CN107122900B - The site selecting method and device of photovoltaic power station - Google Patents

The site selecting method and device of photovoltaic power station Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107122900B
CN107122900B CN201710273335.4A CN201710273335A CN107122900B CN 107122900 B CN107122900 B CN 107122900B CN 201710273335 A CN201710273335 A CN 201710273335A CN 107122900 B CN107122900 B CN 107122900B
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node
distribution network
electrical couplings
power station
photovoltaic power
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CN107122900A (en
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李恒真
陈道品
陈邦发
陈斯翔
王云飞
唐琪
刘益军
范心明
刘志陆
黄静
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Foshan Power Supply Bureau of Guangdong Power Grid Corp
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Foshan Power Supply Bureau of Guangdong Power Grid Corp
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q10/00Administration; Management
    • G06Q10/06Resources, workflows, human or project management, e.g. organising, planning, scheduling or allocating time, human or machine resources; Enterprise planning; Organisational models
    • G06Q10/063Operations research or analysis
    • G06Q10/0631Resource planning, allocation or scheduling for a business operation
    • G06Q10/06313Resource planning in a project environment
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q50/00Systems or methods specially adapted for specific business sectors, e.g. utilities or tourism
    • G06Q50/06Electricity, gas or water supply
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S10/00Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y04S10/50Systems or methods supporting the power network operation or management, involving a certain degree of interaction with the load-side end user applications

Abstract

The present invention relates to the site selecting method and device of a kind of photovoltaic power station, its method includes:The nodal impedance matrix of distribution network system is obtained, the equivalent impedance between each node in the distribution network system is determined according to the nodal impedance matrix;The electrical couplings degree of each node is determined according to the equivalent impedance between each node;Size sequence acquisition ranking results are carried out to the electrical couplings degree of each node, the non-key node in the distribution network system is chosen according to the ranking results, wherein, the non-key node is the node of the setting quantity of electrical couplings degree minimum;The non-key node is determined as to the on-position of photovoltaic power station.Using the present invention program, it can select and not only play a supportive role to power distribution network node voltage, but also the on-position of the photovoltaic power station beneficial to maintenance system safe and stable operation.

Description

The site selecting method and device of photovoltaic power station
Technical field
The present invention relates to Electric Power Network Planning technical field, more particularly to the site selecting method and dress of a kind of photovoltaic power station Put.
Background technology
Current global economy high speed development, various countries are increasing to the demand of the energy and consumption, and supply falls short of demand for traditional energy, Energy crisis is increasingly prominent.The ecological ring such as atmosphere pollution, soil pollution and water pollution is brought while rapid economic development The deterioration in border.Therefore, it is very urgent task to develop renewable new energy, is China or even world's sustainable development Only way.
Solar energy is as renewable green energy resource, and inexhaustible, pollution-free, low cost, is acknowledged as 21 Century one of most important new energy.Huge R&D team and a huge sum of money are competitively employed to study solar energy hair in countries in the world Power technology.Wherein, photovoltaic generation because its battery material silicon abundance, it is of low cost the advantages that and favored.It Basic principle is the photovoltaic effect by solar cell surface, is realized by the conversion of luminous energy to electric energy.It is every in theory The occasion of power supply is needed to may be by photovoltaic power generation technology, it is small to arrive various electronics greatly to space ship, MW class surface power station Toy, daily household electrical appliance, photovoltaic power generation technology are ubiquitous.
Since conventional electrical distribution net is simple radial chain structure, after photovoltaic plant accesses, system, which is changed into one, to be had Source network, causes its feeder line trend to change, and then influences distribution network voltage distribution, system losses, or even can influence whole Power distribution network safe and stable operation.Therefore, one how is selected not only to play a supportive role to power distribution network node voltage, but also beneficial to maintenance system The on-position of system safe and stable operation is the key point of the addressing of photovoltaic power station.
The content of the invention
In view of this, can be with it is an object of the invention to provide the site selecting method and device of a kind of photovoltaic power station Select and not only played a supportive role to power distribution network node voltage, but also be beneficial to the photovoltaic power station of maintenance system safe and stable operation On-position.
On the one hand, there is provided a kind of site selecting method of photovoltaic power station, it includes:
The nodal impedance matrix of distribution network system is obtained, is determined according to the nodal impedance matrix in the distribution network system Each node between equivalent impedance;
The electrical couplings degree of each node is determined according to the equivalent impedance between each node;
Size sequence acquisition ranking results are carried out to the electrical couplings degree of each node, are chosen according to the ranking results Non-key node in the distribution network system, wherein, the non-key node is the setting quantity of electrical couplings degree minimum Node;
The non-key node is determined as to the on-position of photovoltaic power station.
With reference to first aspect, in a kind of possible implementation of first aspect, according to Zij.equ=(Zii-Zij)-(Zij- Zjj) determine equivalent impedance between each node in the distribution network system, wherein, Zij.equRepresent in the distribution network system I-th of node and j-th of node between equivalent impedance, Zii、ZijAnd ZjjIn the nodal impedance matrix is represented respectively I rows i-th arrange, the i-th row jth arranges and the element of jth row jth row.
With reference to first aspect or above-mentioned some possible implementations, in a kind of possible implementation of first aspect, According toDetermine the electrical couplings degree of each node, wherein, De.iRepresent in the distribution network system The electrical couplings degree of i-th of node, N are the total node number of the distribution network system.
With reference to first aspect or above-mentioned some possible implementations, in a kind of possible implementation of first aspect, The nodal impedance matrix of above-mentioned acquisition distribution network system, determines each in the distribution network system according to the nodal impedance matrix The step of equivalent impedance between node, includes:The Equivalent Model of the distribution network system is established, it is true according to the Equivalent Model The fixed nodal impedance matrix, the equivalence between each node in the distribution network system is determined according to the nodal impedance matrix Impedance.
Second aspect, there is provided a kind of addressing device of photovoltaic power station, it includes:
First processing units, it is true according to the nodal impedance matrix for obtaining the nodal impedance matrix of distribution network system Equivalent impedance between each node of the fixed distribution network system;
Second processing unit, for determining the electrical couplings of each node according to the equivalent impedance between each node Degree;
Unit is chosen, ranking results are obtained for carrying out size sequence to the electrical couplings degree of each node, according to institute State ranking results and choose non-key node in the distribution network system, wherein, the non-key node for electrical couplings degree most The node of small setting quantity;
Selected cell, for the non-key node to be determined as to the on-position of photovoltaic power station.
With reference to second aspect, in a kind of possible implementation of second aspect, above-mentioned first processing units are according to Zij.equ =(Zii-Zij)-(Zij-Zjj) determine equivalent impedance between each node in the distribution network system, wherein, Zij.equRepresent institute State the equivalent impedance between i-th of node in distribution network system and j-th of node, Zii、ZijAnd ZjjThe node is represented respectively The i-th row i-th in impedance matrix arranges, the i-th row jth arranges and the element of jth row jth row.
With reference to second aspect or above-mentioned some possible implementations, in a kind of possible implementation of second aspect, Above-mentioned second processing unit according toDetermine the electrical couplings degree of each node, wherein, De.iRepresent institute The electrical couplings degree of i-th of node in distribution network system is stated, N is the total node number of the distribution network system.
With reference to second aspect or above-mentioned some possible implementations, in a kind of possible implementation of second aspect, Above-mentioned first processing units establish the Equivalent Model of the distribution network system, and the node impedance is determined according to the Equivalent Model Matrix, the equivalent impedance between each node in the distribution network system is determined according to the nodal impedance matrix.
According to the scheme of the invention described above, it is the nodal impedance matrix for obtaining distribution network system, according to the node impedance Matrix determines the equivalent impedance between each node of the distribution network system, is determined respectively according to the equivalent impedance between each node The electrical couplings degree of the node, carries out size sequence, after sorting according to the size to the electrical couplings degree of each node Result select setting quantity non-key node, wherein, the non-key node be electrical couplings degree minimum setting number The non-key node, is determined as the on-position of photovoltaic power station by the node of amount.Since what is selected is electrical couplings Spend minimum some nodes, the on-position using such node as photovoltaic power station, both to power distribution network node voltage Play a supportive role, and be beneficial to maintenance system safe and stable operation.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 realizes flow diagram for the site selecting method of the photovoltaic power station in one embodiment;
Fig. 2 is the trend distribution map of the IEEE33 node power distribution net systems in a specific example;
Fig. 3 is the electrical couplings degree of each node in IEEE33 node power distribution net systems in a specific example;
Fig. 4 is the composition structure diagram of the addressing device of the photovoltaic power station in one embodiment.
Embodiment
For the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention are more clearly understood, with reference to the accompanying drawings and embodiments, to this Invention is described in further detail.It should be appreciated that the specific embodiments described herein are only to explain the present invention, Do not limit protection scope of the present invention.
In the case where considering photovoltaic plant access power distribution network diverse location, different output situations and different running method, system The situation of change of trend, voltage's distribiuting and system losses, while the shadow in view of photovoltaic plant access to electric distribution network reactive-voltage On the basis of the situation of sound, the present invention provides a kind of site selecting method of the photovoltaic power station with good voltage adaptation. The present invention program is described in detail below.
It is shown in Figure 1, in one of the embodiments, there is provided a kind of site selecting method of photovoltaic power station.Such as Fig. 1 Shown, the site selecting method of the photovoltaic power station in the present embodiment includes:
Step S101:The nodal impedance matrix of distribution network system is obtained, is matched somebody with somebody according to determining the nodal impedance matrix Equivalent impedance between each node of network system;
Step S102:The electrical couplings degree of each node is determined according to the equivalent impedance between each node;
Step S103:Size sequence acquisition ranking results are carried out to the electrical couplings degree of each node, according to the row Sequence result chooses the non-key node in the distribution network system, wherein, the non-key node is electrical couplings degree minimum Set the node of quantity;
Here, setting the occurrence of quantity can determine according to being actually needed.
Wherein, the electrical couplings degree of each node is carried out size to sort being by the electrical couplings of each node Degree is ranked up or the electrical couplings degree of each node is suitable according to from big to small according to order from small to large Sequence is ranked up.
Step S104:The non-key node is determined as to the on-position of photovoltaic power station.
The principle of scheme in the present embodiment is, in the N meshed networks of distribution network system, if the electrical couplings of node i The value of degree is bigger, then illustrates that node i is more crucial (such as being referred to as key node) in power grid electrical structure, the coupling with other nodes Conjunction relation is stronger, and the global accident of the easier initiation of accident occurs in the node i, more unsuitable to access distributed light in the node i Overhead utility.And if the value of the electrical couplings degree of node i is smaller, illustrate node i in power grid electrical structure in more edge Position, weaker with the coupled relation of other nodes, it is smaller to occur influence of the accident to other nodes in the node i, Ke Yiyue Fast excision failure is more suitable to access photovoltaic power station in the node i.Therefore, in the present embodiment, it is to select electric coupling The non-key node selected is determined as photovoltaic power station by the node of right minimum setting quantity as non-key node On-position.
Accordingly, the scheme in above-mentioned the present embodiment, it is the nodal impedance matrix for obtaining distribution network system, according to institute State nodal impedance matrix and determine equivalent impedance between each node of the distribution network system, according between each node etc. Value impedance determines the electrical couplings degree of each node, size sequence is carried out to the electrical couplings degree of each node, according to institute The non-key node that the result after size sequence selects setting quantity is stated, wherein, the non-key node is electrical couplings degree The non-key node, is determined as the on-position of photovoltaic power station by the node of minimum setting quantity.Due to selecting Be electrical couplings degree minimum some nodes, the on-position using such node as photovoltaic power station, both to Grid nodes voltage plays a supportive role, and is beneficial to maintenance system safe and stable operation.
For the ease of understanding the scheme of the present embodiment, above-mentioned each process in the present embodiment is explained in detail below State.
In above-mentioned steps S101, nodal impedance matrix is as shown in (1) formula:
Wherein, Z represents nodal impedance matrix, ZijThe element of the i-th row jth row in nodal impedance matrix, i ∈ [1, N], j ∈ [1, N], N represent the total node number of distribution network system.
In one of the embodiments, the nodal impedance matrix of distribution network system is obtained, according to the nodal impedance matrix The step of determining the equivalent impedance between each node in the distribution network system can include:Establish the distribution network system Equivalent Model, determines the nodal impedance matrix according to the Equivalent Model, matches somebody with somebody according to determining the nodal impedance matrix The equivalent impedance between each node in network system.
Wherein, the determination mode for establishing mode and nodal impedance matrix of Equivalent Model can use existing way real Existing, it will not be described here.The equivalent resistance between each node in the distribution network system is determined according to the nodal impedance matrix Anti- specific implementation can be:Determined according to formula below (2) between each node in the distribution network system etc. It is worth impedance;
Zij.equ=(Zii-Zij)-(Zij-Zjj) (2)
Wherein, Zij.equRepresent the equivalent impedance between i-th of node in the distribution network system and j-th of node, Zii、ZijAnd ZjjRepresent that the i-th row i-th in the nodal impedance matrix arranges, the i-th row jth arranges and the member of jth row jth row respectively Element.Wherein, Zii、ZijAnd ZjjPhysical meaning be respectively i-th of node in network system self-impedance, i-th of node and The mutual impedance of j node and the self-impedance of j-th of node.
For above-mentioned steps S102, in one of the embodiments, determined according to the equivalent impedance between each node The electrical couplings degree of each node can include:The electrical couplings degree of each node is determined according to formula below (3);
Wherein, De.iRepresent the electrical couplings degree of i-th of node in the distribution network system, Zij.equRepresent the distribution The equivalent impedance between i-th of node and j-th of node in net system, i ∈ [1, N], j ∈ [1, N], N represent power distribution network system The total node number of system.
Specific example
In order to which technical scheme and beneficial effect is more clearly understood, said below with a specific example It is bright.It is to be illustrated by taking IEEE33 node power distribution net systems as an example, but this can not be formed to the present invention in the specific example The restriction of scheme.Wherein, the trend distribution map of IEEE33 node power distributions net system is as shown in Figure 2.
First, the power distribution network Equivalent Model of IEEE33 node power distribution net systems is established.
Then, the power distribution network Equivalent Model of established IEEE33 node power distribution net systems is utilized, and according to public affairs as above Formula (2) calculates the equivalent impedance Z between the node of IEEE33 node power distribution net systemsij.equ
Followed by the electrical couplings of each node in formula (3) calculating IEEE33 node power distribution net systems as above Spend De.i
As shown in figure 3, for the electrical couplings degree of each node of each node in IEEE33 node systems is calculated.
Then, by the electrical couplings degree D of each node of each node in IEEE33 node systemse.iSort from small to large, Five values for selecting minimum are as shown in table 1.
That have selected 5 non-key nodes it should be noted that in the specific example, i.e., it is foregoing set quantity as 5, but the value for setting quantity is not limited to 5.
1 node electrical couplings degree sequencing table of table
Subsequently, according to the electrical couplings degree D of each nodee.iSize judge non-key node in power distribution network for 18,17, 22nd, 33,16 node.
Finally, the on-position for determining photovoltaic power station can be 18,17,22,33,16 nodes.
Analytical table 1 is as it can be seen that in IEEE33 distribution network systems, node electrical couplings degree DeFive nodes of value minimum are respectively positioned on The terminal position of IEEE33 node systems.Analysis chart 3 understands that the position of node is closer to line end, its electrical couplings degree De It is worth smaller.According to the analysis result of chart:Firstly, since distribution net work structure is simple, endpoint node breaks down, and is not easy to lead Global accident is caused, result of calculation meets the definition of electrical couplings degree.Secondly, in the small node access of power distribution network electrical couplings angle value Photovoltaic plant can effective lifting node voltage, play a supporting role to system voltage, it is consistent with simulation result.Therefore this hair The site selecting method of bright proposed photovoltaic power station has feasibility.
Compared with prior art, technical scheme has the advantages that:
(1) using the site selecting method of photovoltaic power station provided by the invention, one can be selected both to power distribution network section Point voltage is played a supporting role, and is conducive to the on-position of maintenance system safe and stable operation.
(2) site selecting method of photovoltaic power station provided by the invention, it can be considered that photovoltaic power station access is matched somebody with somebody Under power grid diverse location, different output situation and different running method, the change of system load flow, voltage's distribiuting and system losses Situation, while access the influence situation to electric distribution network reactive-voltage in view of photovoltaic power station.
The site selecting method of photovoltaic power station in above-described embodiment, the present invention also provides a kind of distributed photovoltaic The addressing device in power station.In one of the embodiments, as shown in figure 4, the addressing of the photovoltaic power station in the embodiment Device includes first processing units 401, second processing unit 402, chooses unit 403 and selected cell 404:
First processing units 401, for obtaining the nodal impedance matrix of distribution network system, according to the nodal impedance matrix Determine the equivalent impedance between each node of the distribution network system;
Second processing unit 402, for determining the electric of each node according to the equivalent impedance between each node The degree of coupling;
Unit 403 is chosen, ranking results are obtained for carrying out size sequence to the electrical couplings degree of each node, according to The ranking results choose the non-key node in the distribution network system, wherein, the non-key node is electrical couplings degree The node of minimum setting quantity;
Selected cell 404, for the non-key node to be determined as to the on-position of photovoltaic power station.
In one of the embodiments, first processing units 401 can be according to Zij.equ=(Zii-Zij)-(Zij-Zjj) determine The equivalent impedance between each node in the distribution network system, wherein, Zij.equRepresent i-th in the distribution network system Equivalent impedance between node and j-th of node, Zii、ZijAnd ZjjThe i-th row i-th in the nodal impedance matrix is represented respectively The element of row, the i-th row jth row and jth row jth row.
In one of the embodiments, second processing unit 402 can basisDetermine each section The electrical couplings degree of point, N are the total node number of the distribution network system.
In one of the embodiments, first processing units 401 can establish the Equivalent Model of the distribution network system, root The nodal impedance matrix is determined according to the Equivalent Model, is determined according to the nodal impedance matrix in the distribution network system Equivalent impedance between each node.
It is and above-mentioned it should be noted that the description of the addressing device of photovoltaic power station provided in an embodiment of the present invention The description of the site selecting method of photovoltaic power station is similar, and the site selecting method with above-mentioned photovoltaic power station Beneficial effect, to save length, repeats no more;Therefore, choosing of the above to photovoltaic power station provided in an embodiment of the present invention The ins and outs not disclosed in the device of location, refer to the description of the site selecting method of the photovoltaic power station of above-mentioned offer.
Each technical characteristic of embodiment described above can be combined arbitrarily, to make description succinct, not to above-mentioned reality Apply all possible combination of each technical characteristic in example to be all described, as long as however, the combination of these technical characteristics is not deposited In contradiction, the scope that this specification is recorded all is considered to be.
Embodiment described above only expresses the several embodiments of the present invention, its description is more specific and detailed, but simultaneously Cannot therefore it be construed as limiting the scope of the patent.It should be pointed out that come for those of ordinary skill in the art Say, without departing from the inventive concept of the premise, various modifications and improvements can be made, these belong to the protection of the present invention Scope.Therefore, the protection domain of patent of the present invention should be determined by the appended claims.

Claims (8)

  1. A kind of 1. site selecting method of photovoltaic power station, it is characterised in that including:
    The nodal impedance matrix of distribution network system is obtained, is determined according to the nodal impedance matrix each in the distribution network system Equivalent impedance between node;
    The electrical couplings degree of each node is determined according to the equivalent impedance between each node;
    Size sequence acquisition ranking results are carried out to the electrical couplings degree of each node, according to being chosen the ranking results Non-key node in distribution network system, wherein, the non-key node is the node of the setting quantity of electrical couplings degree minimum;
    The non-key node is determined as to the on-position of photovoltaic power station;
    Size sequence is carried out to the electrical couplings degree of each node to be included the electrical couplings degree of each node according to from small It is ranked up to big order or the electrical couplings degree of each node sorts according to order from big to small.
  2. 2. the site selecting method of photovoltaic power station according to claim 1, it is characterised in that according to Zij.equ=(Zii- Zij)-(Zij-Zjj) determine equivalent impedance between each node in the distribution network system, wherein, Zij.equRepresent the distribution The equivalent impedance between i-th of node and j-th of node in net system, Zii、ZijAnd ZjjThe node impedance square is represented respectively The i-th row i-th in battle array arranges, the i-th row jth arranges and the element of jth row jth row.
  3. 3. the site selecting method of photovoltaic power station according to claim 2, it is characterised in that according toDetermine the electrical couplings degree of each node, wherein, De.iRepresent i-th in the distribution network system The electrical couplings degree of node, N are the total node number of the distribution network system.
  4. 4. the site selecting method of the photovoltaic power station according to Claims 2 or 3, it is characterised in that the acquisition distribution The nodal impedance matrix of net system, determined according to the nodal impedance matrix between each node in the distribution network system etc. The step of value impedance, includes:
    The Equivalent Model of the distribution network system is established, the nodal impedance matrix is determined according to the Equivalent Model, according to institute State nodal impedance matrix and determine equivalent impedance between each node in the distribution network system.
  5. A kind of 5. addressing device of photovoltaic power station, it is characterised in that including:
    First processing units, for obtaining the nodal impedance matrix of distribution network system, institute is determined according to the nodal impedance matrix State the equivalent impedance between each node of distribution network system;
    Second processing unit, for determining the electrical couplings degree of each node according to the equivalent impedance between each node;
    Unit is chosen, ranking results are obtained for carrying out size sequence to the electrical couplings degree of each node, according to the row Sequence result chooses the non-key node in the distribution network system, wherein, the non-key node is electrical couplings degree minimum Set the node of quantity;
    Selected cell, for the non-key node to be determined as to the on-position of photovoltaic power station.
  6. 6. the addressing device of photovoltaic power station according to claim 5, it is characterised in that the first processing units According to Zij.equ=(Zii-Zij)-(Zij-Zjj) determine equivalent impedance between each node in the distribution network system, wherein, Zij.equRepresent the equivalent impedance between i-th of node in the distribution network system and j-th of node, Zii、ZijAnd ZjjRespectively Represent that the i-th row i-th in the nodal impedance matrix arranges, the i-th row jth arranges and the element of jth row jth row.
  7. 7. the addressing device of photovoltaic power station according to claim 6, it is characterised in that the second processing unit According toDetermine the electrical couplings degree of each node, wherein, De.iRepresent in the distribution network system The electrical couplings degree of i-th of node, N are the total node number of the distribution network system.
  8. 8. the addressing device of the photovoltaic power station according to claim 6 or 7, it is characterised in that first processing Unit establishes the Equivalent Model of the distribution network system, the nodal impedance matrix is determined according to the Equivalent Model, according to institute State nodal impedance matrix and determine equivalent impedance between each node in the distribution network system.
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