ecological and social benefits when being popularized and applied in a large area in the coastal saline-alkali soil.
In the prior art, the thickness of soil layers required by the growth of crops or fruit trees is neglected, most of crop roots are intensively distributed within 20cm of a plough layer, most of fruit tree roots are intensively distributed within 20 cm-100 cm of the plough layer, therefore, the inventor finds that the key of the salt resistance control of the coastal saline-alkali soil lies in blocking the supply of high-salinity underground water below the plough layer to saline and alkali of the soil of the plough layer, namely blocking the saline and alkali source of main root system active layer soil of the crops or fruit trees and continuously improving and fertilizing the soil of the plough layer, thereby continuously improving the soil fertility level, increasing the yield and achieving the purpose of sustainable production development.
Under the above guiding concept, the inventor obtains the following specific technical scheme:
a method for improving saline resistance of a coastal saline-alkali land by paving a film under a plough layer comprises the following steps:
after the coastal saline-alkali soil is prepared, a film paving mode, a depth, an inclined direction and an angle are selected according to the growth requirement of crops below 20cm of a plough layer, a geomembrane or a thick-layer saline-alkali-tolerant polyethylene mulching film is paved according to the film paving direction, the salt is irrigated and washed, and decomposed organic fertilizer is spread to plough and mix the plough layer soil;
more specifically:
the adopted mulching film material is a geomembrane or a thick-layer saline-alkali resistant polyethylene mulching film;
the film laying and salt blocking mode comprises a full-inclined film laying and salt blocking mode and a flat inclined film laying and salt blocking mode, which are selected according to the saline-alkali condition of the soil of the plough layer of the coastal saline-alkali land, the inclined film laying tendency is inclined from the middle part of the land to the two side edges of the alkali discharge ditch, the actual laying depth of the upper end and the lower end of the inclined film laying is calculated by setting the upper limit and the lower limit depth of the film laying, the inclination angle, the transverse stubble pressing width between film widths and the thickness of the soil layer between the upper stubble pressing gap and the lower stubble pressing gap according to the requirement of the root depth of crops, the laying operation method is implemented according to the laying operation method of the two sides of the land and the middle of the land, and the laying direction of the film laying is according to the length direction of the land;
the full-inclined film paving is aimed at the saline-alkali land strip fields with higher saline alkali content, is more beneficial to enabling irrigation and leached brine to flow to an alkali discharge ditch on the outer side of the strip fields more quickly, is suitable for the saline-alkali land strip fields with lower saline alkali content, and aims to block saline underground water and discharge irrigation and leached brine, but the saline alkali content is lower, so that the lowest edge depth is not needed to be too large during construction, and labor is seriously wasted due to too large depth, and a flat-inclined film paving mode is adopted; the grading of the mild, moderate and severe salinized soil of the saline-alkali soil is 0.2-0.4 wt%, 0.4-0.6 wt% and 0.6-1.0 wt% of the saline-alkali content of the strip farmland soil respectively, and the saline-alkali content of the strip farmland soil is more than 1.0 wt% and is directly defined as the saline soil; the method selects light and medium salinized soil and adopts a flat and inclined film paving mode, and the saline-alkali content of the strip field soil is more than 0.6wt% and the whole mode adopts a full inclined film paving mode;
furthermore, the inclination angle of the general inclined film laying is determined to be less than or equal to 10 degrees according to the selection mode, the width of the film web is greater than or equal to 2.5m, the transverse stubble pressing width of the film web is 5-20 cm, and the upper and lower stubble pressing gaps of the film web are less than or equal to 3 cm;
irrigating 1500-1800 square/hectare before sowing the crops to wash salt, broadcasting 9000-30000 kg/hectare of decomposed organic fertilizer every year, ploughing, mixing and improving plough layer soil, and performing field management and soil fertilization according to a crop planting system, a fertilization system and an irrigation system.
The decomposed organic fertilizer is selected from organic fertilizers meeting the requirements of organic fertilizers NY 525-2012.
After the technical idea is determined, the inventor determines a more specific implementation scheme according to the condition of the saline-alkali soil as follows:
(1) soil preparation and film paving materials and size selection: arranging the strip fields, wherein the width of each strip field is 20-30 m, the length of each strip field is 200-500 m, salt and alkali discharge ditches are dug and built around each strip field, the depth of each ditch is 1.5m, the upper opening of each ditch is 2-3 m, and the bottom width of each ditch is 0.5-1 m; the geomembrane or the thick-layer saline-alkali-tolerant polyethylene mulching film is selected as the mulching material, the service life is longer than or equal to 50 years, the size of the geomembrane or the thick-layer saline-alkali-tolerant polyethylene mulching film is selected according to the improved plot and the laying machinery, the width of the mulching film is longer than or equal to 2.5m, and the length of the mulching film is equal to the length of the plot;
(2) selecting a film laying mode and setting the film laying tendency and direction:
the saline-alkali content of the strip farmland soil is more than or equal to 0.6wt%, and a full-inclined film laying and salt resisting mode is adopted under plough layers which are inclined towards the alkali discharge ditches at the two side edges of the strip farmland width by taking the middle point of the strip farmland width along the length connecting line as a central line;
the saline-alkali content of the strip farmland soil is less than 0.6wt%, and a flat-inclined film laying salt resisting mode that the middle part of the strip farmland width is paved with films under the plough layer to be close to the front of the two side alkali discharge ditches, and then the films are paved to the two side alkali discharge ditches in an inclined mode under the plough layer is adopted; the inclination of salt resistance and film spreading is that the alkali discharge ditches are inclined from the center line of the strip field to the edges of two sides of the strip field width, and the film spreading direction is that the film is spread from one end of the strip field length to the other end of the strip field length along the strip field length direction;
(3) and (3) calculating and setting the film laying depth and the inclination angle:
the full-inclined mulching salt blocking mode is that a strip field is divided into two mulching film improvement half-widths along the middle line of the strip field, the upper limit of the paving depth is selected below the middle line of the strip field according to the requirement of the root depth of crops, the lower limit of the paving depth is positioned at the edge of the strip field close to an alkali discharge ditch, the lower limit of the paving depth is less than or equal to 100cm, the paving depth is preset according to the mechanical power of mulching film paving and the soil texture condition, after the upper limit and the lower limit of the paving depth are set, the total width and the inclination angle of the paving film are further determined according to the width of the strip field improvement half-width, the transverse stubble pressing width between the mulching film width is 5-20 cm, the required mulching film width can be calculated according to the material, the size and the cost of the paving film, the upper limit of the paving depth set at the middle line of the strip field is used as the inclined upper end edge depth of a first mulching film, the inclined lower end edge depth of the first film is calculated according to the paving width and the inclination angle of the paving film, the depth of the lower end edge of the first width of spread film is downwards provided with the thickness of an inter-width stubble pressing gap soil layer of the second width of spread film which is less than or equal to 3cm, the depth of the inclined upper end edge and the depth of the lower end edge of the second width of spread film are calculated according to the thickness of the inter-width stubble pressing gap soil layer of the spread film and the transverse stubble pressing width, the width of the spread film and the inclination angle, the third width and the fourth width are analogized until the depth of the inclined upper end edge and the inclined lower end edge of the last width of spread film is obtained, and the depth of the inclined lower end edge of the last width of spread film is used as the actual laying lower limit depth;
specifically, the calculation is performed according to the following formula: first width of inclined upper edge depth H1 On the upper partThe depth D (cm) of the root of the crop and the depth H of the edge of the inclined lower end1 Lower partIs L multiplied by sin alpha + D (L is the film width, alpha is the included angle between the film and the horizontal plane, namely the inclined angle); second, third, … …, upper edge depth H of the sheetingn On the upper partIs (n-1) × (L0tg alpha + H) x cos alpha + D, depth of lower edge of the spread film Hn Lower partIs [ (n-1) × (L)0tgα+h)+Ltgα]X cos alpha + D, or Hn Lower part=Hn On the upper part+ Lsin alpha, where n is the number of membrane-laying width (n is not less than 2), and h is the membrane widthThickness (cm) of soil layer between stubble pressing gaps, L0The clear width of the film width (namely the single clear width of the film width after subtracting the width of the transverse stubble from the real width L of the film width, cm);
generally, the final control inclination angle is less than or equal to 10 degrees, the width of the film web is more than or equal to 2.5m, the transverse stubble pressing width of the film web is 5-20 cm, and the upper and lower stubble pressing gaps of the film web are less than or equal to 3 cm;
the flat inclined film laying salt-resisting mode is that two side edges of the strip field width are respectively laid with a width film laying to an alkali discharge ditch, the inclined upper end depth of the inclined film laying is selected according to the requirement of the growth root depth of crops, the lower end depth of the inclined film laying is set according to the mechanical power of the film laying and the texture condition of the strip field soil, the inclined angle, the actual transverse width of the inclined film laying covering field and the residual field width of the middle part of the strip field are calculated according to the set values of the inclined angle, the actual transverse width of the inclined film laying covering field and the residual field width of the strip field, the stubble pressing width of the outermost side film extending out of the upper end edge of the inclined film laying, the net width of the tiled film and the width of the required tiled film are calculated according to the width of the laid film and the transverse stubble pressing width of the tiled film, the thickness of a stubble clamping gap between the outer edge of the outermost side film laying and the upper end edge of the inclined film is less than or equal to 3cm, and the actual laying depth and the inclined angle of the lower end edge of the inclined film laying are determined according to the laying requirement; the upper and lower gaps between the tiled film webs are less than or equal to 3cm, the transverse stubble pressing width between the webs is 5-20 cm, and the width is determined according to the size and cost of the film-laying material.
(4) Salt-blocking film-laying operation and implementation: the salt blocking method of the fully-inclined film paving comprises the steps of firstly, starting from the edge of the strip field width close to any side of an alkali discharge ditch, paving according to the actual paving depth lower limit of the lower end edge and the actual paving depth of the upper end edge of the last film paving, then, paving by winding to the other side of the strip field width, and paving the last frame, the last frame and the … … sequentially according to the same inclination angle and direction according to the inter-frame stubble pressing width and the inter-frame vertical stubble pressing soil layer thickness until the middle line of the strip field; the flat inclined film laying salt blocking method comprises the steps of firstly, starting to lay an inclined film from the edge of the strip field width close to any side of an alkali discharge ditch, laying according to the actual laying depth of the lower end edge and the upper end edge of the inclined film, then winding to the other side of the strip field width, laying according to the same inclination angle and direction, laying one of the outermost sides of a flat film according to the thickness of a stubble pressing soil layer between the flat film and the inclined film, the width of stubble pressing between the two transverse widths and the laying depth of the flat film, and then sequentially laying other flat films to the inside of the strip field according to the transverse stubble pressing width between the flat film widths until all laying is finished;
(5) irrigating, washing salt and improving and fertilizing soil: after salt blocking and film spreading and laying are finished, raking the land surface by using a shallow rake, building ridges around the strip field, then irrigating 1500-1800 squares/hectare before sowing crops to wash salt, irrigating and washing salt before sowing crops 3-5 seasons, stopping irrigating and washing salt before sowing crops when salinity of a plough layer is lower than 0.2wt%, and only irrigating according to a crop irrigation system; 9000-30000 kg of decomposed organic fertilizer is applied to each hectare every year in the suitable ploughing period of the plough layer soil, ploughing and mixing are carried out to improve the structural properties of the plough layer soil, field management is carried out according to a crop planting system, a fertilization system and an irrigation system, the fertile soil is sequentially improved, and the land capability is improved.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
(1) the invention aims at the problems that saline water in coastal saline-alkali land has high salt content, salt is gathered to a plough layer along with soil surface evaporation and crop transpiration, so that the salinization of the plough layer soil is aggravated, the crops are threatened by salt damage, the seedling emergence, the growth and the yield of the crops are seriously affected, and the like.
(2) The crops are irrigated with water to wash salt and added with organic fertilizer to improve the plough layer soil before sowing, so that the saline-alkali content of the plough layer soil of the saline-alkali soil can be effectively reduced, the structural characters of the soil and the growth environment of the root system of the crops can be effectively improved, and the soil fertility and the productivity can be continuously improved.
(3) The method has the characteristics of strong applicability, simple and convenient operation and easy popularization, can be popularized and applied in a large area in the coastal saline-alkali land area, can effectively promote the sustainable development of agricultural production in the area, and obtains remarkable economic, ecological and social benefits.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a fully inclined film-laying salt rejection mode (example 1) according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the flat-slant film salt rejection mode (example 2) according to the present invention;
in the figure: 1 is an alkali discharge ditch, 2 is a plough layer, 3 is an inclined paving film, and 4 is a paving film.
Detailed Description
Example 1
A method for improving saline resistance of a coastal saline-alkali land by paving a film under a plough layer,
experiment plots: the coastal city of Shandong province is a certain village without Amelanchier, and the land is a severe saline-alkali land with the soil salt content of 0.98 wt%.
The method comprises the following specific steps:
(1) soil preparation and film paving materials and size selection: building strip fields, wherein the width of each strip field is 20m, the length of each strip field is 500m, salt and alkali removal ditches are dug around each strip field, the depth of each ditch is 1.5m, the upper opening is 2-3 m, the bottom width is 0.5-1 m, and rotary tillage and leveling are performed; the film-laying material is HDPE geomembrane coiled material (produced by Shandong Tianhe plastic Co., Ltd.), the width is 260cm, the film thickness is 0.5mm, and the service life is more than or equal to 50 years.
(2) Selecting a film laying mode and setting the film laying tendency and direction: the saline-alkali content of the strip field soil is more than or equal to 0.6wt%, and a full-inclined film laying and salt resistance mode is adopted; the inclination of salt-resisting and film-spreading is that the alkali-removing ditch is inclined from the central line of the strip field to the two side edges of the strip field width, and the film-spreading trend is that the film-spreading trend is from the north end of the strip field length to the south end of the strip field along the strip field length trend.
(3) And (3) calculating and setting the film laying depth and the inclination angle: the strip field planting system is winter wheat-summer corn, the root depth requirement is set to be 20cm, the upper limit of the laying depth is 20cm below the soil surface at the middle line position of the strip field, the strip field is divided into two film laying improved half-widths along the middle line of the strip field, the width of each half-width is 10m, the lower limit depth of the film laying is set to be 50cm, the total width of the film laying is 1001.25cm, the inclination angle is 2.86 degrees, the transverse stubble pressing width between the film laying frames is 10cm, the clear width of the film frames is 250cm, the required film width is 4 frames, the inclined upper end edge depth of the first film laying in the middle line of the strip field is 20cm below the soil surface, the lower end edge depth is 33.0cm, the upper end edge depth of the second film is 33.5cm, the lower end is 46.5cm, the upper end of the third film is 47.0cm, the lower end is 60.0cm, the upper end of the fourth film is 60.4cm, and the lower end is 73.4 cm.
(4) Salt-blocking film-laying operation and implementation: the method comprises the steps of firstly starting from the width edge of the strip field close to any side of an alkali discharge ditch, paving the strip field according to the actual paving depth 73.4cm of the lower end edge and the actual paving depth 60.4cm of the upper end edge of the last width of paving film (the fourth width), then paving the last width of paving film (the fourth width) on one side of another improved half width of the strip field close to the alkali discharge ditch according to the same lower end edge depth and upper end edge depth as well as the same inclination angle and direction, and then paving the strip field according to the calculated upper end edge depth and lower end edge depth of the third width of paving film, the second width of paving film and the first width of paving film in sequence along the same inclination angle and direction until the central line of the strip field is completely paved.
(5) Irrigating, washing salt and improving and fertilizing soil: after the salt-blocking film-spreading and laying are finished, the land surface is harrowed flat by a shallow harrow, ridges with the width of 30cm and the height of 20cm are built around the strip field, 1800 square/hectare irrigation is carried out to wash salt and remove salt, 30000 kg/hectare thoroughly decomposed organic fertilizer is spread in the suitable ploughing period of the plough layer soil, the organic fertilizer and the plough layer soil are mixed and harrowed flat by shallow ploughing, and then seeding and field management are carried out according to a crop planting system, a fertilization system and an irrigation system.
The average yield of the wheat in the first season after film spreading is 5027.5 kg/hectare, the yield is increased by 52.0 percent compared with 3306.7 kg/hectare of a saline-alkali soil conventional planting control field block, the salt content of the plough layer soil is reduced to 0.46 percent from 0.98 percent by weight, and the reduction range is 53.1 percent.
Example 2
A method for improving saline resistance of a coastal saline-alkali land by paving a film under a plough layer,
experiment plots: the land of a certain village in Binzhou city of Shandong province is moderate saline-alkali land with 0.55 wt% of salt content in the soil.
The method comprises the following specific steps:
(1) soil preparation and film paving materials and size selection: building strip fields, wherein the width of each strip field is 30m, the length of each strip field is 500m, salt and alkali removal ditches are dug around each strip field, the depth of each ditch is 1.5m, the upper opening is 2-3 m, the bottom width is 0.5-1 m, and rotary tillage and leveling are performed; the film-laying material is HDPE geomembrane coiled material (produced by Shandong Tianhe plastic Co., Ltd.), the width is 260cm, the film thickness is 0.5mm, and the service life is more than or equal to 50 years.
(2) Selecting a film laying mode and setting the film laying tendency and direction: the saline-alkali content of the strip farmland soil is less than 0.6wt%, a flat-inclined film-spreading and salt-resisting mode is adopted, and films are spread downwards to the two side alkali discharge ditches before the films are spread below the plough layer in the middle of the width of the strip farmland to be close to the two side alkali discharge ditches; the film paving direction is from the north end of the strip field length to the south end of the strip field along the strip field length.
(3) And (3) calculating and setting the film laying depth and the inclination angle: the strip field planting system is winter wheat-summer corn, the root depth requirement is set to be 25cm, the position of the center line of a strip field, which is 25cm downwards from the soil surface, is the upper limit of the laying depth, the lower limit depth of film laying is set to be 50cm, the inclination angle is 5.52 degrees, the actual transverse width of the field surface covered by one side of the inclined film laying is 258.8cm, the actual transverse width of the field surface covered by two sides of the inclined film laying is 517.6cm, the width of the residual field surface in the middle part of the strip field is 2482.4cm, the stubble pressing width of the upper end edge of each inclined film laying outwards extending out of the outer side of each flat film is 8.8cm, the upper end edge and the lower end edge of each flat film are pressed without gaps, the transverse stubble pressing width of the flat film between the flat film frames is 10cm, the net width of the film frames is 250cm, the required flat film frames are 10 frames, the actual laying depth of the upper end edges of the inclined film laying depth of the two sides of the strip field is lower end.
(4) Salt-blocking film-laying operation and implementation: firstly, paving oblique mulching films from the edge of the strip field width close to any side of the alkali discharge ditch, paving the oblique mulching films according to the actual paving depth below the soil surface of 51cm and 26cm below the soil surface of the lower end edge and the upper end edge of the oblique mulching films, then paving the oblique mulching films around the other side of the strip field width, paving one of the outermost sides of the flat mulching films according to the thickness of a stubble pressing and soil clamping layer between the flat mulching films and the oblique mulching films, the width of stubbles between the two transverse width layers is 8.8cm, and the paving depth of the flat mulching films is 25cm, and then paving other flat mulching films into the strip field according to the transverse stubbles between the flat mulching film width layers being 10cm until all paving is finished;
(5) irrigating, washing salt and improving and fertilizing soil: after the salt-blocking film-spreading and laying is finished, the land surface is harrowed flat by a shallow harrow, ridges with the width of 30cm and the height of 20cm are built around the strip field, 1500-square/hectare irrigation is carried out to wash salt and remove salt, 20000 kg/hectare decomposed organic fertilizer is spread in the suitable ploughing period of the plough layer soil, the organic fertilizer and the plough layer soil are mixed and harrowed flat by shallow ploughing, and then seeding and field management are carried out according to a crop planting system, a fertilization system and an irrigation system.
The average yield of the wheat in the first season after film mulching is 6585.3 kg/hectare when the wheat is harvested, the yield is increased by 40.9 percent compared with that of 4672.1 kg/hectare of a saline-alkali soil conventional planting control field, the salt content of the plough layer soil is reduced to 0.21 percent from 0.55 percent by weight, and the reduction amplitude is 61.8 percent.

Claims (3)

1. A method for improving saline-alkali soil by paving a film under a plough layer of a coastal saline-alkali soil is characterized in that after the coastal saline-alkali soil is prepared, a film paving mode, a depth, an inclination direction and an angle are selected according to the growth requirement of crops, a geomembrane or a thick-layer saline-alkali resistant polyethylene mulching film is paved under the plough layer by the film paving direction of 20cm, the salt is irrigated and washed, and decomposed organic fertilizer is spread to plough and mix to improve the soil of the plough layer;
wherein the adopted mulching film material is a geomembrane or a thick-layer saline-alkali resistant polyethylene mulching film;
the film laying salt resistance mode is a full-inclined film laying salt resistance mode or a flat-inclined film laying salt resistance mode, and is implemented according to a laying operation method of firstly laying two sides of a plot and then laying the film in the middle, and the film laying direction is in the length direction of the plot;
the inclined angle of the inclined film laying is less than or equal to 10 degrees, the width of the film web is more than or equal to 2.5m, the transverse stubble pressing width of the film web is 5-20 cm, and the upper and lower stubble pressing gaps of the film web are less than or equal to 3 cm;
the specific steps of film laying and salt resistance are as follows:
(1) soil preparation and film paving material and size selection: arranging the strip fields, wherein the width of each strip field is 20-30 m, the length of each strip field is 200-500 m, salt and alkali discharge ditches are dug and built around each strip field, the depth of each ditch is 1.5m, the upper opening of each ditch is 2-3 m, and the bottom width of each ditch is 0.5-1 m; the size of the mulching film is selected according to the improved plots, the width of the mulching film is more than or equal to 2.5m, and the length of the mulching film is according to the length of the plots;
(2) film laying mode selection and setting of film laying tendency and trend:
the saline-alkali content of the strip farmland soil is more than or equal to 0.6wt%, and a full-inclined film laying and salt resisting mode is adopted under plough layers which are inclined towards the alkali discharge ditches at the two side edges of the strip farmland width by taking the middle point of the strip farmland width along the length connecting line as a central line;
the saline-alkali content of the strip farmland soil is less than 0.6wt%, and a flat-inclined film laying salt resisting mode that the middle part of the strip farmland width is paved with films under the plough layer to be close to the front of the two side alkali discharge ditches, and then the films are paved to the two side alkali discharge ditches in an inclined mode under the plough layer is adopted;
the inclined film paving trend is that the alkali discharge ditch inclines from the center line of the strip field to the edges at two sides of the strip field width, and the inclined film paving direction and the flat film paving direction are both from one end of the strip field length to the other end of the strip field length along the strip field length direction;
(3) and (3) calculating and setting the film laying depth and the inclination angle:
the calculation and setting of the film laying depth and the inclination angle of the full-inclined film laying salt-resisting mode are that the strip field is divided into two film laying improvement half-widths along the strip field central line, the upper limit of the laying depth is selected below 20cm of a plough layer at the strip field central line position according to the requirement of the root depth of crops, the lower limit of the laying depth is set at the edge of the strip field close to an alkali discharge ditch and is less than or equal to 100cm, after the upper limit and the lower limit of the laying depth are set, the total width and the inclination angle of a film are further determined according to the strip field improvement half-width, the width of stubbles between the film laying widths is 5-20 cm, the required number of the film laying widths is calculated according to the total width, the selected width of the film laying width and the width of the stubbles between the film laying widths, the set upper limit of the strip field central line laying depth is used as the edge depth of the inclined upper end of a first film laying, the edge depth of the inclined lower end of the first film laying is calculated according to the width and the inclination angle, the edge depth of the lower end of the first film laying width is downwards provided with the stubbles between the second width of the stubbles between the stubbles and the soil layer is less than or equal to 3cm, calculating the depth of the inclined upper end edge and the depth of the lower end edge of a second film according to the thickness of a stubble pressing gap between the film paving webs, the width of the film paving web and the inclination angle, repeating the steps for the third and the fourth, and the step for the next step until the depth of the inclined upper end edge and the inclined lower end edge of the last film paving web is obtained, and taking the depth of the inclined lower end edge of the last film paving web as the actual paving lower limit depth;
specifically, the calculation is performed according to the following formula: first width of inclined upper edge depth H1 On the upper partThe root depth of the crop is required to be D, unit cm, the edge depth H of the inclined lower end1 Lower partIs L multiplied by sin alpha + D, wherein L is the film width, and alpha is the included angle between the spread film and the horizontal plane, namely the inclined angle; the upper end edge depth H of the second, third, … … and nth filmsn On the upper partIs (n-1) × (L0tg alpha + H) x cos alpha + D, depth of lower edge of the spread film Hn Lower partIs [ (n-1) × (L)0tgα+h)+Ltgα]X cos alpha + D, or Hn Lower part=Hn On the upper part+ Lsin alpha, where n is the number of film-laying width, n is not less than 2, h is the thickness of the soil layer between film-width stubble-pressing gaps, and the unit is cm, L0The clear width of the film width, L0The single width clear width is equal to the unit cm after the film width real width L minus the stubble pressing width;
the calculation and setting of the film laying depth and the inclination angle in the flat and oblique film laying salt resistance mode are that two side edges of the strip field width are respectively obliquely laid with a width film laying to an alkali removal ditch, the inclined upper end depth of the inclined film laying is selected according to the requirement of the growth root depth of crops, the lower end edge of the inclined film laying is positioned at the edge of the alkali removal ditch, the set depth is less than or equal to 100cm, the inclination angle, the actual transverse width of the inclined film laying covering field and the residual field width of the middle part of the strip field are calculated according to the set values of the inclination angle and the inclined film laying, the thicknesses of the outer edge of the outermost flat film laying and a soil layer clamped by the upper end edge of the inclined film laying are less than or equal to 3cm, the widths of the interval films are 5-20 cm, and the clear width of the flat films and the width of the required flat films are calculated according to the widths of the film laying and the widths of the interval films laying and the stubble pressing;
(4) the operation and implementation of the salt-blocking and film-spreading sequence are as follows: the film paving sequence of the full-inclination film paving salt resisting mode is that firstly, from the width edge of the strip field to any side of the alkali discharge ditch, the film is paved according to the actual paving depth lower limit and the actual paving depth upper end edge of the lower end edge of the last film paving, then the film is paved by winding to the other side of the width of the strip field, and the penultimate film, the penultimate film and the … … are paved according to the width of the inter-frame stubble and the thickness of the inter-frame stubble soil clamping layer in sequence according to the same inclination angle and direction until the central line of the strip field; the film paving sequence of the flat inclined film paving salt resisting mode is that firstly inclined film paving is paved from the edge of the strip field width close to any side of the alkali discharge ditch, then the inclined film paving on the other side is paved by winding to the other side of the strip field width according to the same inclination angle and direction, then one of the outermost sides of the flat film paving is paved according to the thickness of a stubble pressing and soil clamping layer between the flat film paving and the inclined film paving, and then other flat films are paved in turn to the inside of the strip field according to the width of stubble pressing and the thickness of the stubble pressing and soil clamping layer between the flat film paving and the inclined film paving until all the flat films are paved;
(5) irrigating, washing salt and improving and fertilizing soil: after the salt-resistant mulching film is laid, raking the land surface with a shallow rake, building ridges around the strip field, then irrigating and washing salt before sowing the crops, and after 3-5 seasons, irrigating and washing salt before sowing the crops, and when the salinity of a plough layer is lower than 0.2wt%, stopping irrigating and washing salt before sowing the crops, and only irrigating according to a crop irrigation system; and broadcasting decomposed organic fertilizer every year in the suitable ploughing period of the plough layer soil, and ploughing, mixing and improving the plough layer soil.
2. The method for improving the saline-alkali soil by spreading the film under the plough layer of the coastal saline-alkali soil according to claim 1, which is characterized in that: in the step (5), the crops are irrigated with 1500-1800 square/hectare for salt washing before sowing, decomposed organic fertilizer 9000-30000 kg/hectare is applied in a broadcasting way every year, and after ploughing and improving the plough layer soil by mixing, field management and soil fertilization are carried out according to a crop planting and fertilization system and an irrigation system.
3. The method for improving the saline-alkali soil by spreading the film under the plough layer of the coastal saline-alkali soil according to claim 1, which is characterized in that: the decomposed organic fertilizer is selected from organic fertilizers meeting the requirements of organic fertilizers NY 525-2012.
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