CN107135764A - A kind of salt-soda soil Alfalfa Growing technology - Google Patents

A kind of salt-soda soil Alfalfa Growing technology Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107135764A
CN107135764A CN201710312411.8A CN201710312411A CN107135764A CN 107135764 A CN107135764 A CN 107135764A CN 201710312411 A CN201710312411 A CN 201710312411A CN 107135764 A CN107135764 A CN 107135764A
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soil
salt
alfalfa
water
time
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CN201710312411.8A
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Inventor
张延林
李天银
李建勇
孙鹏中
刘军
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Gansu Yasheng Pastoral Industry Refco Group Ltd
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Gansu Yasheng Pastoral Industry Refco Group Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of salt-soda soil Alfalfa Growing technology, including salt-soda soil pretreatment, sowing, field management, determine four key steps such as harvest.No matter the yield of soil constituent or alfalfa is varied widely the present invention before and after improvement, the salt rejection rate of wherein soil reaches as high as 50.22%, the dry weight of unit area alfalfa adds 0.21-0.30kg, water content has reduction by a small margin, reduction degree is 0.30-2.13%, and per mu yield value added is 139.14-199.33kg.So there is significant effect in terms of Soil Utilization rate, improvement land quality is improved in the present invention, and considerable achievement is also achieved in terms of the plantation of alfalfa, simultaneously during pasture growing, also act as the effect checked winds and fixed drifting sand, therefore, the present invention has considerable economic benefit and social benefit.

Description

A kind of salt-soda soil Alfalfa Growing technology
Technical field
The present invention relates to agricultural plantation technology field, a kind of salt-soda soil Alfalfa Growing technology is specifically referred to.
Background technology
Saline-alkali soil is a kind of widely distributed soil types in earth land, accounts for the 25% of the land gross area.Only China The area in salt-soda soil just has more than 3,300 ten thousand hectares, and the salt-soda soil newly increased every year in the Huanghe delta area of Shandong Province is up to 6000 hectares, in the areas such as northwest, West of The Northeast China and the Inner Mongol, particularly Yellow River irrigation, while production is greatly developed, no Note the management and regulation supporting, with water of drainage and irrigation project so that saline Land area is still constantly expanding, substantial amounts of soil Therefore fall into disuse.The main of the harm of the salinization of soil is presented with:1. crop failure, soluble organic fraction content is big, the soil liquid Excessive concentration, osmotic pressure is big, causes crop to be unable to normal growth, causes crop failure.2. soil fertility declines:Soil texture Deteriorate, hinder plant root growth, not only influence plant to water, fertilizer absorption, also reduce soil to water, fertilizer, air and heat supply And coordination, but also limit the further raising of soil fertility and the performance of potential fertility.3. soil resource hardly possible is utilized:It is saline and alkaline Harm form it is substantial amounts of in, low-yield land, be difficult by large area soil resource, overall productivity in agriculture declines, ecological Environmental disruption, has a strong impact on the raising of Agriculture Production and life of farmers level.In consideration of it, the utilization for salt-soda soil at present Rate is generally relatively low, for Hexi Region of Gansu Province, and desertification is serious, using soil wretched insufficiency, if so being capable of profit With pasture crops such as salt-soda soil plantation alfalfa, oats, not only for the soil shortage problem for solving the area such as Hexi Corridor Have great importance, and can play a part of checking winds and fixing drifting sand, improve salt-soda soil.
The content of the invention
The technical problems to be solved by the invention are to provide a kind of salt-soda soil Alfalfa Growing technology.
To solve the above problems, a kind of salt-soda soil Alfalfa Growing technology of the present invention, is comprised the steps of:
(1)Salt-soda soil is pre-processed:Because salt-soda soil is present, soil salt table is poly- to cause earth's surface formation alkali bag, causes crop to be short of seedling, Therefore desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching row's alkali process must be first carried out prior to seeding, and the processing is general to be carried out in annual 6-September part;Kept after processing Soil-ripening is waited to broadcast;
(2)Sowing:It need to be applied fertilizer before sowing according to base fertilizer standard, from being vaccinated with the capsuled seed of rhizobium as pale reddish brown lucerne Mu sowing kind, is sowed using seeding machinery, and the application rate on every mu of ground is 2.5-3.5kg, and sowing line-spacing is 130-150mm, Depth is 10-20mm;
(3)Field management:Field management is after planting carried out, according to clover different growth phases, upgrowth situation and soil regime Irrigate and apply fertilizer in good time, and to carry out pest and disease damage prevention, preventing and controlling;
(4)Survey production harvest:Every batch of clover cradles in pregnant flower bud phase, and every 50 mu of core demonstration area takes a sampled point, and ten thousand mu of high yields show Every 200-300 mu of model area takes a sampling point is artificial before harvesting to be sampled survey production, and 5-6cm of the height for the stubble left, each sampling point is big Small is 1 square metre, accurate after harvesting to claim sampling point fresh grass weight, and the accurate title sampling point hay weight after sample dries, by weighing data Insert yield monitoring table.
Further, desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching row's alkali process specific practice is to carry out 30-40cm to soil in 6-September part to plough deeply Afterwards, a water, each 260-300m of irrigation quantity were fully filled every ten days3/ mu, and earth's surface water must be kept to be not less than 25cm, such as This repeats to pour water 3-5 times.
Further, the base fertilizer standard be 48-54kg of calcium superphosphate, 8-12kg of Diammonium phosphate (DAP), nitric acid 20-25kg of phosphorus, 15-20kg of potassium sulfate, 30-35kg of Angel Yeast.
Further, the irrigation norm in the field management period is:It should irrigate enough in time in the germination period of breaking ground Peace root water, it is ensured that soil moisture content is 70-80%, and duty standard is every mu of 40-42m3, treat that alfalfa is emerged life Answer timely light irrigation to irrigate when growing 3-4 true leaves, irrigate and require that the upper uniform field ponding of water was advisable no more than 4 hours;It is biennial to stay Bed clover spring soil defrosting clover should irrigate once when turning green in mid or late April, and every batch of clover should also pour water in time after cradling, The first planting, regrowth hair alfalfa growing phase are striven for pouring water 2 times, and irrigation method is flood irrigation, and irrigation volume is 26-40m3Under in/mu, and 10 months Ten days to mid-November fills water of surviving the winter in time.
Further, the production harvest approximate time of surveying is:One batch of alfalfa sampling time is the beginning of June, when regrowth hair samples Between be late July, three batches of sample times are late September.
The present invention has advantages below compared with prior art:
No matter the yield of soil salt or alfalfa is varied widely the present invention before and after improvement, wherein soil Salt rejection rate reaches as high as 50.22%, and the dry weight of unit area alfalfa adds 0.21-0.30kg, and water content has by a small margin Reduction, reduction degree be 0.30-2.13%, per mu yield value added be 139.14-199.33kg.So the present invention is improving soil There is significant effect in terms of earth utilization rate, improvement land quality, and also achieved in terms of the plantation of alfalfa Considerable achievement, while during pasture growing, also acting as the effect checked winds and fixed drifting sand, therefore, the present invention has considerable warp Benefit of helping and social benefit.
Embodiment
The present invention and its effect will be described further by embodiment below.
Embodiment 1:A kind of salt-soda soil Alfalfa Growing technology
(1)Salt-soda soil is pre-processed:Because salt-soda soil is present, soil salt table is poly- to cause earth's surface formation alkali bag, causes crop to be short of seedling, Therefore desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching row's alkali process must be first carried out prior to seeding, and desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching row's alkali process specific practice is that soil is carried out in June After the ploughing deeply of 30cm, a water, each irrigation quantity 260m were fully filled every ten days3/ mu, and earth's surface water must be kept to be not less than 20cm, so repeats to pour water 3 times;Soil-ripening is kept to wait to broadcast after processing;
(2)Sowing:Need to be according to calcium superphosphate 48kg, Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 8kg, nitric acid phosphorus 20kg, potassium sulfate 15kg, Angel ferment before sowing Female 30kg base fertilizer standard is applied fertilizer, and from the coating alfalfa seed for being vaccinated with rhizobium as sowing kind, is used Seeding machinery is sowed, and the application rate on every mu of ground is 2.5kg, and sowing line-spacing is 130mm, and depth is 10mm;
(3)Field management:Field management is after planting carried out, according to clover different growth phases, upgrowth situation and soil regime Irrigate and apply fertilizer in good time, and to carry out pest and disease damage prevention, preventing and controlling, the irrigation norm in field management period is:In seed hair The bud period of breaking ground should irrigate enough peace root water in time, it is ensured that soil moisture content is 70-80%, and duty standard is every mu 40m3, answer timely light irrigation to irrigate when alfalfa is emerged and grows 3-4 true leaves, irrigate and require the uniform field ponding of upper water not It was advisable more than 4 hours;It is biennial to stay a clover spring soil defrosting clover to be irrigated once in mid or late April when turning green, every batch Clover should also pour water in time after cradling, and the first planting, regrowth hair alfalfa growing phase are striven for pouring water 2 times, and irrigation method is flood irrigation, and irrigation volume is 26m3/ mu, and water of surviving the winter is filled in time mid or late October to mid-November;
(4)Survey production harvest:Surveying production harvest approximate time is:One batch of alfalfa sampling time is the beginning of June, regrowth hair sample time For late July, three batches of sample times are late September;Every 50 mu of core demonstration area takes a sampled point before every batch of clover harvesting, Every 200 mu of ten thousand mu of yielding Demonstration areas take a sampling point is artificial before harvesting to be sampled survey production, 5-6cm of the height for the stubble left, each sample Point size is 1 square metre, accurate after harvesting to claim sampling point fresh grass weight, and accurately claims sampling point hay weight after sample dries, and will be weighed Data insert yield monitoring table.
Embodiment 2:A kind of salt-soda soil Alfalfa Growing technology
(1)Salt-soda soil is pre-processed:Because salt-soda soil is present, soil salt table is poly- to cause earth's surface formation alkali bag, causes crop to be short of seedling, Therefore desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching row's alkali process must be first carried out prior to seeding, and desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching row's alkali process specific practice is that soil is entered in the last ten-days period in July After the ploughing deeply of row 35cm, a water, each irrigation quantity 280m were fully filled every ten days3/ mu, and earth's surface water must be kept to be not less than 22.5cm, so repeats to pour water 4 times;Soil-ripening is kept to wait to broadcast after processing;
(2)Sowing:Before sowing need to according to calcium superphosphate 51kg, Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 10kg, nitric acid phosphorus 22.5kg, potassium sulfate 17.5kg, Angel Yeast 32.5kg base fertilizer standard is applied fertilizer, and is used from the coating alfalfa seed for being vaccinated with rhizobium as sowing Kind, sowed using seeding machinery, the application rate on every mu of ground is 3kg, and sowing line-spacing is 140mm, and depth is 15mm;
(3)Field management:Field management is after planting carried out, according to clover different growth phases, upgrowth situation and soil regime Irrigate and apply fertilizer in good time, and to carry out pest and disease damage prevention, preventing and controlling, the irrigation norm in field management period is:In seed hair The bud period of breaking ground should irrigate enough peace root water in time, it is ensured that soil moisture content is 70-80%, and duty standard is every mu 41m3, answer timely light irrigation to irrigate when alfalfa is emerged and grows 3-4 true leaves, irrigate and require the uniform field ponding of upper water not It was advisable more than 4 hours;It is biennial to stay a clover spring soil defrosting clover to be irrigated once in mid or late April when turning green, every batch Clover should also pour water in time after cradling, and the first planting, regrowth hair alfalfa growing phase are striven for pouring water 2 times, and irrigation method is flood irrigation, and irrigation volume is 33m3/ mu, and water of surviving the winter is filled in time mid or late October to mid-November;
(4)Survey production harvest:Surveying production harvest approximate time is:One batch of alfalfa sampling time is the beginning of June, regrowth hair sample time For late July, three batches of sample times are late September;Every 50 mu of core demonstration area takes a sampled point before every batch of clover harvesting, Every 200 mu of ten thousand mu of yielding Demonstration areas take a sampling point is artificial before harvesting to be sampled survey production, 5-6cm of the height for the stubble left, each sample Point size is 1 square metre, accurate after harvesting to claim sampling point fresh grass weight, and accurately claims sampling point hay weight after sample dries, and will be weighed Data insert yield monitoring table.
Embodiment 3:A kind of salt-soda soil Alfalfa Growing technology
(1)Salt-soda soil is pre-processed:Because salt-soda soil is present, soil salt table is poly- to cause earth's surface formation alkali bag, causes crop to be short of seedling, Therefore desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching row's alkali process must be first carried out prior to seeding, and desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching row's alkali process specific practice is that soil is carried out in September part After the ploughing deeply of 40cm, a water, each irrigation quantity 300m were fully filled every ten days3/ mu, and earth's surface water must be kept to be not less than 25cm, so repeats to pour water 5 times;Soil-ripening is kept to wait to broadcast after processing;
(2)Sowing:Need to be according to calcium superphosphate 54kg, Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 12kg, nitric acid phosphorus 25kg, potassium sulfate 20kg, Angel before sowing Yeast 35kg base fertilizer standard is applied fertilizer, and from the coating alfalfa seed for being vaccinated with rhizobium as sowing kind, is adopted Sowed with seeding machinery, the application rate on every mu of ground is 4kg, and sowing line-spacing is 150mm, and depth is 20mm;
(3)Field management:Field management is after planting carried out, according to clover different growth phases, upgrowth situation and soil regime Irrigate and apply fertilizer in good time, and to carry out pest and disease damage prevention, preventing and controlling, the irrigation norm in field management period is:In seed hair The bud period of breaking ground should irrigate enough peace root water in time, it is ensured that soil moisture content is 70-80%, and duty standard is every mu 42m3, answer timely light irrigation to irrigate when alfalfa is emerged and grows 3-4 true leaves, irrigate and require the uniform field ponding of upper water not It was advisable more than 4 hours;It is biennial to stay a clover spring soil defrosting clover to be irrigated once in mid or late April when turning green, every batch Clover should also pour water in time after cradling, and the first planting, regrowth hair alfalfa growing phase are striven for pouring water 2 times, and irrigation method is flood irrigation, and irrigation volume is 40m3/ mu, and water of surviving the winter is filled in time mid or late October to mid-November;
(4)Survey production harvest:Surveying production harvest approximate time is:One batch of alfalfa sampling time is the beginning of June, regrowth hair sample time For late July, three batches of sample times are late September;Every 50 mu of core demonstration area takes a sampled point before every batch of clover harvesting, Every 200 mu of ten thousand mu of yielding Demonstration areas take a sampling point is artificial before harvesting to be sampled survey production, 5-6cm of the height for the stubble left, each sample Point size is 1 square metre, accurate after harvesting to claim sampling point fresh grass weight, and accurately claims sampling point hay weight after sample dries, and will be weighed Data insert yield monitoring table.
Soil sample before and after being improved to embodiment 1,2 and 3 is simultaneously chemically examined, and result is counted in table 1, simultaneously The alfalfa output of collection embodiment 1,2 and 3 is filled in table 2, and is compared analysis, statistic analysis result with data before improvement It is as follows:
Soil constituent statistical analysis table before and after the alkaline land improving of table 1
Alfalfa Output statistical analysis table before and after the alkaline land improving of table 2
It can be seen that by above statistical data analysis:No matter the yield of soil constituent or alfalfa is changing embodiment 1,2 and 3 Varied widely before and after good, the salt rejection rate of wherein soil reaches as high as 50.22%, the dry weight of unit area alfalfa 0.21-0.30kg is added, water content has reduction by a small margin, and reduction degree is 0.30-2.13%, and per mu yield value added is 139.14-199.33kg, therefore, the present invention have considerable economic benefit and social benefit.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of salt-soda soil Alfalfa Growing technology, it is characterised in that:Comprise the steps of:
(1)Salt-soda soil is pre-processed:Because salt-soda soil is present, soil salt table is poly- to cause earth's surface formation alkali bag, causes crop to be short of seedling, Therefore desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching row's alkali process must be first carried out prior to seeding, and the processing is general to be carried out in annual 6-September part;Kept after processing Soil-ripening is waited to broadcast;
(2)Sowing:It need to be applied fertilizer before sowing according to base fertilizer standard, from being vaccinated with the capsuled seed of rhizobium as pale reddish brown lucerne Mu sowing kind, is sowed using seeding machinery, and the application rate on every mu of ground is 2.5-3.5kg, and sowing line-spacing is 130-150mm, Depth is 10-20mm;
(3)Field management:Field management is after planting carried out, according to clover different growth phases, upgrowth situation and soil regime Irrigate and apply fertilizer in good time, and to carry out pest and disease damage prevention, preventing and controlling;
(4)Survey production harvest:Every batch of clover cradles in pregnant flower bud phase, and every 50 mu of core demonstration area takes a sampled point, and ten thousand mu of high yields show Every 200-300 mu of model area takes a sampling point is artificial before harvesting to be sampled survey production, and 5-6cm of the height for the stubble left, each sampling point is big Small is 1 square metre, accurate after harvesting to claim sampling point fresh grass weight, and the accurate title sampling point hay weight after sample dries, by weighing data Insert yield monitoring table.
2. a kind of salt-soda soil Alfalfa Growing technology according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:At the desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching row alkali Reason specific practice is after 6-September part carries out the ploughing deeply of 30-40cm to soil, a water fully to be filled every ten days, is filled every time 260-300m of water3/ mu, and earth's surface water must be kept to be not less than 20cm, so repeat to pour water 3-5 times.
3. a kind of salt-soda soil Alfalfa Growing technology according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The base fertilizer standard is 48-54kg of calcium superphosphate, 8-12kg of Diammonium phosphate (DAP), nitric acid 20-25kg of phosphorus, 15-20kg of potassium sulfate, Angel Yeast 30- 35kg。
4. a kind of salt-soda soil Alfalfa Growing technology according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:During the field management The irrigation norm of phase is:Enough peace root water should be irrigated in time in the germination period of breaking ground, it is ensured that soil moisture content be 70- 80%, duty standard is every mu of 40-42m3, answer timely light irrigation to irrigate when alfalfa is emerged and grows 3-4 true leaves, Irrigate and require that the upper uniform field ponding of water was advisable no more than 4 hours;It is biennial to stay after a clover spring soil defrosting clover turns green, It should be irrigated once in mid or late April, every batch of clover should also pour water in time after cradling, the first planting, regrowth hair alfalfa growing phase strive for pouring water 2 Secondary, irrigation method is flood irrigation, and irrigation volume is 26-40m3/ mu, and water of surviving the winter is filled in time mid or late October to mid-November.
5. a kind of salt-soda soil Alfalfa Growing technology according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:It is described to survey production harvest greatly Generally the time is:One batch of alfalfa sampling time is the beginning of June, and regrowth hair sample time is late July, and three batches of sample times are nine The last ten-days period moon.
CN201710312411.8A 2017-05-05 2017-05-05 A kind of salt-soda soil Alfalfa Growing technology Withdrawn CN107135764A (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107711353A (en) * 2017-11-16 2018-02-23 青海大学 A kind of Caidamu Basin salt-soda soil alfalfa cultivation method
CN107711397A (en) * 2017-10-30 2018-02-23 潍坊友容实业有限公司 Plant alfalfa and the method for improveing clay fertilizer situation in salt-soda soil
CN107820766A (en) * 2017-11-16 2018-03-23 潍坊友容实业有限公司 Heavy salinized region clover improves implantation methods
CN109122174A (en) * 2018-09-14 2019-01-04 内蒙古蒙草生态环境(集团)股份有限公司 A kind of sandy grassland clover type of seeding and implantation methods
CN113973654A (en) * 2021-11-05 2022-01-28 宁夏农林科学院农业资源与环境研究所(宁夏土壤与植物营养重点实验室) Method for improving emergence rate of alfalfa planting in moderate saline-alkali soil in northern arid area

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CN102845204A (en) * 2012-09-07 2013-01-02 大连民族学院 Method for planting alfalfa in moderately severe carbonate saline-alkali soil on large scale
CN102845203A (en) * 2012-09-07 2013-01-02 大连民族学院 Method for planting alfalfa in moderately severe alkaline sulfuric acid saline soil on large scale
CN106165603A (en) * 2016-07-11 2016-11-30 山东胜伟园林科技有限公司 A kind of method of saline-alkali wetland plantation alfalfa
CN106233949A (en) * 2016-05-06 2016-12-21 石河子大学 A kind of alfalfa drip irrigation high yield cultivating method

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CN101904265A (en) * 2010-07-22 2010-12-08 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所 Method for cultivating alfalfa in low- salt and -alkali cultivated land
CN102845204A (en) * 2012-09-07 2013-01-02 大连民族学院 Method for planting alfalfa in moderately severe carbonate saline-alkali soil on large scale
CN102845203A (en) * 2012-09-07 2013-01-02 大连民族学院 Method for planting alfalfa in moderately severe alkaline sulfuric acid saline soil on large scale
CN106233949A (en) * 2016-05-06 2016-12-21 石河子大学 A kind of alfalfa drip irrigation high yield cultivating method
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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107711397A (en) * 2017-10-30 2018-02-23 潍坊友容实业有限公司 Plant alfalfa and the method for improveing clay fertilizer situation in salt-soda soil
CN107711353A (en) * 2017-11-16 2018-02-23 青海大学 A kind of Caidamu Basin salt-soda soil alfalfa cultivation method
CN107820766A (en) * 2017-11-16 2018-03-23 潍坊友容实业有限公司 Heavy salinized region clover improves implantation methods
CN109122174A (en) * 2018-09-14 2019-01-04 内蒙古蒙草生态环境(集团)股份有限公司 A kind of sandy grassland clover type of seeding and implantation methods
CN113973654A (en) * 2021-11-05 2022-01-28 宁夏农林科学院农业资源与环境研究所(宁夏土壤与植物营养重点实验室) Method for improving emergence rate of alfalfa planting in moderate saline-alkali soil in northern arid area

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Application publication date: 20170908