CN107155434A - A kind of breeding method of multifunction manual woods - Google Patents

A kind of breeding method of multifunction manual woods Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107155434A
CN107155434A CN201710239115.XA CN201710239115A CN107155434A CN 107155434 A CN107155434 A CN 107155434A CN 201710239115 A CN201710239115 A CN 201710239115A CN 107155434 A CN107155434 A CN 107155434A
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tree
woods
goal
forest
afforestation
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CN107155434B (en
Inventor
刘世荣
明安刚
蔡道雄
贾宏炎
雷丽群
王晖
郭文福
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Experimental Center Of Tropical Forestry Chinese Academy Of Forestry
Research Institute of Forest Ecology Environment and Protection of Chinese Academy of Forestry
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Experimental Center Of Tropical Forestry Chinese Academy Of Forestry
Research Institute of Forest Ecology Environment and Protection of Chinese Academy of Forestry
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F17/00Preparation of fertilisers characterised by biological or biochemical treatment steps, e.g. composting or fermentation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F3/00Fertilisers from human or animal excrements, e.g. manure
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/40Afforestation or reforestation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of breeding method of multifunction manual woods, including:Forest land prepares:Cleaning forest land before afforestation, site preparation digs plant hole, per cave application of organic fertilizers;Seed prepares:Select intact terminal bud, well developed root system, the seed afforestation of no disease and pests harm;Afforestation:Gone up a hill afforestation from excellent strong sprout, uniform field planting;Tending management:Loosened the soil, interlucation, increment felling;Selection target tree:It is goal tree to select the red vertebra grown fine, and the forest that selection has other purposes is ancient tree, elite stand in special objective tree, woods;Density adjusting is managed with goal tree:Material goal tree is used in cutting interference tree, selective cutting;The selection and management of subculture goal tree.The present invention is cultivated forest reasonable distribution, managed and output, realizes the multifunction target of forestry, is realized the composite multifunction target of " timber is dominated landscape follow-up ecology and taken into account ", is reached the unification of economic, society and ecological functions.

Description

A kind of breeding method of multifunction manual woods
Technical field
The present invention relates to field of forestry, more specifically the present invention relates to the side that a kind of multi-functional red vertebra artificial forest is cultivated Method.
Background technology
Forest has carburetting emission reduction, water conservation, maintains soil fertility, Cleaning Air, the ecological benefits such as beautify the environment, and stops Spare time strolls about or have a rest, scientific research and education, cultural continuity, provide the social benefits such as employment.Its ecological benefits has turned into social benefit weighs gloomy The important indicator of woods Sustainable Operation.At present, China's forestry be in from based on wood producing to many work(based on ecological protection Energy forestry transformation period, the thinking managed using forest multiple target and means, are carried out multiple objective programming and decision-making, are to realize many work( The important channel of energy forestry.Red vertebra is represented as the important rare tree of south China, strong with annidation, the speed of growth It hurry up, natural regeneration ability is strong, and ability of fattening oneself is good, timber is worth high characteristic, be to carry out multiple target to cultivate most potential seeds One of.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of breeding method of multifunction manual woods, forest reasonable distribution is cultivated, managed With output, the multifunction target of forestry is realized.
The object of the present invention is achieved like this:A kind of breeding method of multifunction manual woods, it comprises the following steps:
Step 1: forest land prepares:Cleaning forest land before afforestation, site preparation digs plant hole, per cave 0.5~1.5Kg of application of organic fertilizers;
Step 2: seed prepares:Select intact terminal bud, well developed root system, the seed of no disease and pests harm;
Step 3: afforestation:Gone up a hill afforestation from excellent strong sprout, planting density is 1667~3333 plants/hectare, it is uniform fixed Plant, field planting carries out looking into seedling after-culture in 1~2 month;
Step 4: tending management:Loosen the soil within first 3 years after afforestation and foster per average annual progress, 6~8 years or closing of crop after afforestation Up to more than 0.9, carry out after interlucation, afforestation 10~13 years or Canopy densities are up to more than 0.8, carry out increment felling;
Step 5: the selection of goal tree:90~120 plants of the red vertebra that per hectare selection is grown fine is as goal tree, with fixed To big-diameter wood is cultivated, selection has animal habitat, can increase the forest of Stand Landscape or can increase its of standing forest species diversity His seeds are as special objective tree, and to increase ecological benefits, per hectare retains 8~12 plants as ancient tree in woods, permanent to retain, with Increase Landscape benefit, 5~10 plants of per hectare selection target tree is as elite stand, to drive natural regeneration in woods, goal tree, special mesh Mark tree, the forest in woods outside ancient tree and elite stand are used as general wood;
Step 6: density adjusting is managed with goal tree:Complete after goal tree selection, the general wood of cutting interference tree and part, Keep Canopy densities between 0.5~0.7 after felling, the cutting interval is 5 years, during cutting interference tree, is noted Protect the natural regeneration of goal tree and special objective tree and sylvan life;
Step 7: selective cutting goal tree:Selective cutting reaches more than 60cm goal tree using the diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground, while goal tree is felled, Protect other components in elite stand and woods, it is to avoid it sustains damage and destroyed;
Step 8: the selection and management of subculture goal tree:Goal tree enters standing forest upper strata, and sylvan life natural regeneration enters time woods Layer, selection next round goal tree is managed as the laggard line density regulation and control of subculture goal tree with goal tree.
Preferably, forest land height above sea level is less than 800m in the step one, and its soil thickness is more than 50cm, afforests first 1~3 Month complete forest land cleaning, do not refine mountain after the cleaning of forest land, site preparation is that cave is cultivated or band is cultivated, the plant hole specification be 50cm × 50cm × 40cm。
Preferably, rice straw, corn of the preparation method of organic fertilizer for cow dung per ton with crushing in the step one Stalk or soybean stalk 150~300Kg, 10~16Kg of fermenting agent are mixed, and carry out fermentation maturity 6~8 weeks.
Preferably, the fermenting agent includes bacillus subtilis 5~9%, bacillus licheniformis 5~9%, monococcus 17~23%, Trichoderma viride 20~40%, saccharomycete 15~24%, arthrobacterium 11~16%, streptomycete 2~8%.
Preferably, the bare-root seeding of seed requires 30~100cm of height of seedling, 0.25~1.5cm of ground diameter in the step 2, or Container seedling requires 25~95cm of height of seedling, 0.20~1cm of ground diameter.
Preferably, Afforestation Time is annual 2~March in the step 3.
Preferably, loosened the soil in the step 4 1~2 times/year, interlucation retains 1000~1800 plants/hectare, increment felling Retain 600~1200 plants/hectare.
Preferably, the time of selection target tree is 12~17 years or dominant tree mean stand height after afforestation in the step 5 More than 12m, goal tree does permanent marks, and life is given free rein to carry out ancient tree in individual plant management, special objective tree, elite stand and woods It is long, to increase ecological benefits and woodland scenery.
Preferably, the forest that interference tree grows for influence goal tree in the step 6.
Preferably, other components are treelet, seedling, the cave wood of natural regeneration, sylvan life in the woods in the step 7 Mushroom, dry and decayed wood.
The present invention at least includes following beneficial effect:
1. being less than 800m in height above sea level, soil thickness is more than 50cm field planting, can be prevented effectively from forest because height above sea level is too high, The lodging that wind speed is excessive and occurs, it is slow-growing etc., do not refined after the cleaning of forest land mountain be not only avoided that special objective tree, ancient tree in woods And mushroom resource is sustained damage, destroyed, moreover it is possible to keep carbon content higher in soil, be conducive to subsequent artefacts woods and mushroom resource Growth.
2. annual ground moistening in 2~March, temperature, illumination are suitable, now from seed bare-root seeding height of seedling 30~ 100cm, 0.25~1.5cm of ground diameter, or container seedling require 25~95cm of height of seedling, 0.20~1cm of ground diameter, can be effectively increased seed Survival rate.
3. the first three years every year loosen the soil making loosing soil after afforestation, it is easy to retain water and nutrients, promotes the growth of fine-root, In a planned way cut down by interlucation unless target seeds and bad plant, improve the living space of target seeds, to promote it to give birth to It is long, the density of crop is adjusted by increment felling, cut down except overstocked and undergrowth plant, accelerates elite plant growth, improves standing forest Quality.
4. utilizing goal tree by continuous cutting interference tree and selective cutting, elite stand is protected, promotes elite stand to sow, creates and is beneficial to day Condition in the woods so updated, drives sylvan life natural regeneration, and afforestation is after 20 years, and seedling natural regeneration quantity is up to 2000 plants/hm2With On, afforestation calibrates grade treelet quantity and reaches 200 plants/hm after 30 years up to rising2More than, realize that standing forest continuity is covered, form different age Multi-storied stand structure, improves the stability and diversity of standing forest, is harvesting medium and small diameter grade thinnings and especially big diameter grade preciousness material While, the ecological benefits and social benefit of sustained yield forest realize answering for " timber leading-landscape follow-up-ecology take into account " Multi-functional target is closed, the unification of Economic Function, social function and ecological functions is reached.
Embodiment
With reference to embodiment, the present invention is described in further detail, to make those skilled in the art with reference to specification Word can be implemented according to this.
A kind of a kind of way of realization of multifunction manual woods breeding method of the invention of embodiment 1, it comprises the following steps:
Step 1: forest land prepares:Select height above sea level be less than 800m, its soil thickness 100cm forest land, afforestation first 2 months it is complete Into forest land cleaning, mountain is not refined after the cleaning of forest land, it is to avoid ancient tree and mushroom resource are sustained damage, destroyed in special objective tree, woods, also Carbon content higher in soil can be kept, is conducive to the growth of subsequent artefacts woods and mushroom resource, site preparation is that cave is cultivated or band is cultivated, institute Plant hole specification is stated for 50cm × 50cm × 40cm, per cave application of organic fertilizers 1.5Kg, in favor of the growth of seedlings root.
Step 2: seed prepares:Select intact terminal bud, well developed root system, the seed afforestation of no disease and pests harm, the bare-root seeding of seed It is required that 30~100cm of height of seedling, 0.25~1.5cm of ground diameter, or container seedling require 25~95cm of height of seedling, 0.20~1cm of ground diameter, with profit In the survival rate for improving seed.
Step 3: afforestation:Gone up a hill afforestation from excellent strong sprout, Afforestation Time is annual 2 months, and now rainfall is plentiful, soil Moistening, temperature, illumination are suitable, can improve the survival rate of seed, and planting density is 2500 plants/hectare, and uniform field planting is colonized 2 Carry out looking into seedling after-culture in month, make then that weed survival rate is up to more than 90%, large bamboo hat with a conical crown and broad brim year storage rate is up to more than 85%.
Step 4: tending management:Make loosing soil per loosening the soil every year 1 time, be easy to retain water and nutrients within first 3 years after afforestation, promote 6 years after the growth of fine-root, afforestation, interlucation is carried out, retains plant/hectare of goal tree 1000, small diameter grade material is harvested and has Cut down to plan unless target seeds and bad plant, improve the living space of target seeds, to promote it to grow, 10 after afforestation Year, carry out increment felling, retain plant/hectare of goal tree 600, harvest medium and small diameter grade material and simultaneously adjust the density of crop, cut down except overstocked and The plant of undergrowth, accelerates elite plant growth, improves stand quality.
Step 5: selection target tree:The time selected with material goal tree is that 12 years after afforestation, per hectare selection is grown fine 90 plants of red vertebra tree as goal tree, with directive breeding big-diameter wood, selection has animal habitat, can increase the special use such as Stand Landscape The forest on way can increase other seeds of standing forest species diversity as special objective tree, to increase ecological benefits, per public Hectare retain 8 plants as ancient tree in woods, it is permanent to retain, to increase Landscape benefit, 5 plants of per hectare selection target tree as elite stand, with Drive natural regeneration in woods, goal tree, special objective tree, ancient tree in woods, the forest outside elite stand are used as general wood.
Step 6: density adjusting is managed with goal tree:Complete after goal tree selection, the general wood of cutting interference tree and part, Keep Canopy densities between 0.5~0.7 after felling, the cutting interval is 5 years, during cutting interference tree, is noted Protect the natural regeneration of goal tree and special objective tree and sylvan life.
Step 7: selective cutting goal tree:Selective cutting reaches more than 60cm goal tree using the diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground, while goal tree is felled, Protect other components in elite stand and woods, it is to avoid it sustains damage and destroyed.
Step 8: the selection and management of subculture goal tree:Goal tree enters standing forest upper strata, and sylvan life natural regeneration enters time woods Layer, selection next round goal tree is managed as the density adjusting carried out after subculture goal tree in the step 6 with goal tree.
The red vertebra tree of cultivation of the inventive method is compared with masson pine forest of the same age, and mean stand height is higher than masson pine forest by 23.2%, Mean DBH increment is bigger than masson pine forest by 19.1%, and stand is higher than masson pine forest of the same age by 37.1%, and Soil carbon storage is obviously improved, 0-60cm Soil carbon storages 266.6t/hm2, it is higher than masson pine forest by 42.8%;By way of the clear felling refining mountain afforestation traditional changing, So that Productive statistics cost is greatly lowered.
Experimental example 2
A kind of a kind of way of realization of multifunction manual woods breeding method of the present invention, it comprises the following steps:
Step 1: forest land prepares:Height above sea level is selected to be less than 800m, its soil thickness 60cm forest land is afforested first 1 month and completed Forest land is cleared up, and does not refine mountain after the cleaning of forest land, it is to avoid special objective tree, ancient tree and mushroom resource are sustained damage, destroyed, moreover it is possible to kept Higher carbon content in soil, is conducive to the growth of subsequent artefacts woods and mushroom resource, and site preparation is that cave is cultivated or band is cultivated, the plant hole Specification is 50cm × 50cm × 40cm, per cave application of organic fertilizers 1Kg, in favor of the growth of seedlings root.The making of the organic fertilizer Method is cow dung per ton and the rice straw 200Kg crushed, includes bacillus subtilis 5%, bacillus licheniformis 5%, single ball Bacterium 17%, Trichoderma viride 40%, saccharomycete 15%, arthrobacterium 15%, the fermenting agent 14Kg of streptomycete 3% are mixed, and are entered Row fermentation maturity 7 weeks.
Step 2: seed prepares:Select intact terminal bud, well developed root system, the seed afforestation of no disease and pests harm, the bare-root seeding of seed It is required that 30~100cm of height of seedling, 0.25~1.5cm of ground diameter, or container seedling require 25~95cm of height of seedling, 0.20~1cm of ground diameter, with profit In the survival rate for improving seed, in favor of improving the survival rate of seed.
Step 3: afforestation:Gone up a hill afforestation from excellent strong sprout, Afforestation Time is annual March, and now rainfall is plentiful, soil Moistening, temperature, illumination are suitable, can improve the survival rate of seed, and planting density is 3333 plants/hectare, and uniform field planting is colonized 1 Carry out looking into seedling after-culture in month, make then that weed survival rate is up to more than 90%, large bamboo hat with a conical crown and broad brim year storage rate is up to more than 85%.
Step 4: tending management:Make loosing soil per loosening the soil every year 2 times, be easy to retain water and nutrients within first 3 years after afforestation, promote The growth of fine-root, closing of crop carries out interlucation up to more than 0.9, retains red plant/hectare of vertebra 1800, and harvest small diameter grade is used Material is simultaneously in a planned way cut down unless target seeds and bad plant, improve the living space of target seeds, to promote it to grow, standing forest Canopy density carry out increment felling up to more than 0.8, retain red plant/hectare of vertebra 1200, harvest medium and small diameter grade material and to adjust standing forest close Degree, cuts down except overstocked and undergrowth plant, accelerates elite plant growth, improves stand quality.
Step 5: selection target tree:The time selected with material goal tree is dominant tree mean stand height 13m, and selection growing way is good Good red plant/hectare of vertebra tree 120 is goal tree, and with directive breeding big-diameter wood, selection has animal habitat, can increase Stand Landscape etc. The forest of specific use can increase other seeds of standing forest species diversity as special objective tree, to increase Ecological Effect Benefit, per hectare retains 8 plants as ancient tree in woods, permanent to retain, to increase Landscape benefit, the 10 plants of conducts of per hectare selection target tree Elite stand, to drive natural regeneration in woods, goal tree, special objective tree, ancient tree in woods, the forest outside elite stand are used as general wood.
Step 6: density adjusting is managed with goal tree:Complete after goal tree selection, the general wood of cutting interference tree and part, Keep Canopy densities between 0.5~0.7 after felling, the cutting interval is 5 years, small diameter material is harvested, in cutting interference During tree, note protecting the natural regeneration of goal tree and special objective tree and sylvan life.
Step 7: selective cutting goal tree:Selective cutting reaches more than 60cm goal tree using the diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground, harvests large diameter preciousness material, While goal tree is felled, other components in protection elite stand and woods, it is to avoid it sustains damage and destroyed.
Step 8: the selection and management of subculture goal tree:Goal tree enters standing forest upper strata, and sylvan life natural regeneration enters time woods Layer, selection next round goal tree is used as the density adjusting that can be carried out after subculture goal tree in the step 6 and goal tree pipe Reason.
By using rich carbon organic fertilizer, the carbon content in soil can be increased, play a part of retain water and nutrients, it is strongly fragrant by standing forest Degree of closing determines the time of interlucation and increment felling, and it is more flexible, more reasonable to operate, and interlucation and life are carried out in the appropriate time Length is cut down, that is, ensure that the space needed for red vertebra tree fast-growth, is ensured making full use of for luminous energy again, is improved small diameter timber Output, adds economic benefit.
Embodiment 3
A kind of a kind of way of realization of multifunction manual woods breeding method of the present invention, it comprises the following steps:
Step 1: forest land prepares:Height above sea level is selected to be less than 800m, its soil thickness 60cm forest land is afforested first 1 month and completed Forest land is cleared up, and does not refine mountain after the cleaning of forest land, it is to avoid special objective tree, ancient tree and mushroom resource are sustained damage, destroyed, moreover it is possible to kept Higher carbon content in soil, is conducive to the growth of subsequent artefacts woods and mushroom resource, and site preparation is that cave is cultivated or band is cultivated, the plant hole Specification is 50cm × 50cm × 40cm, per cave application of organic fertilizers 1Kg, in favor of the growth of seedlings root.
Step 2: seed prepares:Select intact terminal bud, well developed root system, the seed afforestation of no disease and pests harm, the bare-root seeding of seed It is required that 30~100cm of height of seedling, 0.25~1.5cm of ground diameter, or container seedling require 25~95cm of height of seedling, 0.20~1cm of ground diameter, with profit In the survival rate for improving seed, in favor of improving the survival rate of seed.
Step 3: afforestation:Gone up a hill afforestation from excellent strong sprout, Afforestation Time is annual March, and now rainfall is plentiful, soil Moistening, temperature, illumination are suitable, can improve the survival rate of seed, and planting density is 2500 plants/hectare, and uniform field planting is colonized 1 Carry out looking into seedling after-culture in month, make then that weed survival rate is up to more than 90%, large bamboo hat with a conical crown and broad brim year storage rate is up to more than 85%.
Step 4: tending management:Make loosing soil per loosening the soil every year 2 times, be easy to retain water and nutrients within first 3 years after afforestation, promote The growth of fine-root, closing of crop carries out interlucation up to more than 0.9, retains red plant/hectare of vertebra 1500, and harvest small diameter grade is used Material is simultaneously in a planned way cut down unless target seeds and bad plant, improve the living space of target seeds, to promote it to grow, standing forest Canopy density carry out increment felling up to more than 0.8, retain red plant/hectare of vertebra 800, harvest medium and small diameter grade material and adjust the density of crop, The plant except overstocked and undergrowth is cut down, accelerates elite plant growth, improves stand quality.
Step 5: selection target tree:The time selected with material goal tree is dominant tree mean stand height 13m, and selection growing way is good Good plant/hectare of red vertebra 90 is goal tree, and with directive breeding big-diameter wood, selection has animal habitat, can increase the spies such as Stand Landscape The forest of different purposes can increase other seeds of standing forest species diversity as special objective tree, to increase ecological benefits, Per hectare retains 8 plants as ancient tree in woods, permanent to retain, and to increase Landscape benefit, 10 plants of per hectare selection target tree is as female Tree, to drive natural regeneration in woods, after making afforestation 20 years, seedling natural regeneration quantity is up to 2000 plants/hm2More than, afforest 30 years Afterwards, calibrate grade treelet quantity and reach 200 plants/hm up to rising2More than, realize that standing forest continuity is covered, form different age multi-storied stand knot Structure, improves the stability and diversity of standing forest, while medium and small diameter grade thinnings and especially big diameter grade preciousness material is harvested, continues forever Harvest the ecological benefits and social benefit of forest, goal tree, special objective tree, ancient tree in woods, the forest outside elite stand are as general Wood.
Step 6: density adjusting is managed with goal tree:Complete after goal tree selection, the general wood of cutting interference tree and part, Keep Canopy densities between 0.5~0.7 after felling, the cutting interval is 5 years, small diameter material is harvested, in cutting interference During tree, note protecting the natural regeneration of goal tree and special objective tree and sylvan life.
Step 7: selective cutting goal tree:Selective cutting reaches more than 60cm goal tree using the diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground, harvests large diameter preciousness material, While goal tree is felled, other components in protection elite stand and woods, it is to avoid it sustains damage and destroyed.
Step 8: the selection and management of subculture goal tree:Goal tree enters standing forest upper strata, and sylvan life natural regeneration enters time woods Layer, selection next round goal tree is used as the density adjusting that can be carried out after subculture goal tree in the step 6 and goal tree pipe Reason.
The breeding method of the present invention realizes the natural regeneration of artificial forest, with general people by the reservation and protection of elite stand Work forest form ratio is by reducing later stage seed input and artificial input so that cultivate cost reduction by more than 40%;By changing tradition Standing forest clear cutting system mode, realize standing forest continuity covering, soil is played a very good protection, be effectively prevent Soil erosion, moreover it is possible to lasting output timber;By the layer point of forest, the efficiency of light energy utilization is higher by 33.45% than general artificial forest, So that timber output capacity is higher by 12.83% than general artificial forest;By using the directive breeding of material goal tree, large diameter is obtained valuable With material, economic well-being of workers and staff more than 70% is dramatically increased.
Embodiment 4
A kind of a kind of way of realization of multifunction manual woods breeding method of the present invention, it comprises the following steps:
Step 1: forest land prepares:Height above sea level is selected to be less than 800m, its soil thickness 60cm forest land is afforested first 1 month and completed Forest land is cleared up, and does not refine mountain after the cleaning of forest land, it is to avoid special objective tree, ancient tree and mushroom resource are sustained damage, destroyed, moreover it is possible to kept Higher carbon content in soil, is conducive to the growth of subsequent artefacts woods and mushroom resource, and site preparation is that cave is cultivated or band is cultivated, the plant hole Specification is 50cm × 50cm × 40cm, per cave application of organic fertilizers 1Kg, in favor of the growth of seedlings root.
Step 2: seed prepares:Select intact terminal bud, well developed root system, the seed afforestation of no disease and pests harm, the bare-root seeding of seed It is required that 30~100cm of height of seedling, 0.25~1.5cm of ground diameter, or container seedling require 25~95cm of height of seedling, 0.20~1cm of ground diameter, with profit In the survival rate for improving seed, in favor of improving the survival rate of seed.
Step 3: afforestation:Gone up a hill afforestation from excellent strong sprout, Afforestation Time is annual March, and now rainfall is plentiful, soil Moistening, temperature, illumination are suitable, can improve the survival rate of seed, and planting density is 1667 plants/hectare, and uniform field planting is colonized 1 Carry out looking into seedling after-culture in month, make then that weed survival rate is up to more than 90%, large bamboo hat with a conical crown and broad brim year storage rate is up to more than 85%.
Step 4: tending management:Make loosing soil per loosening the soil every year 2 times, be easy to retain water and nutrients within first 3 years after afforestation, promote The growth of fine-root, closing of crop carries out interlucation up to more than 0.9, retains red plant/hectare of vertebra 1000, and harvest small diameter grade is used Material is simultaneously in a planned way cut down unless target seeds and bad plant, improve the living space of target seeds, to promote it to grow, standing forest Canopy density carry out increment felling up to more than 0.8, retain red plant/hectare of vertebra 600, harvest medium and small diameter grade material and adjust the density of crop, The plant except overstocked and undergrowth is cut down, accelerates elite plant growth, improves stand quality.
Step 5: selection target tree:The time selected with material goal tree is dominant tree mean stand height 13m, and selection growing way is good Good plant/hectare of red vertebra 120 is goal tree, with directive breeding big-diameter wood, and selection has the animal habitats such as Bird's Nest or honeycomb, can increased Plus the forest such as the sweetgum or sapium discolor of the bright-coloured leaf color such as Stand Landscape or other seeds of standing forest species diversity can be increased make For special objective tree, to increase ecological benefits, per hectare retains 8 plants as ancient tree in woods, permanent to retain, to increase landscape effect Benefit, 10 plants of per hectare selection target tree is as elite stand, to drive natural regeneration in woods, and after making afforestation 20 years, red vertebra seedling is natural Quantity is updated up to 2000 plants/hm2More than, afforestation calibrates grade treelet quantity and reaches 200 plants/hm after 30 years up to rising2More than, realize woods Divide continuity covering, form different age multi-storied stand structure, improve the stability and diversity of standing forest, harvest medium and small diameter grade intermediate cutting While material and especially big diameter grade preciousness material, the ecological benefits and social benefit of sustained yield forest, goal tree, special objective Tree, ancient tree in woods, the forest outside elite stand are used as general wood.
Step 6: density adjusting is managed with goal tree:Complete after goal tree selection, the general wood of cutting interference tree and part, Keep Canopy densities between 0.5~0.7 after felling, the cutting interval is 5 years, small diameter material is harvested, in cutting interference During tree, note protecting the natural regeneration of goal tree and special objective tree and sylvan life.
Step 7: selective cutting goal tree:When the goal tree diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground reaches more than 60cm, you can selective cutting is utilized, harvest large diameter is precious With material, while goal tree is felled, other components in protection elite stand and woods, it is to avoid it sustains damage and destroyed.
Step 8: the selection and management of subculture goal tree:Goal tree enters standing forest upper strata, and sylvan life natural regeneration enters time woods Layer, selection next round goal tree is used as the density adjusting that can be carried out after subculture goal tree in the step 6 and goal tree pipe Reason.
The multifunction manual woods breeding method of the present invention, it is special by reasonably selecting the forests such as sweetgum or sapium discolor to be used as Goal tree, can be prevented effectively from artificial forest pest and disease damage problem because caused by seeds are single, add the stability of artificial forest, moreover it is possible to Diversified habitat is provided for various birds, insect etc., it is ensured that their growth reproduction, the ecology for adding artificial forest is more Sample, that is, add the ecological benefits of artificial forest.
Embodiment 5
A kind of a kind of way of realization of multifunction manual woods breeding method of the present invention, it comprises the following steps:
Step 1: forest land prepares:Height above sea level is selected to be less than 800m, its soil thickness 60cm forest land is afforested first 1 month and completed Forest land is cleared up, and does not refine mountain after the cleaning of forest land, it is to avoid special objective tree, ancient tree and mushroom resource are sustained damage, destroyed, moreover it is possible to kept Higher carbon content in soil, is conducive to the growth of subsequent artefacts woods and mushroom resource, and site preparation is that cave is cultivated or band is cultivated, the plant hole Specification is 50cm × 50cm × 40cm, per cave application of organic fertilizers 1Kg, in favor of the growth of seedlings root.
Step 2: seed prepares:Select intact terminal bud, well developed root system, the seed afforestation of no disease and pests harm, the bare-root seeding of seed It is required that 30~100cm of height of seedling, 0.25~1.5cm of ground diameter, or container seedling require 25~95cm of height of seedling, 0.20~1cm of ground diameter, with profit In the survival rate for improving seed, in favor of improving the survival rate of seed.
Step 3: afforestation:Gone up a hill afforestation from excellent strong sprout, Afforestation Time is annual March, and now rainfall is plentiful, soil Moistening, temperature, illumination are suitable, can improve the survival rate of seed, and planting density is 2500 plants/hectare, and uniform field planting is colonized 1 Carry out looking into seedling after-culture in month, make then that weed survival rate is up to more than 90%, large bamboo hat with a conical crown and broad brim year storage rate is up to more than 85%.
Step 4: tending management:Make loosing soil per loosening the soil every year 2 times, be easy to retain water and nutrients within first 3 years after afforestation, promote The growth of fine-root, closing of crop carries out interlucation up to more than 0.9, retains red plant/hectare of vertebra 1200, and harvest small diameter grade is used Material is simultaneously in a planned way cut down unless target seeds and bad plant, improve the living space of target seeds, to promote it to grow, standing forest Canopy density carry out increment felling up to more than 0.8, retain red plant/hectare of vertebra 900, harvest medium and small diameter grade material and adjust the density of crop, The plant except overstocked and undergrowth is cut down, accelerates elite plant growth, improves stand quality.
Step 5: selection target tree:The time selected with material goal tree is dominant tree mean stand height 13m, and selection growing way is good Good plant/hectare of red vertebra 120 is goal tree, with directive breeding big-diameter wood, and selection has the animal habitats such as Bird's Nest or honeycomb, can increased Plus the forest such as the sweetgum or sapium discolor of the bright-coloured leaf color such as Stand Landscape or other seeds of standing forest species diversity can be increased make For special objective tree, to increase ecological benefits, per hectare retains 8 plants as ancient tree in woods, permanent to retain, to increase landscape effect Benefit, 10 plants of per hectare selection target tree is as elite stand, to drive natural regeneration in woods, and after making afforestation 20 years, red vertebra seedling is natural Quantity is updated up to 2000 plants/hm2More than, afforestation calibrates grade treelet quantity and reaches 200 plants/hm after 30 years up to rising2More than, realize woods Divide continuity covering, form different age multi-storied stand structure, improve the stability and diversity of standing forest, harvest medium and small diameter grade intermediate cutting While material and especially big diameter grade preciousness material, the ecological benefits and social benefit of sustained yield forest, goal tree, special objective Tree, ancient tree in woods, the forest outside elite stand are used as general wood.
Step 6: density adjusting is managed with goal tree:Complete after goal tree selection, the general wood of cutting interference tree and part, Keep Canopy densities between 0.5~0.7 after felling, the cutting interval is 5 years, small diameter material is harvested, in cutting interference During tree, note protecting the natural regeneration of goal tree and special objective tree and sylvan life, wherein interference tree is influence goal tree The forest of growth.
Step 7: selective cutting goal tree:Selective cutting reaches more than 60cm goal tree using the diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground, harvests large diameter preciousness material, While goal tree is felled, other components in protection elite stand and woods, it is to avoid it sustains damage and destroyed, wherein natural regeneration Treelet, seedling, cave wood, sylvan life mushroom, dry and decayed wood.By cutting interference tree or the residue of selective cutting material goal tree, chopping is simultaneously Forest land is retained in, is that the growth of the natural edible bacterium such as russule is numerous so that it forms soil humic layer with fallen leaves and dry and decayed wood etc. Grow and create conditions.
Step 8: the selection and management of subculture goal tree:Goal tree enters standing forest upper strata, and sylvan life natural regeneration enters time woods Layer, selection next round goal tree is used as the density adjusting that can be carried out after subculture goal tree in the step 6 and goal tree pipe Reason.
The multifunction manual woods breeding method of the present invention, by by the residue of cutting interference tree or selective cutting goal tree, cutting It is broken and be retained in forest land, so that it forms soil humic layer with fallen leaves and dry and decayed wood etc., not only act as soil protection, avoided water The effect that soil is lost in, the also growth and breeding for the natural edible bacterium such as russule creates conditions, can make economic benefit increase by 5% with On.
Although embodiment of the present invention is disclosed as above, it is not restricted in specification and embodiment listed With it can be applied to various suitable the field of the invention completely, can be easily for those skilled in the art Other modification is realized, therefore under the universal limited without departing substantially from claim and equivalency range, the present invention is not limited In specific details and shown here as the embodiment with description.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of breeding method of multifunction manual woods, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
Step 1: forest land prepares:Cleaning forest land before afforestation, site preparation digs plant hole, per cave 0.5~1.5Kg of application of organic fertilizers;
Step 2: seed prepares:Select intact terminal bud, well developed root system, the seed of no disease and pests harm;
Step 3: afforestation:Gone up a hill afforestation from excellent strong sprout, planting density is 1667~3333 plants/hectare, uniform field planting is fixed Plant and carry out looking into seedling after-culture in 1~2 month;
Step 4: tending management:Loosen the soil within first 3 years after afforestation and fosters per average annual progress, 6~8 years or closing of crop are up to 0.9 after afforestation More than, interlucation is carried out, 10~13 years or Canopy densities carry out increment felling up to more than 0.8 after afforestation;
Step 5: the selection of goal tree:90~120 plants of the red vertebra that per hectare selection is grown fine is as goal tree, to orient training Big-diameter wood is educated, selection has animal habitat, can increase the forest of Stand Landscape or can increase other trees of standing forest species diversity Plant as special objective tree, to increase ecological benefits, per hectare retains 8~12 plants as ancient tree in woods, permanent to retain, to increase Landscape benefit, 5~10 plants of per hectare selection target tree is as elite stand, to drive natural regeneration in woods, goal tree, special objective Tree, the forest in woods outside ancient tree and elite stand are used as general wood;
Step 6: density adjusting is managed with goal tree:Complete after goal tree selection, the general wood of cutting interference tree and part is felled Keep Canopy densities between 0.5~0.7 afterwards, the cutting interval is 5 years, during cutting interference tree, notes protection Goal tree and the natural regeneration of special objective tree and sylvan life;
Step 7: selective cutting goal tree:Selective cutting reaches more than 60cm goal trees using the diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground, and while goal tree is felled, protection is female Other components in tree and woods, it is to avoid it sustains damage and destroyed;
Step 8: the selection and management of subculture goal tree:Goal tree enters standing forest upper strata, and sylvan life natural regeneration enters substorey, Next round goal tree is selected to be managed as the laggard line density regulation and control of subculture goal tree with goal tree.
2. a kind of breeding method of multifunction manual woods according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Step one middle forest Ground height above sea level is less than 800m, and its soil thickness is more than 50cm, afforests first 1~3 month and completes forest land cleaning, is not refined after the cleaning of forest land Mountain, site preparation is that cave is cultivated or band is cultivated, and the plant hole specification is 50cm × 50cm × 40cm.
3. a kind of breeding method of multifunction manual woods according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Have in the step one Rice straw, maize straw or soybean stalk 150~300Kg, zymophyte of the preparation method of machine fertilizer for cow dung per ton with crushing 10~16Kg of agent is mixed, and carries out fermentation maturity 6~8 weeks.
4. a kind of breeding method of multifunction manual woods according to claim 3, it is characterised in that:The fermenting agent bag Containing bacillus subtilis 5~9%, bacillus licheniformis 5~9%, monococcus 17~23%, Trichoderma viride 20~40%, yeast Bacterium 15~24%, arthrobacterium 11~16%, streptomycete 2~8%.
5. a kind of breeding method of multifunction manual woods according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Seedling in the step 2 The bare-root seeding planted requires that 30~100cm of height of seedling, 0.25~1.5cm of ground diameter, or container seedling require 25~95cm of height of seedling, ground diameter 0.20 ~1cm.
6. a kind of breeding method of multifunction manual woods according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Made in the step 3 The woods time is annual 2~March.
7. a kind of breeding method of multifunction manual woods according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:It is loose in the step 4 1~2 times/year of soil, interlucation retains red plant/hectare of vertebra 1000~1800, and increment felling retains red plant/hectare of vertebra tree 600~1200.
8. a kind of breeding method of multifunction manual woods according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Selected in the step 5 It is that 12~17 years after afforestation or dominant tree mean stand height are more than 12m to select the time of goal tree, and goal tree does permanent marks, to enter Row individual plant is managed, and ancient tree gives free rein to growth in special objective tree, elite stand and woods, to increase ecological benefits and woodland scenery.
9. a kind of breeding method of multifunction manual woods according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Done in the step 6 Disturb forest of the tree for influence goal tree growth.
10. a kind of breeding method of multifunction manual woods according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:In the step 7 Woods in other components be the treelet of natural regeneration, seedling, cave wood, sylvan life mushroom, dry and decayed wood.
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CN111264267B (en) * 2020-01-22 2022-03-04 中国林业科学研究院热带林业研究所 Method for improving quality, increasing efficiency and thinning eucalyptus urophylla
CN111713369A (en) * 2020-06-30 2020-09-29 湖南省林业科学院 Method for updating slash pine under forest stand

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