CN107124131A  A kind of motor control method of newenergy automobile  Google Patents
A kind of motor control method of newenergy automobile Download PDFInfo
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 CN107124131A CN107124131A CN201710428711.2A CN201710428711A CN107124131A CN 107124131 A CN107124131 A CN 107124131A CN 201710428711 A CN201710428711 A CN 201710428711A CN 107124131 A CN107124131 A CN 107124131A
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Classifications

 H—ELECTRICITY
 H02—GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
 H02P—CONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMOELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
 H02P21/00—Arrangements or methods for the control of electric machines by vector control, e.g. by control of field orientation
 H02P21/0003—Control strategies in general, e.g. linear type, e.g. P, PI, PID, using robust control
 H02P21/0017—Model reference adaptation, e.g. MRAS or MRAC, useful for control or parameter estimation

 H—ELECTRICITY
 H02—GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
 H02P—CONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMOELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
 H02P27/00—Arrangements or methods for the control of AC motors characterised by the kind of supply voltage
 H02P27/04—Arrangements or methods for the control of AC motors characterised by the kind of supply voltage using variablefrequency supply voltage, e.g. inverter or converter supply voltage
 H02P27/06—Arrangements or methods for the control of AC motors characterised by the kind of supply voltage using variablefrequency supply voltage, e.g. inverter or converter supply voltage using dc to ac converters or inverters
 H02P27/08—Arrangements or methods for the control of AC motors characterised by the kind of supply voltage using variablefrequency supply voltage, e.g. inverter or converter supply voltage using dc to ac converters or inverters with pulse width modulation

 H—ELECTRICITY
 H02—GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
 H02P—CONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMOELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
 H02P2207/00—Indexing scheme relating to controlling arrangements characterised by the type of motor
 H02P2207/01—Asynchronous machines
Abstract
Description
Technical field
The present invention relates to motor control technology field, particularly a kind of motor control method of newenergy automobile.
Background technology
With the development of Power Electronic Technique, MOSFET, IGBT constant power device have obtained extensive fortune in machine field With.Its package dimension is gradually reduced, but power grade and heat flow density are stepped up, Yi Fashengyin high temperature or temperature change mistake Cause various failure of removal soon, so as to influence the service life and reliability of electric machine controller.Therefore, it is necessary to by realtime Know the operating temperature of induction machine, realize corresponding active thermal control and overtemperature protection, improve its operational reliability.
In the actual motion of electric automobile, generally according to the size of torque current, ensure motor in safe temperature indirectly In the range of run.When torque current reaches protection value, i.e., work is left the motor off using overcurrent protection measure.In fact, electric Machine controller temperature and torque current are not simple linear relationship.For example, during electric automobile climbing, torque current It can rapidly raise, be exerted oneself with increasing, now temperature tends not to exceed safety value.But, if torque current is protected beyond excessively stream Shield value, then motor operation can be terminated.So, overcurrent protection not only not in terms of temperature protection it is not anticipated that effect, and Electric automobile climbing failure can be caused.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of motor can be ensured in safe temperature and the condition of suitable temperature rate of change The motor control method of the newenergy automobile of lower operation.
The technical solution for realizing the object of the invention is：A kind of motor control method of newenergy automobile, the new energy Source electric motor of automobile is induction machine, is comprised the following steps：
Step 1, current of electric doubleclosedloop control simulation model is set up；
Step 2, according to heat balance principle, the Temperature Rise Model of electric machine controller is set up；
Step 3, temperature closed loop is added in doublecurrent closed loop periphery, electric machine controller temperature is controlled；
Step 4, rate of temperature change closed loop is added in temperature closed loop periphery, electric machine controller rate of temperature change is controlled System.
Further, current of electric doubleclosedloop control simulation model is set up described in step 1, it is specific as follows：
By M axles and rotor flux ψ_{r}Direction is overlapped, and T axles stator current produces rotor torque, and M axles stator current produces rotor Excitation field, so as to realize the decoupling of torque current and exciting current on stator, AC induction motor is equivalent for one Magnetic linkage such as following formula on platform direct current generator, rotor：
Wherein, ψ_{rM}、ψ_{rT}Respectively component of the rotor flux on M axles, T axles, equivalent rotor voltage, equivalent stator voltage It is 0；i_{sM}、i_{sT}M axles respectively in twophase synchronization rotational coordinate ax, the equivalent stator current on T axles, i_{rM}、i_{rT}Respectively twophase M axles in synchronization rotational coordinate ax, the equivalent rotor current on T axles, L_{m}And L_{r}The respectively magnetizing inductance and inductor rotor of motor；
Formula (1) is substituted into induction machine voltage equation, obtained：
Wherein, u_{sM}And u_{sT}For the equivalent stator voltage on M axles in twophase synchronization rotational coordinate ax, T axles, R_{s}And R_{r}Respectively Stator winding resistance, rotor windings resistance；L_{s}For stator inductance, p is differential sign, represents d/dt, ω_{s}、ω_{f}Respectively motor Synchronous angular velocity, slip angular velocity；
Formula (2) is substituted into induction machine electromagnetic torque equation, obtained：
Wherein, T_{e}And n_{p}The respectively electromagnetic torque and number of polepairs of motor；
In addition, being obtained again by formula (3)：
Wherein,For rotor windings time constant, ω_{f}For slip angular velocity；
The physical significance of formula (4) is：Rotor flux ψ_{r}Unique equivalent current component i by being rotor current on M axles_{sM}Certainly It is fixed；
The physical significance of formula (5) is：As rotor flux ψ_{r}When constant, the slip angular frequency ω of motor_{f}Uniquely by stator torque Current component is determined.
Further, in current of electric doubleclosedloop control simulation model described in step 1, current double closedloop control is respectively to turn Square current inner loop and exciting current outer shroud, two closed loop PI parameters are identical and obtained by calculating, are specially：
K_{P}=(R τ_{c})/(2T_{sf})=L/ (2T_{sf}) (6)
K_{i}=K_{p}/τ_{c}=R/ (2T_{sf}) (7)
Wherein, K_{p}For the proportionality coefficient of current closedloop, K_{i}For the integral coefficient of current closedloop, R returns for the armature of induction machine Road resistance is stator leakage inductance and stator resistance sum, T_{sf}For the time constant of a section inertial element, L returns for the armature of induction machine Road inductance, zero point offsets limit constant, τ_{c}=L/R.
Further, the Temperature Rise Model of electric machine controller described in step 2 is：
T=k_{0}+(k_{1}I_{q} ^{2}k_{2})t (8)
Wherein, T is electric machine controller temperature, I_{q}For torque current, k_{0}、k_{1}、k_{2}It is constant, t is motor operating time.
Further, added described in step 3 in doublecurrent closed loop periphery in temperature closed loop, the temperature closed loop, temperature gives Temp* is the temperature upper limit of power device used in control system, and temperature feedback is the output valve of step 2 motor temperature rise model, Proportional coefficient K_{pT}With integral coefficient K_{iT}Obtained by trial and error procedure.
Further, rate of temperature change closed loop, the rate of temperature change closed loop are added in temperature closed loop periphery described in step 4 In：Rate of temperature change is given as dT*, and rate of temperature change is fed back to the differential value of Temperature Rise Model output, Proportional coefficient K_{pk}And integration COEFFICIENT K_{ik}Obtained by trial and error procedure.
Compared with prior art, its remarkable advantage is the present invention：(1) by adding temperature closed loop and rate of temperature change closed loop To realize that the active thermal of motor is controlled, motor temperature and rate of temperature change can be controlled within the specific limits, and then reduce work( The failure because caused by temperature is too high or temperature change is too fast such as rate device occurs, and improves the operational reliability of motor；(2) can Ensure that motor is run under conditions of safe temperature and suitable temperature rate of change, can effectively reduce by temperature is too high or temperature While electric machine controller failure occurs caused by change is too fast, motor load capacity is improved, is had in newenergy automobile field Significance.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the theory diagram of the motor control method of newenergy automobile of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is rotor fieldoriented schematic diagram.
Fig. 3 is flux linkage observation model schematic.
Fig. 4 is the transmission function schematic diagram of current closedloop.
Fig. 5 is the control block diagram that motor active thermal is controlled.
Embodiment
Describe the embodiment of the present invention in detail below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, those skilled in the art is become apparent from geography How solution puts into practice the present invention.It will be appreciated that though the present invention is described with reference to its preferred embodiment, but these are implemented Scheme is to illustrate, rather than limitation the scope of the present invention.
In electric automobile field, overcurrent protection is typically provided with, to avoid the power device caused by high current from overheating and burn, In fact, the not simple linear relationship of motor temperature and torque current, such as when electric automobile is climbed, torque current can be fast Speed rise is even up to overcurrent protection value.But now temperature may be not out safety value, power device will not be caused significantly Influence, so now opening overcurrent protection and to stop motor operation clearly irrational.
The present invention passes through the temperature of the motor of Realtime Feedback newenergy automobile operationally on the basis of vector controlled Value, is that control system adds temperature closed loop and rate of temperature change closed loop by pi regulator, complete to Stator energization current amplitude, The online selfregulation of the parameters such as torque current amplitude, makes system operation in the maximum characteristic working curve of global efficiency.
With reference to Fig. 1, the motor control method of newenergy automobile of the present invention, the New energy automobile motor is induction machine, Comprise the following steps：
Step 1, current of electric doubleclosedloop control simulation model is set up；
Described inductive motor control system, be based on rotor fieldoriented vector control system, it is described to set up motor Current double closedloop controls simulation model, specific as follows：
In MT coordinate systems, M axles and T axles are mutually perpendicular to, and with certain synchronous angular velocity ω_{s}Rotation.In theory, stator Magnetomotive force F_{s}It can decompose on the orthogonal M and T axles of any two in space, but in order that stator magnetic flux gesture F_{s}Point on M axles Measure dedicated for producing the excitation field of rotor, can be by M axles and rotor flux ψ_{r}Direction is overlapped, as shown in Figure 2.Such one Come, stator magnetic flux gesture F_{s}Component on T axles will be used to offset rotor flux gesture F_{r}Component on T axles, and this component is pair Torque should be produced.
In other words, by M axles and rotor flux ψ_{r}Direction is overlapped, T axle stator currents i_{sT}It will be used to produce rotor torque, M axles Stator current i_{sM}To produce the excitation field of rotor, so as to realize the decoupling of torque current and exciting current on stator.Again Because MT reference axis are rotation, its stator current i_{sM}And i_{sT}All it is direct current, therefore after rotor fieldoriented, alternating current asynchronous electricity Machine is equivalent for a direct current generator, the magnetic linkage such as following formula on rotor：
Wherein, ψ_{rM}、ψ_{rT}Respectively component of the rotor flux on M axles, T axles, equivalent rotor voltage, equivalent stator voltage It is 0；i_{sM}、i_{sT}M axles respectively in twophase synchronization rotational coordinate ax, the equivalent stator current on T axles, i_{rM}、i_{rT}Respectively twophase M axles in synchronization rotational coordinate ax, the equivalent rotor current on T axles, L_{m}And L_{r}The respectively magnetizing inductance and inductor rotor of motor；
Formula (1) is substituted into induction machine voltage equation, obtained：
Wherein, u_{sM}And u_{sT}For the equivalent stator voltage on M axles in twophase synchronization rotational coordinate ax, T axles, R_{s}And R_{r}Respectively Stator winding resistance, rotor windings resistance；L_{s}For stator inductance, p is differential sign, represents d/dt, ω_{s}、ω_{f}Respectively motor Synchronous angular velocity, slip angular velocity；
Formula (2) is substituted into induction machine electromagnetic torque equation, obtained：
Wherein, T_{e}And n_{p}The respectively electromagnetic torque and number of polepairs of motor；
In addition, being obtained again by formula (3)：
Wherein,For rotor windings time constant, ω_{f}For slip angular velocity；
The physical significance of formula (4) is：Rotor flux ψ_{r}Unique equivalent current component i by being rotor current on M axles_{sM}Certainly It is fixed；
The physical significance of formula (5) is：As rotor flux ψ_{r}When constant, the slip angular frequency ω of motor_{f}Uniquely by stator torque Current component is determined.
By being analyzed above, as long as to stator torque current component i_{sT}With excitation current component i_{sM}It is controlled, just The control of motor torque and excitation can be realized, the speed governing of change armature supply and the weakmagnetic speedregulating of similar direct current generator is realized.By turn During sub field orientation, rotor flux is consistent with M direction of principal axis, i.e., actually must be known by the angle of rotor flux and α axles.Conventional Flux linkage observation is electric currentrotating speed model, as shown in Figure 3.
In the current of electric doubleclosedloop control simulation model, current double closedloop control is respectively torque current inner ring and encouraged Magnetoelectricity stream outer shroud, two closed loop PI parameters are identical and obtained by calculating, are specially：
Current inner loop is general only relevant with PWM inverter and the parameter of electric machine, and not changed by external loading is influenceed, so electric Stream ring has fixed structure, and the parameter of electric current loop can be calculated according to a certain method.
As shown in figure 4, G_{i}(s) be electric current pi regulator transmission function, K_{p}It is its proportionality coefficient, K_{i}For integral coefficient, lead to Normal G_{i}(s) write as ratio in Digital Implementation and integrate separated form：
G_{i}(s)=K_{p}+K_{i}/s (6)
In formula：K_{i}=K_{p}/τ_{c}, τ_{c}It is adjuster integration time constant.
The control object of electric current loop is：The armature circuit of PWM inverter and motor.PWM inverter can typically regard tool as There is time constant T_{s}(T_{s}=1/f_{s}, f_{s}For the working frequency of inverter switching device pipe) first order inertial loop.The armature circuit of motor There are resistance R, inductance L, first order inertial loop can also be regarded as.T_{L}It is that inductive time constant (is equal to L/R, herein L, R is induced electricity The stator leakage inductance and stator resistance sum of machine), K_{R}=1/R, when reflecting stable state under dq coordinates electric moter voltage and electric current ratio Relation.K_{PWM}The multiplication factor of expression inverter, and T_{s}It is switch periods, represents the delay of inverter.T_{if}It is current feedback passage Time constant filter, K_{if}For the multiplication factor of current feedback.Fig. 4 openloop transfer function can be write as transmission function form such as Under：
In formula (7), it is however generally that, inductive time constant T_{L}Much larger than time constant filter T_{if}With switch periods T_{s}.Inversion The multiplication factor K of device_{PWM}Actual output voltage and the ratio with given voltage are defined as, in digital control, is controlled using SVPWM When processed, inverter output voltage is equal with given voltage, therefore K_{PWM}=1.Current feedback values use numeral AD sampled values, feedback Value represents the actual value of electric current, therefore multiplication factor K_{if}=1.According to the engineering design method of adjuster, selection electric current regulation The zero point of device offsets the large time constant limit of controlled device, i.e.,：
τ_{C}=T_{L}=L/R (8)
So formula (7) can be write as：
Due to T_{s}And T_{if}All it is small time constant, can is T with a time constant_{sf}Single order link replace the two inertia Link, is reduced to typical case's I type system：
In formula：T_{sf}=T_{s}+T_{if}；K=K_{P}/(Rτ_{c}).At this moment, corresponding current closedloop transmission function C (s) is a typical case Secondorder system：
Wherein：
According to the index that secondorder system is optimal, ξ=0.707 is made, then corresponding loop gain K=1/ can be calculated by formula (12) (2T_{sf}), further according to the multiplication factor of each link, you can determine gain K_{p}.Again because equal to T_{L}, so the parameter of current controller Determine that, i.e.,：
τ_{c}=L/R (13)
K_{P}=(R τ_{c})/(2T_{sf})=L/ (2T_{sf}) (14)
K_{i}=K_{p}/τ_{c}=R/ (2T_{sf}) (15)
Wherein, K_{p}For the proportionality coefficient of current closedloop, K_{i}For the integral coefficient of current closedloop, R returns for the armature of induction machine Road resistance is stator leakage inductance and stator resistance sum, T_{sf}For the time constant of a section inertial element, L returns for the armature of induction machine Road inductance, zero point offsets limit constant, τ_{c}=L/R.
Step 2, according to heat balance principle, the Temperature Rise Model of electric machine controller is set up；
Assuming that electric machine controller surface temperature is uniform, according to heat balance principle, there is the thermal balance side of sensing electric machine controller Cheng Wei：
In formula, C is the equivalent thermal capacitance of controller；T is the time；T is electric machine controller temperature；q_{1}For controller thermal losses；q_{2} For the thermal convection current and heat radiation between controller and surrounding environment；q_{1}=I_{q} ^{2}Dt, and C and q_{2}It is constant, therefore above formula can lead to Crossing integration arrangement is：
T=k_{0}+(k_{1}I_{q} ^{2}k_{2})t (17)
Wherein, T is electric machine controller temperature, I_{q}For torque current, k_{0}、k_{1}、k_{2}It is constant, t is motor operating time.
Step 3, temperature closed loop is added in doublecurrent closed loop periphery, electric machine controller temperature is controlled, control block diagram As shown in Figure 5；
Described to be added in doublecurrent closed loop periphery in temperature closed loop, the temperature closed loop, it is control system that temperature, which gives Temp*, The temperature upper limit of power device used, temperature feedback is the output valve of step 2 motor temperature rise model, Proportional coefficient K_{pT}And integration COEFFICIENT K_{iT}Obtained by trial and error procedure.
The temperature given value of temperature closed loop is set to the temperature upper limit of power device used in control system；Its The temperature value of temperature feedback value, as step 2 Temperature Rise Model output.It regard the output of temperature closed loop as electricity in torque current closed loop The given amplitude limit saturation value of stream.When temperature rises to setpoint, torque current saturation limit amplitude diminishes through PI regulations, torque electricity Stream rising is inhibited or even reduced, and then motor quantity of heat production reduces, and temperature rise rate is slackoff, until motor temperature is stable given In temperature range.Especially under electric automobile climbing operating mode, it is desirable to its torque output capability of fast lifting, motor in a short time Torque current requirement can be raised rapidly, but motor temperature interior in shortterm without departing from safety value, now motor can continue to increase Power, smoothly completes climbing.
Step 4, rate of temperature change closed loop is added in temperature closed loop periphery, electric machine controller rate of temperature change is controlled System.
It is described to be added in temperature closed loop periphery in rate of temperature change closed loop, the rate of temperature change closed loop：Rate of temperature change is given It is set to dT, rate of temperature change is fed back to the differential value of Temperature Rise Model output, Proportional coefficient K_{pk}With integral coefficient K_{ik}By trial and error procedure Obtain.
The rate of temperature change setpoint of rate of temperature change closed loop is given as dT*；Its temperature feedback value, as step 3 temperature The differential value of rising mould type output.The output of rate of temperature change closed loop is compared with temperature closed loop output, less value conduct is selected The amplitude limit saturation value of given value of current in torque current closed loop.When rate of temperature change, which becomes, exceedes its setpoint greatly, through pi regulator, The rate of climb of torque current is controlled, then motor heat production is slackoff, and temperature rise rate is slackoff, until motor temperature rate of change stabilization exists In the range of given temperature rate of change.
Described above is only the preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is noted that for the ordinary skill people of the art Member, under the premise without departing from the principles of the invention, can also make some improvements and modifications, these improvements and modifications also should be regarded as Protection scope of the present invention.
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CN109560746A (en) *  20170925  20190402  郑州宇通客车股份有限公司  A kind of driving system for electric vehicles overload protection method and device 
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DE102012215008A1 (en) *  20110922  20130328  Gm Global Technology Operations, Llc  System and method for current estimation for the operation of electric motors 
JP2016019449A (en) *  20140711  20160201  株式会社デンソー  Motor controller and electric power steering device using the same 
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CN109560746A (en) *  20170925  20190402  郑州宇通客车股份有限公司  A kind of driving system for electric vehicles overload protection method and device 
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