CN107155624A - A kind of implantation methods that blueberry high yield is realized by soil improvement - Google Patents

A kind of implantation methods that blueberry high yield is realized by soil improvement Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107155624A
CN107155624A CN201710538725.XA CN201710538725A CN107155624A CN 107155624 A CN107155624 A CN 107155624A CN 201710538725 A CN201710538725 A CN 201710538725A CN 107155624 A CN107155624 A CN 107155624A
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soil
blueberry
compartment
plantation
branch
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田孟良
刘晨
霍朝勇
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Sichuan Agricultural University
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Sichuan Agricultural University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F11/00Other organic fertilisers
    • C05F11/02Other organic fertilisers from peat, brown coal, and similar vegetable deposits

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of implantation methods that blueberry high yield is realized by soil improvement, including:Plant the steps such as selection and soil improvement, field processing, field planting and the field management in field.Soil improvement is carried out in two times, and it is before planting to be sufficiently mixed turf with soil that soil, which is once improved, is to add 0.05m in plantation nest during the secondary improvement of soil3~0.1m3Turf;Field processing includes rotation ground, desinsection and plays railway carriage or compartment, rises behind railway carriage or compartment, the wide 80cm~100cm in railway carriage or compartment, high 50cm, and railway carriage or compartment has certain gradient, ditch bottom width 70cm~80cm.During field planting, treelet is planted in the plantation nest in compartment top portion, adjacent two kinds of plant nests interval 70cm~80cm, planting density is 260~320 plants/acre.Field management includes fertilising, weeding and trimming etc..Make blueberry survival rate to 98% using the above method, output increased 40%~50%, blueberry quality is also improved.

Description

A kind of implantation methods that blueberry high yield is realized by soil improvement
Technical field
The invention belongs to blueberry planting technology field, and in particular to a kind of plantation that blueberry high yield is realized by soil improvement Method.
Background technology
Blueberry is as fruit a kind of high-end and with certain function, and its commodity value, social value are very big, so With very high promotional value.But, blueberry is due to the plant characteristic of itself, and its requirement to soil, water, temperature is than general Fruit is high, and particularly soil grows extremely important to it.The success or not of selection and the improvement of soil is directly related to blueberry kind The success or failure of plant.The soil pH value of blueberry requirement is acidity, is worth between 4.5~5.5, but the soil texture in Sichuan can seldom reach To this scope;In addition to being required to the acid-base value of soil, the content also to soil with organic matter is required, generally 15wt%~20wt%, and the content of present soil with organic matter is very low, less than 5%.So, plant the key of blueberry Technology is exactly the improvement to soil.
Current using most soil amelioration techniques added using cow dung, stalk, sawdust (offer organic matter) on the market Cosan (adjustment soil pH) is mixed into soil improvement among soil, the pH value and the content of organic matter of soil is met blueberry plantation It is required that, but with conventional method soil improvement can cause blueberry plant yield and of low quality, mainly Cosan of tracing it to its cause Destruction of the use to soil it is very big, soil is airtight permeable after use, is easily caused blueberry plantation Root Absorption bad; Salinity in cow dung is too high, is unfavorable for the growth of root system, causes root system to rot, and cow dung time of becoming thoroughly decomposed is long, it is difficult to become thoroughly decomposed thoroughly, very Easy breed bacteria, is also easy to grow subterranean pest-insect;The species disunity of sawdust powder, some sawdust powders have to blueberry rhizobium Inhibitory action is poisoned, the time of becoming thoroughly decomposed of sawdust powder is long in addition, and big calorimetric is produced in digest process, can cause to burn root, can also grow Raw a large amount of harmful bacterias.Existing method fails the perfect demand solved in blueberry planting process for soil environment in summary, Urgent need finds a kind of more convenient, safe and efficient method and carries out soil improvement, to meet blueberry in Sichuan province industrialization production Requirement.
The content of the invention
For above-mentioned prior art, the invention solves the problems that blueberry is Sichuan province plantation is difficult to survive, yield is not high, quality Poor the problem of.
In order to achieve the above object, the technical solution adopted in the present invention is:There is provided a kind of blue by soil improvement realization The implantation methods of certain kind of berries high yield, comprise the following steps:
(1) selection in plantation field is once improved with soil:Selection soil property is soft, the field catchmented is difficult, to its soil Once improved, the method that the soil is once improved is:Turf is sufficiently mixed with soil, every mu of soil turf consumption is 3500kg~4500kg;
(2) field is handled:Soil carries out desinsection processing after once improveing, and then plays railway carriage or compartment, the railway carriage or compartment width be 80cm~ 100cm, is highly 50cm, a width of 70cm~80cm of bottom of trench, and the distance between two compartment tops are 200cm~220cm, plant the big of nest Small is 45cm × 45cm, and nest is away from for 80cm~100cm, and planting density is 260~320 plants/acre;
(3) the secondary improvement of soil:0.05m is added in plantation nest3~0.1m3Turf;
(4) it is colonized:3~April or early September carry out blueberry plantation, and blueberry seedling is put into plantation nest during field planting, pine is inserted Scattered soil, gently carries seedling in shake, soil is fully contacted with root system, steady and sure soil pours root water, finally again in railway carriage or compartment 20~30cm soil is covered on face;
(4) field management:
1. apply fertilizer:Applied fertilizer once to one month per two weeks in the treelet stage, fertilization mode is potassium sulfate of spreading manuer in holes, blade face spray Potassium dihydrogen phosphate is applied, fertilizer amount is 8~10kg/ mus of potassium sulfate, 15~25kg/ mus of potassium dihydrogen phosphate;In the bearing-age tree stage point Three fertilisings, respectively before the winter is entered, before blooming, as a result three periods are carried out afterwards, and fertilization mode is with treelet stage, fertilizer amount 15~20kg/ mus of potassium sulfate, 35~45kg/ mus of potassium dihydrogen phosphate;
2. weeding:Every 1~2 month artificial weeding once;
3. trim:The treelet phase remove the weak branch in bottom, descending branch, overstocked branch, overlapping branch, to expand tree crown, to tree vigo(u)r compared with Weak tree, removes the bud on annotinous branch;First fruiting period removes weak branch, retains golden mean of the Confucian school branch, the strong branch in cutting back periphery;The best fruiting period Weak branch is removed, retains strong branch.
The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:The field that selection soil property is soft, be difficult to catchment carries out blueberry plantation, and its root system can Nutriment and moisture are absorbed well, while the root of blueberry is not in damage, the need for meeting growth;Utilize turf pair Soil is improved, and turf used is Sichuan Yuexi turf in improved, process, and its organic matter is up to 77.8%, and content of humic acid is 74.31%, pH value is 5.09, and N P and K total amount is 2% or so, both can be soil also containing other more than 20 kind trace elements Organic matter is provided, soil pH can be adjusted again in the range of 4.5~5.5, fertilizer is also used as, blueberry seedling can be effectively facilitated Root system, the growth of stem, be greatly improved percentage of seedgermination and improve seedling development quality, and turf reserves are abundant, excavation Easily, cost can be greatly reduced;Through overwinding and play railway carriage or compartment processing, the permeability of planting soil further improves, determine nest away from Planting density can provide enough growing spaces for each individual plant blueberry, make full use of space, yield is improved to greatest extent;In rotation Progress underground pests, which are catched and killed, while ground can effectively solve the problems, such as pest and disease damage;Using plantation nest during field planting, indigo plant ensure that The plantation of the certain kind of berries is stable, is difficult lodging, adds Yuexi turf in plantation nest in addition, and carrying out second to soil improves, except can To increase organic matter, moreover it is possible to heat and moisture preserving, the permeability for increasing soil;Blueberry treelet is planted, poured after root water, then does one The covering of secondary railway carriage or compartment face soil be in order to avoid moisture too fast loss and be further ensured that the plantation of blueberry treelet is stable;Field management It ensure that blueberry preferably grows.
On the basis of above-mentioned technical proposal, the present invention can also do following improvement.
Further, when soil is once improved in step (1), every mu of soil turf consumption is 4000kg.
Further, during the secondary improvement of soil, addition 0.06m in plantation nest3Turf.
Embodiment
The embodiment to the present invention is described in detail below.
There is provided a kind of blueberry implantation methods in embodiments of the invention, the implantation methods first have to one piece of selection and are adapted to plant The field of plant.The soil of plantation blueberry should have higher permeable breathable, and again in acidity, and pH is preferably 4.5~5.5 Between, and soil as being found in Sichuan province is more difficult, therefore improved treatment can only be carried out to soil.To be improved Plantation field preferable permeable breathable is preferably had been provided with before improvement, and be not easy to catchment, illumination it is sufficient, four valleies The common sand ground in area is exactly relatively good selection.Choose behind plantation field, by the uniform spreading of ready Sichuan Yuexi turf To field surface, every mu of planting site uses 3500kg~4500kg turfs, and turf and soil then are mixed into equal using rotary cultivator It is even.Catching and killing for underground pests is carried out while ground is revolved in addition, catches and kills and is carried out by the way of insecticide is delivered.By above-mentioned place After reason, then railway carriage or compartment processing is carried out to plantation field, the railway carriage or compartment width risen is 80cm~100cm, is highly 50cm, bottom of trench is a width of 70cm~80cm, the distance between two compartment tops are 200cm~220cm, and in order to prevent from catchmenting in compartment top portion, so as to influence soil The permeability of earth, railway carriage or compartment has certain gradient;Rise behind good railway carriage or compartment, in compartment top portion setting plantation nest, the size of the plantation nest is 45cm × 45cm, the distance between two plantation nests are 80cm~100cm, and planting density is 260~320 plants/acre.Whole plantation After the completion of soil improvement, blueberry plantation can be carried out, early September or 3~April or so progress blueberry plantation is typically chosen, plants Before plant, 0.06m is delivered into each plantation nest3Sichuan Yuexi turf, improved with carrying out second to soil, be then placed in indigo plant Certain kind of berries seedling, then backfill soil, backfill depth is slightly higher than original ground with nursery stock rhizome portion and is advisable, and subsoil is treaded, then by seedling Wood puts ditch cave center into, inserts loose soil, gently carries seedling in shake, soil is fully contacted with root system, steady and sure soil, Root water is poured, try again the soil covering of railway carriage or compartment face, and cladding thickness is 20~30cm.
, it is necessary to which field management is done in timing, to improve survival rate and yield after blueberry treelet is planted.Field management includes applying Fertilizer, weeding, trimming etc..In fertilising, treelet and bearing-age tree are slightly different, and treelet follows the original of " a small amount of multiple, thin fertile duty is applied " Then, preferably two weeks or one month apply disposable fertilizer, untill being continued until that sapling enters florescence, and fertilization mode is sulfuric acid of spreading manuer in holes Potassium, foliage-spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate, fertilizer amount are 8~10kg/ mus of potassium sulfate, 15~25kg/ mus of potassium dihydrogen phosphate;Bearing-age tree Fertilising carry out in three times, respectively before the winter is entered, before blooming, as a result after three periods applied fertilizer, fertilization mode with the treelet stage, Fertilizer amount is 15~20kg/ mus of potassium sulfate, 35~45kg/ mus of potassium dihydrogen phosphate;Preferably with the mode of drip irrigation during fertilising, such as Condition is not enough, can also put and apply and spread fertilizer over the fields combination.In the faster 2~September part of weed growth, preferably every month, except once careless, removes Grass manually based on, and the January from October to Second Year then can optionally determine the weeding time.To blueberry sapling Specifically trim mode is:The treelet phase is pruned away except based on the weak branch in bottom, descending branch, overstocked branch, overlapping branch, weaker to tree vigo(u)r Tree, the bud erased on annotinous branch, Growing season carries out cutting back to the native long shoot in part;First fruiting period is pruned away except weak branch, is retained Golden mean of the Confucian school branch and part are compared with enriching shoot, the strong branch in cutting back periphery;Best fruiting period trimming removes weak branch, retains strong branch, rationally selects and remain flower Bud, finally determines to stay fruit to measure, annual summer, which rationally selects and remain, sprouts leaf shoot, progressive updating according to the situation of bearing fruit and young sprout pumping situation The adult bough of aging.
The following examples are only intended to describe the present invention in detail, and the scope of invention is not limited in any way.
(1) embodiment 1:
In 0.2 mu of planting soil ground spreading 800kg turfs, it is well mixed using rotary cultivator with soil, soil pH is adjusted It is whole 5.5 or so;Catched and killed in addition, carrying out underground pests while ground is revolved;Then railway carriage or compartment is played, railway carriage or compartment width is 100cm, is highly 50cm, and railway carriage or compartment has a gradient, ditch bottom width 80cm, in the compartment top portion setting plantation nest risen, the size of plantation nest for 45cm × 45cm, the distance between two plantation nests are 100cm, and planting density is 300 plants/acre;First added during field planting in plantation nest 0.06m3Turf, be then placed in blueberry seedling, insert loose soil, while shake while gently carry seedling, soil is filled with root system Tap is touched, and steady and sure soil pours root water, and try again the soil covering of railway carriage or compartment face, and cladding thickness is 30cm.After plantation is good, every Disposable fertilizer is applied within one month, until entering florescence;Every other month except once grass, and periodically being trimmed.The weight on this soil Multiple cropping is planted three times.
(2) comparative example 1:
In 0.2 mu of planting soil ground spreading 15kg Cosans and 100kg cow dungs, mixed with soil using rotary cultivator Even, soil pH is adjusted at 5.5 or so;Catched and killed in addition, carrying out underground pests while ground is revolved;Then railway carriage or compartment is played, railway carriage or compartment width is 100cm, is highly 50cm, and railway carriage or compartment has gradient, and ditch bottom width 80cm, in the compartment top portion setting plantation nest risen, plants nest Size is 45cm × 45cm, and the distance between two plantation nests are 100cm, and planting density is 300 plants/acre;In plantation during field planting Blueberry seedling is put into nest, loose soil is inserted, seedling is gently carried in shake, soil is fully contacted with root system, steady and sure soil Earth, pours root water, and try again the soil covering of railway carriage or compartment face, and cladding thickness is 30cm.After plantation is good, apply every other month once Fertilizer, until entering florescence;Every other month except once grass, and periodically being trimmed.Plantation three times is repeated on this soil.
(3) comparative example 2:
In 0.2 mu of planting soil ground spreading 15kg Cosans and 1000kg stalks, mixed with soil using rotary cultivator Even, soil pH is adjusted at 5.5 or so;Catched and killed in addition, carrying out underground pests while ground is revolved;Then railway carriage or compartment is played, railway carriage or compartment width is 100cm, is highly 50cm, and railway carriage or compartment has gradient, and ditch bottom width 80cm, in the compartment top portion setting plantation nest risen, plants nest Size is 45cm × 45cm, and the distance between two plantation nests are 100cm, and planting density is 300 plants/acre;In plantation during field planting Nest is put into blueberry seedling, inserts loose soil, gently carries seedling in shake, soil is fully contacted with root system, steady and sure soil, Root water is poured, try again the soil covering of railway carriage or compartment face, and cladding thickness is 30cm.After plantation is good, disposable fertilizer is applied every other month, directly To entering florescence;Every other month except once grass, and periodically being trimmed.Plantation three times is repeated on this soil.
(4) comparative example 3:
In 0.2 mu of planting soil ground spreading 15kg Cosans and 900kg sawdust powders, mixed with soil using rotary cultivator Even, soil pH is adjusted at 5.5 or so;Catched and killed in addition, carrying out underground pests while ground is revolved;Then railway carriage or compartment is played, railway carriage or compartment width is 100cm, is highly 50cm, and railway carriage or compartment has gradient, and ditch bottom width 80cm, in the compartment top portion setting plantation nest risen, plants nest Size is 45cm × 45cm, and the distance between two plantation nests are 100cm, and planting density is 300 plants/acre;In plantation during field planting Blueberry seedling is put into nest, loose soil is inserted, seedling is gently carried in shake, soil is fully contacted with root system, steady and sure soil Earth, pours root water, and try again the soil covering of railway carriage or compartment face, and cladding thickness is 30cm.After plantation is good, apply every other month once Fertilizer, until entering florescence;Every other month except once grass, and periodically being trimmed.Plantation three times is repeated on this soil.
To embodiment 1 and the fruit tree situation of comparative example 1~3, produce blueberry quality, quality and nutrient composition content and see Examine and determine, its result is as follows:
Each test group blueberry character situation:
Each test group blueberry output condition:
The index of quality situation of each test group blueberry:
By test data as can be seen that soil pH is improved to 5.5 left sides by 4 test groups by different processing modes The right side, under the almost identical experiment process of the content of organic matter, the blueberry growing way of 4 groups of experiments, Yield and quality have obvious difference. Turf treatment group is better than other treatment groups in blueberry growing way, Yield and quality.
Growing way situation is analyzed, and the blueberry of stalk treatment group grows fine, but the maturity period is irregular, and the small pulp of fruit is hard, mouth Feel general acidity larger;Sawdust treatment group blueberry growing way is general, and tree has early dead phenomenon, falls fruit situation seriously, fruit thin skin, fruit Powder is not thick;Cow dung treatment group growing way is normal, but subterranean pest-insect situation is relatively serious, and fruit mouthfeel is slightly weaker, and fruit powder is not thick;At turf Reason group grows fine, and the maturity period is neat, and fruit is good in taste.
Output condition is analyzed, and the yield of turf treatment group is apparently higher than other treatment groups, and Producing reason is mainly other Treatment group has the situation of the not good performance of part growing way, cow dung treatment group subterranean pest-insect and rotten of part after soil improvement Cause the underproduction, stalk treatment group fruit is small to cause yield not high, sawdust treatment group has part tree to have Earlydeath to cause unit plane The blueberry quantity of product output is reduced and the underproduction, and the relatively conventional mode of improving the soil of comprehensive analysis turf treatment group solves respective lack Point, causes yield to increase.
Quality condition is analyzed:Experiment determines the quality index such as anthocyanin, general flavone, vc, the protein of Blueberry, sends out Each index of existing turf group is above other treatment groups, and experiment shows that turf treatment group can influence the quality of Blueberry, makes it Nutrient composition content is increased, and improves its edibility.
After this programme is implemented, soil pH can effectively be improved to 4.5~5.5 scopes, and the content of organic matter meets blueberry growth, soil Earth gas permeability ensures the problem of blueberry occurs without root damage, it is to avoid subterranean pest-insect and harmful microbe growth, uses the party The operation period of blueberry can be allowed to carry the previous year after method, every mu of yield power is high by 40%~50%, blueberry grows vigorous, survival rate 98%, and quality has larger improvement.

Claims (3)

1. a kind of implantation methods that blueberry high yield is realized by soil improvement, it is characterized in that:Comprise the following steps:
(1) selection in plantation field is once improved with soil:Selection soil property is soft, be difficult the field catchmented, and its soil is carried out Once improve, the method that the soil is once improved is:Turf is sufficiently mixed with soil, every mu of soil turf consumption is 3500kg~4500kg;
(2) field is handled:Soil carries out desinsection processing after once improveing, and then plays railway carriage or compartment, and the railway carriage or compartment width is 80cm~100cm, Highly it is 50cm, a width of 70cm~80cm of bottom of trench, the distance between two compartment tops are 200cm~220cm, the size of plantation nest is 45cm × 45cm, nest is away from for 80cm~100cm, and planting density is 260~320 plants/acre;
(3) the secondary improvement of soil:0.05m is added in plantation nest3~0.1m3Turf;
(4) it is colonized:3~April or early September carry out blueberry plantation, and blueberry seedling is put into plantation nest during field planting, inserted loose Soil, gently carries seedling in shake, soil is fully contacted with root system, steady and sure soil pours root water, finally again on the face of railway carriage or compartment Cover 20~30cm soil;
(4) field management:
1. apply fertilizer:Applied fertilizer once to one month per two weeks in the treelet stage, fertilization mode is spread manuer in holes potassium sulfate, foliage-spray phosphorus Acid dihydride potassium, fertilizer amount is 8~10kg/ mus of potassium sulfate, 15~25kg/ mus of potassium dihydrogen phosphate;The bearing-age tree stage in three times Fertilising, respectively before the winter is entered, before blooming, as a result progress of rear three periods, fertilization mode is with the treelet stage, and fertilizer amount is sulfuric acid 15~20kg/ mus of potassium, 35~45kg/ mus of potassium dihydrogen phosphate;
2. weeding:Every 1~2 month artificial weeding once;
3. trim:The weak branch in bottom, descending branch, overstocked branch, overlapping branch are removed in the treelet phase, it is weaker to tree vigo(u)r to expand tree crown Tree, removes the bud on annotinous branch;First fruiting period removes weak branch, retains golden mean of the Confucian school branch, the strong branch in cutting back periphery;The best fruiting period removes Weak branch, retains strong branch.
2. the implantation methods according to claim 1 that blueberry high yield is realized by soil improvement, it is characterized in that:Step (1) When middle soil is once improved, every mu of soil turf consumption is 4000kg.
3. the implantation methods according to claim 1 that blueberry high yield is realized by soil improvement, it is characterized in that:Soil is secondary During improvement, addition 0.06m in plantation nest3Turf.
CN201710538725.XA 2017-07-04 2017-07-04 A kind of implantation methods that blueberry high yield is realized by soil improvement Pending CN107155624A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108157052A (en) * 2018-02-05 2018-06-15 广东科贸职业学院 The cultural method of blueberry tree
CN108738970A (en) * 2018-05-10 2018-11-06 凤冈县海瑞农业科技发展有限责任公司 A kind of cultural method of blueberry

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101779569A (en) * 2010-03-16 2010-07-21 郁有宁 Method for cultivating field blueberry
CN101904286A (en) * 2009-06-05 2010-12-08 董文卓 Method for growing blueberry
CN103329770A (en) * 2013-02-27 2013-10-02 河源市华睿蓝莓实业有限公司 New regulation of blueberry planting technology in subtropical regions
CN105230392A (en) * 2015-11-06 2016-01-13 长沙智博生物科技有限公司 Culture medium used for blueberry seedling and manufacturing method of culture medium
CN105794575A (en) * 2016-04-07 2016-07-27 江苏沃田农业股份有限公司 Blueberry planting and management method
CN105961113A (en) * 2016-05-09 2016-09-28 江西思科农业开发有限责任公司 Blueberry planting method suitable to be used in red soil hill and planted blueberry

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101904286A (en) * 2009-06-05 2010-12-08 董文卓 Method for growing blueberry
CN101779569A (en) * 2010-03-16 2010-07-21 郁有宁 Method for cultivating field blueberry
CN103329770A (en) * 2013-02-27 2013-10-02 河源市华睿蓝莓实业有限公司 New regulation of blueberry planting technology in subtropical regions
CN105230392A (en) * 2015-11-06 2016-01-13 长沙智博生物科技有限公司 Culture medium used for blueberry seedling and manufacturing method of culture medium
CN105794575A (en) * 2016-04-07 2016-07-27 江苏沃田农业股份有限公司 Blueberry planting and management method
CN105961113A (en) * 2016-05-09 2016-09-28 江西思科农业开发有限责任公司 Blueberry planting method suitable to be used in red soil hill and planted blueberry

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108157052A (en) * 2018-02-05 2018-06-15 广东科贸职业学院 The cultural method of blueberry tree
CN108738970A (en) * 2018-05-10 2018-11-06 凤冈县海瑞农业科技发展有限责任公司 A kind of cultural method of blueberry

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