CN107144466B  Device and method for determining nonlinear mechanical behavior of geotechnical material in drawing test  Google Patents
Device and method for determining nonlinear mechanical behavior of geotechnical material in drawing test Download PDFInfo
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 CN107144466B CN107144466B CN201710369245.5A CN201710369245A CN107144466B CN 107144466 B CN107144466 B CN 107144466B CN 201710369245 A CN201710369245 A CN 201710369245A CN 107144466 B CN107144466 B CN 107144466B
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 239000000463 material Substances 0.000 title claims abstract description 82
 239000002689 soil Substances 0.000 claims abstract description 37
 238000006073 displacement reaction Methods 0.000 claims description 20
 238000000034 method Methods 0.000 claims description 14
 238000009864 tensile test Methods 0.000 claims description 8
 239000000126 substance Substances 0.000 claims description 7
 230000000875 corresponding Effects 0.000 claims description 4
 238000010008 shearing Methods 0.000 claims 1
 238000004458 analytical method Methods 0.000 description 4
 230000005484 gravity Effects 0.000 description 4
 239000002390 adhesive tape Substances 0.000 description 3
 210000002435 Tendons Anatomy 0.000 description 2
 238000010586 diagram Methods 0.000 description 2
 230000000694 effects Effects 0.000 description 2
 239000004746 geotextile Substances 0.000 description 2
 230000004048 modification Effects 0.000 description 1
 238000006011 modification reaction Methods 0.000 description 1
 230000002787 reinforcement Effects 0.000 description 1
 230000003068 static Effects 0.000 description 1
Classifications

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01N—INVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
 G01N3/00—Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
 G01N3/08—Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01N—INVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
 G01N3/00—Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
 G01N3/24—Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady shearing forces

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01N—INVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
 G01N2203/00—Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
 G01N2203/0014—Type of force applied
 G01N2203/0016—Tensile or compressive
 G01N2203/0017—Tensile

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01N—INVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
 G01N2203/00—Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
 G01N2203/0014—Type of force applied
 G01N2203/0025—Shearing
Abstract
The invention discloses a device and a method for determining nonlinear mechanical behavior of a geotechnical material in a drawing test, wherein the device comprises a test box, a soil body is contained in the test box, and downward vertical pressure is arranged at the top of the soil body; the side surface of the test box is provided with a geotechnical material test piece which is transversely inserted into the soil body, and the end part of the geotechnical material test piece is provided with a fixing device; draw the geotechnological material test piece in the soil body through fixing device, the soil body gives geotechnological material test piece certain shear resistance.
Description
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of civil engineering, in particular to a device and a method for determining nonlinear mechanical behavior of a geotechnical material in a drawing test.
Background
The principle of the drawing test is a friction effect, and the rib materials and the soil body are tightly combined by applying normal stress, so that the static friction force on the mutual interfaces is utilized to resist external force (drawing force). The data that can be directly measured during the drawing test are the pulling force F provided by the drawing apparatus and the overall displacement u of the drawn material. At present, the analysis method for the drawing experiment result cannot analyze the stress, strain and displacement generated by the reinforced soil in the process of the drawing damage, and cannot give sufficient information of the displacement and strain generated by the reinforced material before the drawing damage. Therefore, the invention provides a method for determining the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the geotechnical material in the drawing test, which can analyze the displacement, strain and stress of the reinforcement in the soil, simulate the test process, process the test data and greatly improve the reliability of the analysis result.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a device for analyzing nonlinear mechanical behavior of a geotechnical material in a drawing test and a determination method based on the drawing test.
In order to solve the technical problems in the prior art, the technical scheme of the device adopted by the invention is as follows:
the device for determining the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the geotechnical material in the drawing test comprises a test box, wherein a soil body is contained in the test box, and the top of the soil body is provided with downward vertical pressure; the side surface of the test box is provided with a geotechnical material test piece which is transversely inserted into the soil body, and the end part of the geotechnical material test piece is provided with a fixing device; draw the geotechnological material test piece in the soil body through fixing device, the soil body gives geotechnological material test piece certain shear resistance.
Furthermore, the conducting adhesive tapes are arranged at intervals along the axial direction of the geotechnical material test piece.
The method for determining the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the geotechnical material in the drawing test by adopting the device comprises the following steps:
step 1, measuring tension F and displacement u which are applied to a geotechnical material test piece and a crosssectional area A of the geotechnical material to obtain axial tensile stress sigma;
step 2, obtaining a balance differential equation of the geotechnical material micro element body according to the stress balance of the geotechnical material micro element body in a drawing test;
step 3, establishing a formula between the axial tensile stress sigma and the strain epsilon of the geotechnical material according to the stressstrain curve of the geotechnical material in the whole process; expressing the sigmaepsilon relation by a doublefold line model;
step 4, approximately considering a relation curve of the friction force tau between the reinforced soil and the displacement u of the geotechnical material test piece as a hyperbolic model;
step 5, obtaining the distribution of the displacement u of the geotechnical material test piece relative to the length variable x of the geotechnical material test piece according to the relationship obtained in the step 2, the step 3 and the step 4, and determining the relationship between tau, sigma and epsilon and x; a relationship between any two of σ, τ, u, and ε is obtained.
The specific process is as follows:
further, step 1, measuring the tensile force F and the displacement u which are applied to the geotechnical material test piece and the crosssectional area A of the geotechnical material to obtain the axial tensile stress sigma;
further, step 2, obtaining a balance differential equation of the geotechnical material infinitesimal body according to the stress balance of the geotechnical material infinitesimal body in the drawing test, namely the formula (2):
F+dFF+2τ(Δx+Δw)dx＝0 (2)
simplification yields equation (3) as follows:
dσ·A＝2τ(1+ε)dx (3)
wherein, among others,representing the strain of the geotechnical material, wherein deltax represents the length of the geotechnical material micro element body before deformation, and deltaw represents the elongation of the micro element body after deformation; tau represents the friction between the reinforced soils; dx represents the length of the geotechnical material infinitesimal body; dF represents the micropulling force applied to the microelement; d σ represents the microaxial tensile stress to which the microelement is subjected.
Further, step 3, establishing a formula between the axial tensile stress sigma and the strain epsilon of the geotechnical material according to the stressstrain curve of the geotechnical material in the whole process; expressing the sigmaepsilon relation by a doublefold line model;
σ_{u}＝E_{l}·ε_{u} (5)
E_{1}、E_{2}is the modulus of elasticity of the geomaterial; point (. epsilon.)_{u},σ_{u}) Is the turning point of geotechnical strain and axial tensile stress, E_{1}、E_{2}、ε_{u}And σ_{u}Determined by uniaxial tensile testing; du represents the displacement corresponding to the infinitesimal body; dx represents the length of the geotechnical material infinitesimal body; wherein epsilon_{u}Should be the turning pointChange, sigma_{u}Is the inflection point stress.
Further, step 4, approximately considering a relation curve of the friction force tau between the reinforced soil and the displacement u of the geotechnical material test piece as a hyperbolic model;
wherein, the slope of the tangent at the initial point is:
when u → ∞, equation (7) is:
where b is the asymptotic value of the hyperbola. Tau is_{ul}Is only one theoretical value, so b is also expressed as:
wherein R is_{uf}The proportion of the interface shear failure is within the range of 0.800.95; tau is_{f}Is the maximum shear strength, which can be determined by a shear strength test; a is a process parameter.
Further, the four unknowns of steps 5 σ, τ, u, and ε are all related to x, and the load transfer equation can be established by deriving equations (3) (4) (6) (7) as follows:
when x is less than or equal to x_{u}Or epsilon is not less than epsilon_{u}The method comprises the following steps:
wherein the content of the first and second substances,b is a constant. x is the number of_{u}Strain epsilon of turning point_{u}Corresponding xaxis seatThe norm being epsilon (x)_{u})＝ε_{u}；
When x is>x_{u}Or epsilon<ε_{u}The method comprises the following steps:
wherein the content of the first and second substances,
the boundary conditions of the equation are:
when x is 0, σ is σ 0 or
When x is equal to l, σ is equal to 0 or
Wherein, F_{0}The tensile force of the load end in the drawing test can be directly determined by the test; l is the length of the geotextile material.
Equations (11) and (12) are the distribution of u with respect to x, and then τ, σ, and ε are determined in accordance with equations (3), (4), (6), and (7). Thus the relationship between any two of σ, τ, u, and ε may be determined.
The invention has the following beneficial effects:
the invention can determine the distribution of the stress, strain, displacement and frictional resistance of the bar material along the length of the bar material in the drawing process of the same kind of soil through a simple bar material tensile test and a bar soil direct shear test, and is beneficial to researching the engineering problems of stress deformation of the bar material in the soil, structural stability of reinforced soil and the like.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings used in the description of the embodiments or the prior art will be briefly introduced below, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are some embodiments of the present invention, and for those skilled in the art, other drawings can be obtained according to these drawings without creative efforts.
FIG. 1 drawing test apparatus;
FIG. 2 is a force analysis diagram of a microelement with a length dx as a research object;
FIG. 3 is a graph of uniaxial tensile test data for a geomaterial;
FIG. 4 is a shear stressdisplacement relationship diagram obtained by a direct shear friction test;
FIG. 5 is a graph of the relationship between maximum shear stress and normal confining pressure obtained by a direct shear friction test;
FIGS. 6, 7, 8 and 9 are graphs of the tensile stress σ, strain ε, displacement u and shear stress τ, respectively, along the length of the specimen;
FIG. 10 is a graph comparing the results of the pull test with the results of the formula calculation;
in the figure: 1tension, 2fixing device, 3geotechnical material test piece, 4conductive adhesive tape, 5shear resistance, 6vertical pressure, 7soil body and 8test box.
Detailed Description
It should be noted that the following detailed description is exemplary and is intended to provide further explanation of the disclosure. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this application belongs.
It is noted that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of example embodiments according to the present application. As used herein, the singular forms "a", "an" and "the" are intended to include the plural forms as well, and it should be understood that when the terms "comprises" and/or "comprising" are used in this specification, they specify the presence of stated features, steps, operations, devices, components, and/or combinations thereof, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.
The drawing test device shown in fig. 1 comprises a test box, wherein a soil body 7 is contained in the test box 8, and a downward vertical pressure 6 is arranged at the top of the soil body 7; a geotechnical material test piece 3 transversely inserted in the soil body is arranged on the side face of the test box 8, a conductive adhesive tape 4 is arranged at the part of the geotechnical material test piece 3 inserted in the soil body, and a fixing device 2 is arranged at the end part of the geotechnical material test piece; draw in the soil body to geotechnological material test piece through fixing device 2, implement pulling force 1, the soil body gives certain shear resistance 5 of geotechnological material test piece.
The specific determination method comprises the following steps:
in the drawing test, the tensile force F and the displacement u are directly measurable, i.e. known quantities.
In the formula: f, tension;
a, the crosssectional area of the geotechnical material;
σ — axial tensile stress.
Now, a section of the infinitesimal body with the length dx is selected as a research object, and the stress analysis is shown in fig. 2. Due to the influence of gravity factors of the geotechnical material, the shear resistance tau of the upper surface and the lower surface of the geotechnical material is unequal, but the gravity of the geotechnical material is very small relative to the soil body gravity and the vertical pressure born by the geotechnical material, so that the influence of the gravity factors of the geotechnical material on the shear resistance can be ignored, namely the shear resistance of the upper surface and the shear resistance of the lower surface of the geotechnical material are equal. The following formula is obtained:
F+dFF+2τ(Δx+Δw)dx＝0 (2)
simplification yields equation (3) as follows:
dσ·A＝2τ(1+ε)dx (3)
wherein epsilon is the strain of the geotechnical material; τ represents the friction between the tendons.
FIG. 3 is a graph of uniaxial tensile test data for a geomaterial, i.e., an overall process stressstrain (σ  ε) curve; the method mainly comprises four stages; however, the first two stages are mainly considered because the geomaterials in the drawing test enter the second stage most of the time when they are destroyed. The patent constructs the relation between sigma and epsilon into a doublefold line model, and satisfies the following formula:
σ_{u}＝E_{l}·ε_{u} (5)
E_{1}、E_{2}is the modulus of elasticity of the geomaterial; point (. epsilon.)_{u},σ_{u}) Is a turning point, E_{1}、E_{2}、ε_{u}And σ_{u}As determined by uniaxial tensile testing. Wherein epsilon_{u}Is the ultimate compressive strain.
The friction forcetendon displacement relation curve (tauu) between tendons and soils is approximately considered as a hyperbolic model:
wherein, the slope of the tangent at the initial point is:
when u approaches infinity, equation (7) is:
where b is the asymptotic value of the hyperbola. Tau is_{ul}Is only a theoretical value, so the expression of b is also expressed as:
wherein R is_{uf}The proportion of the interface shear failure is within the range of 0.800.95; tau is_{f}Is the maximum shear strength and can be determined by shear strength testing.
By deriving equations (3) (4) (6) (7), the following relationship can be established:
when x is less than or equal to x_{u}Or epsilon is not less than epsilon_{u}The method comprises the following steps:
wherein the content of the first and second substances,b is a constant.
When x is>x_{u}Or epsilon<ε_{u}The method comprises the following steps:
wherein the content of the first and second substances,
the boundary conditions of the equation are:
when x is 0, σ is σ 0 or
When x is equal to l, σ is equal to 0 or
Wherein, F_{0}The tensile force of the load end in the drawing test can be directly determined by the test; l is the length of the geotextile material.
Equations (11) and (12) are the distribution of u with respect to x, and then τ, σ, and ε are determined in accordance with equations (3), (4), (6), and (7). Thus the relationship between any two of σ, τ, u, and ε may be determined.
Engineering example:
a novel SEG (sensorenabled geotex) was used as the test material, the crosssectional area being 42.5mm^{2}And (3) performing a bar tensile test and a reinforced soil direct shear test to determine parameters, and then performing a drawing test to verify the accuracy of the formula:
(1) the tensile test results, i.e., the stressstrain (. sigma.  ε) curve of the overall process, are shown in FIG. 3. The parameters can be determined: e_{1}＝1.39,E_{2}＝0.21,ε_{u}＝8.18,σ_{u}＝11.38MPa.
(2) As shown in FIGS. 4 and 5, it was confirmed that the initial modulus was 4.00kPa/mm, 6.24kPa/mm and 7.80kPa/mm at normal pressures of 100kPa,200kPa and 400kPa, respectively. Apparent cohesion c_{sg}20.7kPa, interface friction angleAnd was 67.3.
(3) From the above parameters, the following results can be obtained by calculation according to equations (11) (12) and boundary conditions:
1. the distribution of σ, τ, u, and ε along x is shown in FIGS. 69.
2. The sigmau curve, as shown in fig. 10. Can be used for comparison with the drawing test results.
(4) According to the curve chart, the relation curve of sigmau calculated by the formula is consistent with the test result.
Although the embodiments of the present invention have been described with reference to the accompanying drawings, it is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention, and it should be understood by those skilled in the art that various modifications and variations can be made without inventive efforts by those skilled in the art based on the technical solution of the present invention.
Claims (6)
1. A method for determining the nonlinear mechanical behavior of a geotechnical material in a drawing test is based on a device for determining the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the geotechnical material in the drawing test and comprises a test box, wherein a soil body is contained in the test box, and the top of the soil body is provided with downward vertical pressure; the side surface of the test box is provided with a geotechnical material test piece which is transversely inserted into the soil body, and the end part of the geotechnical material test piece is provided with a fixing device; drawing the geotechnical material test piece in a soil body through the fixing device, wherein the soil body provides certain shearing resistance to the geotechnical material test piece; the method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
step 1, measuring tension F and displacement u which are applied to a geotechnical material test piece and a crosssectional area A of the geotechnical material to obtain axial tensile stress sigma;
step 2, obtaining a balance differential equation of the geotechnical material micro element body according to the stress balance of the geotechnical material micro element body in a drawing test;
step 3, establishing a formula between the axial tensile stress sigma and the strain epsilon of the geotechnical material according to the stressstrain curve of the geotechnical material in the whole process; expressing the sigmaepsilon relation by a doublefold line model;
step 4, approximately considering a relation curve of the friction force tau between the reinforced soil and the displacement u of the geotechnical material test piece as a hyperbolic model;
step 5, obtaining the distribution of the displacement u of the geotechnical material test piece relative to the length variable x of the geotechnical material test piece according to the relationship obtained in the step 2, the step 3 and the step 4, and determining the relationship between tau, sigma and epsilon and x; a relationship between any two of σ, τ, u, and ε is obtained.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the axial tensile stress in step 1 is solved as follows:
3. the method according to claim 1, wherein the step 2 is to obtain an equilibrium differential equation of the infinitesimal body of the geotechnical material according to the stress balance of the infinitesimal body of the geotechnical material in the drawing test, namely the equation (2):
F+dFF+2τ(Δx+Δw)dx＝0 (2)
simplification yields equation (3) as follows:
dσ·A＝2τ(1+ε)dx (3)
wherein the content of the first and second substances,representing the strain of the geotechnical material, wherein deltax represents the length of the geotechnical material micro element body before deformation, and deltaw represents the elongation of the micro element body after deformation; tau represents the friction between the reinforced soils; dx represents the length of the geotechnical material infinitesimal body; dF represents the micropulling force applied to the microelement; d σ represents the microaxial tensile stress to which the microelement is subjected.
4. A method according to claim 3, wherein step 3 establishes a formula between σ e based on the stressstrain curve of the geomaterial throughprocess; the sigmaepsilon relationship is expressed using a doublefold model:
σ_{u}＝E_{1}·ε_{u} (5)
E_{1}、E_{2}is the modulus of elasticity of the geomaterial; point (. epsilon.)_{u},σ_{u}) Is the turning point of geotechnical strain and axial tensile stress, E_{1}、E_{2}、ε_{u}And σ_{u}Determined by uniaxial tensile testing; du represents the displacement corresponding to the infinitesimal body; dx represents the length of the geotechnical material infinitesimal body; wherein epsilon_{u}Is the strain of the turning point, sigma_{u}Is the inflection point stress.
5. The method according to claim 4, wherein the intertendon frictiondisplacement relationship curve (τ u) of step 4 is approximately considered as a hyperbolic model:
wherein, the slope of the tangent at the initial point is:
when u approaches infinity, equation (7) is:
wherein b is the asymptotic value of the hyperbola; tau is_{ul}Is only one theoretical value, so b can also be expressed as:
wherein R is_{uf}The proportion of the interface shear failure is within the range of 0.800.95; tau is_{f}Is the maximum shear strength, which can be determined by a shear strength test; a is a process parameter.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein the specific process of step 5 is as follows:
four unknowns, σ, τ, u, and ε, are all related to x, and by deriving equations (3) (4) (6) (7), the load transfer equation can be established as follows:
when x is less than or equal to x_{u}Or epsilon is not less than epsilon_{u}The method comprises the following steps:
wherein the content of the first and second substances,b is a constant; x is the number of_{u}Strain epsilon of turning point_{u}Corresponding xaxis coordinate, i.e. ε (x)_{u})＝ε_{u}；
When x is>x_{u}Or epsilon<ε_{u}The method comprises the following steps:
wherein the content of the first and second substances,
the boundary conditions of the equation are:
when x is 0, σ is σ_{0}Or
When x is equal to l, σ is equal to 0 or
Wherein, F_{0}The tensile force of the load end in the drawing test can be directly determined by the test; l is the length of the geomaterials;
equations (11) and (12) are the distribution of u with respect to x, and then τ, σ, and ε are determined as a function of x according to equations (3) (4) (6) and (7); thus the relationship between any two of σ, τ, u, and ε may be determined.
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