CN107086541B - Bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker and breaking method thereof - Google Patents

Bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker and breaking method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107086541B
CN107086541B CN201710415079.8A CN201710415079A CN107086541B CN 107086541 B CN107086541 B CN 107086541B CN 201710415079 A CN201710415079 A CN 201710415079A CN 107086541 B CN107086541 B CN 107086541B
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current
branch
circuit
mechanical switch
speed mechanical
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CN107086541A (en
Inventor
郭安祥
胡杨
苏扬
易强
郭佳豪
张含天
刘子瑞
杨飞
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ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE STATE GRID SHAANXI ELECTRIC POWER Co
State Grid Corp of China SGCC
Xi an Jiaotong University
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ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE STATE GRID SHAANXI ELECTRIC POWER Co
State Grid Corp of China SGCC
Xi an Jiaotong University
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02HEMERGENCY PROTECTIVE CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS
    • H02H3/00Emergency protective circuit arrangements for automatic disconnection directly responsive to an undesired change from normal electric working condition with or without subsequent reconnection ; integrated protection
    • H02H3/08Emergency protective circuit arrangements for automatic disconnection directly responsive to an undesired change from normal electric working condition with or without subsequent reconnection ; integrated protection responsive to excess current
    • H02H3/087Emergency protective circuit arrangements for automatic disconnection directly responsive to an undesired change from normal electric working condition with or without subsequent reconnection ; integrated protection responsive to excess current for dc applications
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02HEMERGENCY PROTECTIVE CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS
    • H02H9/00Emergency protective circuit arrangements for limiting excess current or voltage without disconnection
    • H02H9/04Emergency protective circuit arrangements for limiting excess current or voltage without disconnection responsive to excess voltage

Abstract

The circuit breaker comprises a main current circuit, a current transfer branch, an overvoltage limiting branch, an online monitoring system, a control system, a wire inlet end C1 and a wire outlet end C2, wherein the main current circuit, the current transfer branch and the overvoltage limiting branch are connected in parallel, the negative electrode of a semi-controlled power semiconductor device VD1 and the positive electrode of a semi-controlled power semiconductor device VD3 are connected to one end of a fracture of a high-speed mechanical switch, and the negative electrode of the semi-controlled power semiconductor device VD2 and the positive electrode of the semi-controlled power semiconductor device VD4 are connected to the other end of the fracture of the high-speed mechanical switch. The hybrid direct current circuit breaker has bidirectional conduction and breaking capacity and is applied to a bidirectional through-current direct current power supply system.

Description

Bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker and breaking method thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to a bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker and a breaking method thereof, in particular to a circuit breaker which realizes the function of breaking currents in different directions by changing the time sequence of a semi-controlled power semiconductor device triggering a transfer branch.
Background
The combined direct current circuit breaker has the advantages of strong current capacity, high turn-off speed, small on-state loss and the like, and is a research hotspot in the industry in recent years. With the further development of the dc power supply system, most loads in the new dc system have the characteristics of dual attributes of load and power supply. This characteristic causes the current and energy flow in the dc network to have an indeterminate character. This feature puts requirements on bidirectional breaking of the dc circuit breaker. The direct current circuit breaker working in the direct current system has no definite characteristic in the current direction of the power supply system in which the traditional circuit breaker works. Most of the hybrid direct-current circuit breakers at the present stage manufacture artificial zero crossing points by manufacturing oscillating currents opposite to short-circuit currents, so that the purpose of direct-current segmentation is achieved. In this application context, a dc circuit breaker applied to a bidirectional dc power supply system must have the capability of recognizing the current flowing direction and performing a corresponding breaking action according to the current flowing direction when the circuit breaker is opened.
The above information disclosed in this background section is only for enhancement of understanding of the background of the invention and therefore it may contain information that does not form the prior art that is already known in this country to a person of ordinary skill in the art.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above-mentioned shortcomings or drawbacks of the prior art, an object of the present invention is to provide a novel hybrid circuit breaker and a control method thereof. The power semiconductor device of the transfer current circuit is controlled to be conducted according to a certain time sequence, the overvoltage rising rate of two ends of the circuit breaker can be effectively limited, and because the capacitance current is transferred twice in the switching-off process, the voltage direction on the pre-charging capacitor after the circuit breaker is switched off is consistent with the pre-charging voltage direction before action, the charging process of the capacitor C is omitted, and therefore the hybrid circuit breaker has the functions of bidirectional conduction and breaking. When the voltage at the two ends of the transfer current circuit reaches the conduction threshold value of the overvoltage limiting circuit, the overvoltage limiting circuit is conducted, so that the voltage at the two ends of the main current circuit is limited within a certain range; the control system monitors the current amplitude and the current change rate of the circuit 1 in the main current circuit and the transfer current circuit, and controls the high-speed mechanical switch and the transfer current circuit to act according to a certain time sequence according to the monitoring result.
The purpose of the invention is realized by the following technical scheme.
In one aspect of the present invention, a bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker includes a main current circuit, a current diverting branch, an overvoltage limiting branch, an online monitoring system, a control system, an outlet terminal C1 and an outlet terminal C2, and the main current circuit, the current diverting branch and the overvoltage limiting branch are connected in parallel.
The main current loop is formed by connecting an outlet terminal C1, a high-speed mechanical switch and an outlet terminal C2 in series.
The current transfer branch comprises a branch 1, a branch 2 and an oscillation branch, wherein the branch 1 is formed by connecting a semi-controlled power semiconductor device VD1 and a semi-controlled power semiconductor device VD2 in series, the branch 2 is formed by connecting a semi-controlled power semiconductor device VD3 and a semi-controlled power semiconductor device VD4 in series, and the oscillation branch is formed by a pre-charged transfer capacitor C and an oscillation inductor L1.
The two ends of the branch circuit 1 are connected in parallel with the two ends of the high-speed mechanical switch to realize the parallel connection of the current transfer branch circuit and the main current loop, and one end of the branch circuit 1, which is connected with the positive electrodes of the semi-controlled power semiconductor devices VD1 and VD2, is connected with one side of the oscillation inductor L1 in the oscillation branch circuit.
And two ends of the branch 2 are connected in parallel with two ends of the high-speed mechanical switch, so that the parallel connection of the current transfer branch and the main current loop is realized, and one side of a transfer capacitor C of the oscillation branch is connected with one end of the branch 2, which is connected with the positive electrodes of the semi-controlled power semiconductors VD3 and VD 4.
And a capacitor pole column of a transfer capacitor C in the oscillation branch close to the joint with the branch 2 is negatively charged, and the other end of the transfer capacitor C is positively charged.
All the semi-controlled power semiconductor devices are unidirectional conducting semi-controlled power semiconductor devices.
The on-line monitoring system comprises a current sensor D0 for measuring the current state of the system, a current state current sensor D1 for measuring the current state of a main current loop, a current sensor D2 for measuring the current state of a current transfer branch circuit, a current state current sensor D3 for measuring an overvoltage limiting circuit, a voltage sensor Vhs for measuring the fracture voltage of the high-speed mechanical switch, a voltage sensor Vc for measuring the voltage state of two ends of a transfer capacitor C, a displacement sensor P for measuring the motion state of the high-speed mechanical switch and a circuit breaker environment temperature sensor T1.
The control system comprises a signal conditioning circuit, a high-speed AD, a processor, a human-computer interaction interface and a communication module, the magnitude and the flow direction of the system current, the current of the main current loop, the current of the current transfer branch circuit, the current of the overvoltage limiting branch circuit, the fracture voltage of the high-speed mechanical switch, the voltage amplitude of the transfer capacitor and/or the displacement value of the high-speed mechanical switch are input into a processor for calculation after being amplified by a signal conditioning circuit and a high-speed AD filter, the processor calculates the amplitude and the change rate di/dt of the current of the branch 1 or the branch 2, the control system controls the high-speed mechanical switch and the semi-control type power semiconductor device based on the calculation result, the human-computer interaction interface displays the state of the circuit breaker and a calculation result in real time, and the communication module sends a fault waveform to a superior system and receives a control command of the superior control system.
When the system current direction is from C1 to C2, the current amplitude and the change rate of the main current loop and the current amplitude and the change rate of the circuit 1 in the current transfer branch are calculated by a control system to control the actions of the power semiconductor devices VD1 to VD4 in the high-speed mechanical switch and the current transfer branch, and when the system current direction is from C2 to C1, the current amplitude and the change rate of the main current loop and the current amplitude and the change rate of the circuit 2 in the current transfer branch are calculated by the control system to control the actions of the power semiconductor devices VD1 to VD4 in the high-speed mechanical switch and the current transfer branch.
Under the normal current flowing state of the system, the system current flows through the main current loop, a certain pre-charging voltage is arranged on the transfer capacitor C, all the semi-controlled power semiconductor devices of the current transfer branch circuit are not triggered, the current transfer branch circuit has no current, the conduction threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch circuit is lower than the system voltage, and the overvoltage limiting branch circuit has no current flowing.
When a short circuit fault occurs or the control system receives a brake opening instruction of a superior control system, the control system sends a brake opening instruction, the control system sends a brake opening action instruction to the high-speed mechanical switch, the high-speed mechanical switch starts to act, and then according to data returned by the online monitoring system, the control system triggers the semi-control power semiconductor device VD1-VD4 at a specific time sequence based on the flow direction of the current of the circuit breaker to complete forced zero crossing of the current and realize on-off.
In the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker, the semi-controlled power semiconductor devices VD1, VD2, VD3 and VD4 are any one or a combination of more of GTO, thyristor and IGBT.
In the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker, the high-speed mechanical switch is a high-speed mechanical switch based on electromagnetic repulsion, a mechanical switch based on high-speed motor drive or a high-speed mechanical switch based on explosion drive.
In the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker, the design parameters of the overvoltage limiting branch circuit comprise the capacity of a voltage limiting circuit, a conducting voltage threshold value, a current when the conducting voltage is reached, a maximum limit voltage and a current when the maximum limit voltage is reached.
In the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker, the overvoltage limiting branch circuit is in a cut-off state under the condition of normal operation of the circuit breaker, and the leakage current is less than 0.5 muA; the conducting voltage threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch circuit is 1.75 times of the system voltage of the breaker.
In the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker, the overvoltage limiting branch comprises any one or a combination of more of a line type metal oxide arrester, a gapless line type metal oxide arrester, a fully insulated composite sheathed metal oxide arrester or a detachable arrester.
In the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker, the control system comprises a processor, and the processor is a general processor, a digital signal processor, an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) or a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA).
In the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker, the processor includes a memory, which may include one or more of a read only memory ROM, a random access memory RAM, a flash memory, or an electrically erasable programmable read only memory EEPROM.
According to another aspect of the present invention, a breaking method when a current flows from C1 to C2 using the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker comprises the following steps:
in the first step, system current flows in from the outlet terminal C1, passes through the high speed mechanical switch, and flows out from the outlet terminal C2.
In the second step, when the on-line monitoring system detects that the system has short-circuit fault, the control system is informed, the control system sends a brake-separating command, the semi-control power semiconductors VD2 and VD4 are triggered according to the current direction, the high-speed mechanical switch starts to be opened, and the current still flows from the main loop when the high-speed mechanical switch is not opened according to the response characteristic of the high-speed mechanical switch.
In the third step, the main current loop is forced to pass through zero by injecting the reverse-phase high-frequency oscillation current into the main current loop by the oscillation branch, and the high-speed mechanical switch is quenched due to the current passing through zero, so that the main current loop is opened.
In the fourth step, the main current loop continuously charges the transfer capacitor C, when the voltage across the circuit breaker exceeds the turn-on threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch, the overvoltage limiting branch is turned on, and the current is rapidly transferred to the overvoltage limiting branch because the on-state resistance of the overvoltage limiting branch is much smaller than the on-state resistance of the current transfer branch.
In the fifth step, when the current of the transfer branch circuit passes through zero, the semi-controlled power semiconductors VD2 and VD4 are turned off in a zero-crossing mode, and the overvoltage limiting branch circuit restores to a high-impedance state because the system voltage is smaller than the conduction threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch circuit, so that the switching-off process is completed.
In another aspect of the present invention, a method for breaking a current flowing from C2 to C1 in a bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker comprises the following steps:
in the first step, system current flows in from the outlet terminal C2, passes through the high speed mechanical switch, and flows out from the outlet terminal C1.
In the second step, when the on-line monitoring system detects that the system has short-circuit fault, the control system is informed, the control system sends a brake-separating command, the semi-control type power semiconductors VD1 and VD3 are triggered according to the current direction, the high-speed mechanical switch starts to be opened, and the current still flows through the main current loop when the high-speed mechanical switch is not opened according to the response characteristic of the high-speed mechanical switch.
In the third step, the main current loop is forced to pass through zero by injecting the reverse-phase high-frequency oscillation current into the main current loop by the oscillation branch, and the high-speed mechanical switch is quenched due to the current passing through zero, so that the main current loop is opened.
In the fourth step, the main current loop continuously charges the transfer capacitor C, when the voltage across the circuit breaker exceeds the turn-on threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch, the overvoltage limiting branch is turned on, and the current is rapidly transferred to the overvoltage limiting branch because the on-resistance of the overvoltage limiting branch is much smaller than the on-resistance of the transfer branch.
In the fifth step, when the current of the current transfer branch circuit passes through zero, the semi-controlled power semiconductors VD1 and VD3 are turned off in a zero-crossing mode, and the overvoltage limiting branch circuit restores to a high-impedance state due to the fact that the system voltage is smaller than the conduction threshold value of the overvoltage limiting branch circuit, and the switching-off process is completed.
The above description is only an overview of the technical solutions of the present invention, and in order to make the technical means of the present invention more clearly apparent, and to make the implementation of the content of the description possible for those skilled in the art, and to make the above and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention more obvious, the following description is given by way of example of the specific embodiments of the present invention.
Drawings
Various other advantages and benefits of the present invention will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art upon reading the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments. The drawings are only for purposes of illustrating the preferred embodiments and are not to be construed as limiting the invention. It is obvious that the drawings described below are only some embodiments of the invention, and that for a person skilled in the art, other drawings can be derived from them without inventive effort. Also, like parts are designated by like reference numerals throughout the drawings.
In the drawings:
fig. 1 is a schematic structural view of a bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of the distribution of the sensors of the on-line monitoring system inside the circuit breaker according to one embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 3(a) -3 (e) are schematic structural diagrams of the circuit breaker operating in one direction when the current flows from C1 to C2 according to one embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 4(a) -4 (e) are schematic structural diagrams of the circuit breaker according to one embodiment of the present invention, which operate in one direction when the circuit breaker current flows from C2 to C1;
fig. 5 is a block diagram of a control system of a bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker according to an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 6 is a schematic diagram of the steps of the breaking method when the current of the hybrid circuit breaker using bidirectional breaking flows from C1 to C2, according to one embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 7 is a schematic diagram of the steps of the breaking method when the current of the hybrid circuit breaker using bidirectional breaking flows from C2 to C1 according to an embodiment of the present invention.
The invention is further explained below with reference to the figures and examples.
Detailed Description
Specific embodiments of the present invention will be described in more detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings. While specific embodiments of the invention are shown in the drawings, it should be understood that the invention may be embodied in various forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein. Rather, these embodiments are provided so that this disclosure will be thorough and complete, and will fully convey the scope of the invention to those skilled in the art.
It should be noted that certain terms are used throughout the description and claims to refer to particular components. As one skilled in the art will appreciate, various names may be used to refer to a component. This specification and claims do not intend to distinguish between components that differ in name but not function. In the following description and in the claims, the terms "include" and "comprise" are used in an open-ended fashion, and thus should be interpreted to mean "include, but not limited to. The description which follows is a preferred embodiment of the invention, but is made for the purpose of illustrating the general principles of the invention and not for the purpose of limiting the scope of the invention. The scope of the present invention is defined by the appended claims.
For the purpose of facilitating an understanding of the embodiments of the present invention, the following description will be made in terms of several specific embodiments with reference to the accompanying drawings, and the drawings are not intended to limit the embodiments of the present invention.
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker according to an embodiment of the present invention, and the embodiment of the present invention will be specifically described with reference to fig. 1.
As shown in fig. 1, an embodiment of the present invention provides a bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker, which includes a main current circuit, a current diverting branch, an overvoltage limiting branch, an online monitoring system, a control system, an outlet terminal C1 and an outlet terminal C2, and the main current circuit, the current diverting branch and the overvoltage limiting branch are connected in parallel.
The main current loop is formed by connecting an outlet terminal C1, a high-speed mechanical switch and an outlet terminal C2 in series.
The current transfer branch comprises a branch 1, a branch 2 and an oscillation branch, wherein the branch 1 is formed by connecting a semi-controlled power semiconductor device VD1 and a semi-controlled power semiconductor device VD2 in series, the branch 2 is formed by connecting a semi-controlled power semiconductor device VD3 and a semi-controlled power semiconductor device VD4 in series, and the oscillation branch is formed by a pre-charged transfer capacitor C and an oscillation inductor L1.
The two ends of the branch circuit 1 are connected in parallel with the two ends of the high-speed mechanical switch to realize the parallel connection of the current transfer branch circuit and the main current loop, and one end of the branch circuit 1, which is connected with the positive electrodes of the semi-controlled power semiconductor devices VD1 and VD2, is connected with one side of the oscillation inductor L1 in the oscillation branch circuit.
And two ends of the branch 2 are connected in parallel with two ends of the high-speed mechanical switch, so that the parallel connection of the current transfer branch and the main current loop is realized, and one side of a transfer capacitor C of the oscillation branch is connected with one end of the branch 2, which is connected with the positive electrodes of the semi-controlled power semiconductors VD3 and VD 4.
And a capacitor pole column of a transfer capacitor C in the oscillation branch close to the joint with the branch 2 is negatively charged, and the other end of the transfer capacitor C is positively charged.
All the semi-controlled power semiconductor devices are unidirectional conducting semi-controlled power semiconductor devices.
Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of the distribution of the sensors of the on-line monitoring system inside the circuit breaker according to an embodiment of the present invention, and referring to fig. 2, the on-line monitoring system comprises a current sensor D0 for measuring the current state of the system, a current sensor D1 for measuring the current state of the main current loop, a current sensor D2 for measuring the current state of the current transfer branch, a current sensor D3 for measuring the overvoltage limiting circuit, a voltage sensor vhs for measuring the break voltage of the high-speed mechanical switch, a voltage sensor Vc for measuring the voltage state across the transfer capacitor C, a displacement sensor P for measuring the motion state of the high-speed mechanical switch, and a circuit breaker ambient temperature sensor T1.
Fig. 5 is a block diagram of a control system of a bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to fig. 5, the control system includes a signal conditioning circuit, a high-speed AD, a processor, a human-machine interface and a communication module, the magnitude and the flow direction of the system current, the current of the main current loop, the current of the current transfer branch circuit, the current of the overvoltage limiting branch circuit, the fracture voltage of the high-speed mechanical switch, the voltage amplitude of the transfer capacitor and/or the displacement value of the high-speed mechanical switch are input into a processor for calculation after being amplified by a signal conditioning circuit and a high-speed AD filter, the processor calculates the amplitude and the change rate di/dt of the current of the branch 1 or the branch 2, the control system controls the high-speed mechanical switch and the semi-control type power semiconductor device based on the calculation result, the human-computer interaction interface displays the state of the circuit breaker and a calculation result in real time, and the communication module sends a fault waveform to a superior system and receives a control command of the superior control system.
When the system current direction is from C1 to C2, the current amplitude and the change rate of the main current loop and the current amplitude and the change rate of the circuit 1 in the current transfer branch are calculated by a control system to control the actions of the power semiconductor devices VD1 to VD4 in the high-speed mechanical switch and the current transfer branch, and when the system current direction is from C2 to C1, the current amplitude and the change rate of the main current loop and the current amplitude and the change rate of the circuit 2 in the current transfer branch are calculated by the control system to control the actions of the power semiconductor devices VD1 to VD4 in the high-speed mechanical switch and the current transfer branch.
Under the normal current flowing state of the system, the system current flows through the main current loop, a certain pre-charging voltage is arranged on the transfer capacitor C, all the semi-controlled power semiconductor devices of the current transfer branch circuit are not triggered, the current transfer branch circuit has no current, the conduction threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch circuit is lower than the system voltage, and the overvoltage limiting branch circuit has no current flowing.
When a short circuit fault occurs or the control system receives a brake opening instruction of a superior control system, the control system sends a brake opening instruction, the control system sends a brake opening action instruction to the high-speed mechanical switch, the high-speed mechanical switch starts to act, and then according to data returned by the online monitoring system, the control system triggers the semi-control power semiconductor device VD1-VD4 at a specific time sequence based on the flow direction of the current of the circuit breaker to complete forced zero crossing of the current and realize on-off.
In a preferred embodiment of the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker, the semi-controlled power semiconductor devices VD1, VD2, VD3 and VD4 are any one or a combination of more of GTO, thyristor and IGBT.
In a preferred embodiment of the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker, the high-speed mechanical switch is a high-speed mechanical switch based on electromagnetic repulsion, a mechanical switch based on high-speed motor drive, or a high-speed mechanical switch based on explosion drive.
In a preferred embodiment of the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker, the design parameters of the overvoltage limiting branch include a voltage limiting circuit capacity, a conducting voltage threshold, a current when the conducting voltage is reached, a maximum limit voltage, and a current at the maximum limit voltage.
In the preferred embodiment of the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker, the overvoltage limiting branch circuit is in a cut-off state under the condition of normal operation of the circuit breaker, and the leakage current is less than 0.5 muA; the conducting voltage threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch circuit is 1.75 times of the system voltage of the breaker.
In a preferred embodiment of the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker, the overvoltage limiting branch comprises any one or a combination of more of a line type metal oxide arrester, a gapless line type metal oxide arrester, a fully insulated composite cased metal oxide arrester or a removable arrester.
In a preferred embodiment of the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker, the control system comprises a processor, which is a general processor, a digital signal processor, an application specific integrated circuit ASIC or a field programmable gate array FPGA.
In a preferred embodiment of the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker, the processor comprises a memory, which may comprise one or more of a read only memory ROM, a random access memory RAM, a flash memory or an electrically erasable programmable read only memory EEPROM.
Fig. 3(a) -3 (e) are schematic structural diagrams of unidirectional operation when the breaker current flows from C1 to C2 according to an embodiment of the present invention, and fig. 4(a) -4 (e) are schematic structural diagrams of unidirectional operation when the breaker current flows from C2 to C1 according to an embodiment of the present invention. The following will describe the switching-off process when the current flows to the right and left directions, respectively, with reference to fig. 3(a) -3 (e) and fig. 4(a) -4 (e).
The switching process when the current flow direction is right:
1. in the normal cocurrent state shown in fig. 3(a), the system current flows in from the outlet terminal C1, passes through the high-speed mechanical switch, and then flows out from the outlet terminal C2.
2. As shown in fig. 3(b), when the on-line monitoring system detects that the system has a short-circuit fault, it notifies the control system, the control system sends a brake-off command, and triggers the semi-controlled power semiconductors VD2 and VD4 to the right according to the current direction, so that the high-speed mechanical switch starts to open, and according to the response characteristic of the high-speed mechanical switch, the high-speed mechanical switch is not opened at this time, and the current still flows through the main loop.
3. As shown in fig. 3(c), the main current loop is opened completely because the oscillating branch injects the opposite-phase high-frequency oscillating current into the main current loop to force the current of the main current loop to pass through zero, and the high-speed mechanical switch arcs due to the current passing through zero.
4. As shown in fig. 3(d), the main current circuit is continuously charged to the transfer capacitor, and the overvoltage limiting branch is turned on when the voltage across the circuit breaker exceeds the turn-on threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch. Because the on-resistance of the overvoltage limiting branch is much smaller than that of the transfer branch, the current is rapidly transferred to the overvoltage limiting branch.
5. As shown in fig. 3(e), when the current of the current transfer branch passes through zero, the semi-controlled power semiconductors VD2 and VD4 are turned off by zero crossing, and since the system voltage is less than the turn-on threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch, the overvoltage limiting branch recovers to a high impedance state, and the turn-off process is completed.
2. The switching process when the current flow direction is left:
1. in the normal cocurrent state shown in fig. 4(a), the system current flows in from the outlet terminal C2, passes through the high-speed mechanical switch, and then flows out from the outlet terminal C1.
2. As shown in fig. 4(b), when the on-line monitoring system detects that the system has a short-circuit fault, the on-line monitoring system notifies the control system, and the control system issues a brake-separating command to trigger the semi-controlled power semiconductors VD1 and VD3 to the right according to the current direction. The high-speed mechanical switch starts to open, and according to the response characteristic of the high-speed mechanical switch, the high-speed mechanical switch is not opened at the moment, and current still flows from the main current loop.
3. As shown in fig. 4(c), since the oscillating circuit injects the opposite-phase high-frequency oscillating current into the main current circuit to force the main current circuit current to pass through zero, the high-speed mechanical switch extinguishes the arc due to the current passing through zero, and the main current circuit completes the opening.
4. As shown in fig. 4(d), the main current circuit is continuously charged to the transfer capacitor, and the overvoltage limiting branch is turned on when the voltage across the circuit breaker exceeds the turn-on threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch. Because the on-resistance of the overvoltage limiting branch is much smaller than that of the transfer branch, the current is rapidly transferred to the overvoltage limiting branch.
5. As shown in fig. 4(e), when the current of the current transfer branch passes through zero, the semi-controlled power semiconductors VD1 and VD3 are turned off by zero crossing, and since the system voltage is less than the turn-on threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch, the overvoltage limiting branch recovers to a high impedance state, and the turn-off process is completed.
Therefore, in summary, the present invention provides a method for opening a circuit breaker with different current flow directions.
Fig. 6 is a schematic diagram illustrating the steps of the switching method when the current flows from C1 to C2 by using the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker according to an embodiment of the present invention, and the switching method when the current flows from C1 to C2 by using the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker comprises the following steps:
in a first step S1, a system current flows in from the outlet terminal C1, passes through the high-speed mechanical switch, and then flows out from the outlet terminal C2.
In the second step S2, when the on-line monitoring system detects the short-circuit fault of the system, the on-line monitoring system notifies the control system, the control system issues a brake-separating command, triggers the semi-controlled power semiconductors VD2 and VD4 according to the current direction, the high-speed mechanical switch starts to open, and according to the response characteristic of the high-speed mechanical switch, the high-speed mechanical switch is not opened at this time, and the current still flows through the main loop.
In a third step S3, since the oscillating branch injects an inverted high-frequency oscillating current into the main current loop to force the main current loop to pass through zero, the high-speed mechanical switch extinguishes the arc due to the current passing through zero, and the main current loop is opened;
in a fourth step S4, the main current circuit is continuously charged to the transfer capacitor C, and when the voltage across the circuit breaker exceeds the turn-on threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch, the overvoltage limiting branch is turned on, and the current is rapidly transferred to the overvoltage limiting branch because the on-resistance of the overvoltage limiting branch is much smaller than the on-resistance of the current transfer branch.
In the fifth step S5, when the branch current passes through zero, the power semiconductors VD2 and VD4 are turned off by zero crossing, and the overvoltage limiting branch recovers a high impedance state because the system voltage is less than the turn-on threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch, and the turn-off process is completed.
Fig. 7 is a schematic diagram illustrating the steps of the switching method when the current flows from C2 to C1 by using the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker according to an embodiment of the present invention, and the switching method when the current flows from C2 to C1 by using the bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker comprises the following steps:
in a first step S1, a system current flows in from the outlet terminal C2, passes through the high-speed mechanical switch, and then flows out from the outlet terminal C1;
in a second step S2, when the on-line monitoring system detects that the system has a short-circuit fault, the on-line monitoring system notifies the control system, the control system sends a brake-separating command, triggers the semi-controlled power semiconductors VD1 and VD3 according to the current direction, the high-speed mechanical switch starts to open, and according to the response characteristic of the high-speed mechanical switch, the high-speed mechanical switch is not opened at this time, and the current still flows through the main current loop;
in a third step S3, since the oscillating branch injects an inverted high-frequency oscillating current into the main current loop to force the main current loop to pass through zero, the high-speed mechanical switch extinguishes the arc due to the current passing through zero, and the main current loop is opened;
in a fourth step S4, the main current circuit is continuously charging the transfer capacitor C, when the voltage across the circuit breaker exceeds the turn-on threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch, the overvoltage limiting branch is turned on, and the current is rapidly transferred to the overvoltage limiting branch because the on-state resistance of the overvoltage limiting branch is much smaller than the on-state resistance of the transfer branch;
in the fifth step S5, when the current of the current transfer branch passes through zero, the semi-controlled power semiconductors VD1 and VD3 are turned off by zero crossing, and since the system voltage is less than the turn-on threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch, the overvoltage limiting branch recovers the high impedance state, and the turn-off process is completed.
The invention can effectively limit the rise rate of the overvoltage at two ends of the circuit breaker by controlling the power semiconductor device of the transfer current circuit to conduct according to a certain time sequence, and because the capacitance current is transferred twice in the switching-off process, the voltage direction on the pre-charging capacitor after the circuit breaker is switched off is consistent with the pre-charging voltage direction before action, the charging process of the capacitor C is saved, and the hybrid circuit breaker has the functions of bidirectional conduction and breaking.
Although the embodiments of the present invention have been described above with reference to the accompanying drawings, the present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiments and application fields, and the above-described embodiments are illustrative, instructive, and not restrictive. Those skilled in the art, having the benefit of this disclosure, may effect numerous modifications thereto without departing from the scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.

Claims (4)

1. A bidirectional breaking hybrid circuit breaker, the circuit breaker including a main current circuit, a current diverting branch, an overvoltage limiting branch, an on-line monitoring system, a control system, an outlet terminal C1 and an outlet terminal C2, and the main current circuit, the current diverting branch and the overvoltage limiting branch being connected in parallel, characterized in that:
(1) the main current loop is formed by connecting an outlet end C1, a high-speed mechanical switch and an outlet end C2 in series;
(2) the current transfer branch comprises a branch 1, a branch 2 and an oscillation branch, wherein the branch 1 is formed by connecting a semi-controlled power semiconductor device VD1 and a semi-controlled power semiconductor device VD2 in series, the branch 2 is formed by connecting a semi-controlled power semiconductor device VD3 and a semi-controlled power semiconductor device VD4 in series, and the oscillation branch is formed by a pre-charged transfer capacitor C and an oscillation inductor L1, wherein:
(A) the two ends of the branch circuit 1 are connected in parallel with the two ends of the high-speed mechanical switch to realize the parallel connection of the current transfer branch circuit and the main current loop, and one end of the branch circuit 1, which is connected with the positive electrodes of the semi-controlled power semiconductor devices VD1 and VD2, is connected with one side of the oscillation inductor L1 in the oscillation branch circuit;
(B) the two ends of the branch 2 are connected in parallel with the two ends of the high-speed mechanical switch, so that the parallel connection of the current transfer branch and the main current loop is realized, and:
one side of a transfer capacitor C of the oscillation branch circuit is connected with one end of the semi-controlled power semiconductor VD3 of the branch circuit 2, which is connected with the positive electrodes of the power semiconductor VD 4;
(C) a capacitor pole column of a transfer capacitor C in the oscillation branch close to the connection part with the branch 2 is negatively charged, and the other end of the transfer capacitor C is positively charged;
(D) all the semi-controlled power semiconductor devices are semi-controlled power semiconductor devices which are conducted in a unidirectional mode, and the semi-controlled power semiconductor devices VD1, VD2, VD3 and VD4 are any one or combination of more of GTO, thyristors and IGBTs;
(3) the on-line monitoring system comprises a current sensor D0 for measuring the current state of the system, a current state current sensor D1 for measuring the current state of a main current loop, a current sensor D2 for measuring the current state of a current transfer branch circuit, a current state current sensor D3 for measuring an overvoltage limiting circuit, a voltage sensor Vhs for measuring the fracture voltage of the high-speed mechanical switch, a voltage sensor Vc for measuring the voltage state of two ends of a transfer capacitor C, a displacement sensor P for measuring the motion state of the high-speed mechanical switch and a circuit breaker environment temperature sensor T1;
(4) the control system comprises a signal conditioning circuit, a high-speed AD, a processor, a man-machine interaction interface and a communication module, wherein the magnitude and the flow direction of the system current, the current of a main current loop, the current of a current transfer branch circuit, the current of an overvoltage limiting branch circuit, the fracture voltage of a high-speed mechanical switch, the amplitude of transfer capacitance voltage and/or the numerical value of the displacement of the high-speed mechanical switch are/is input into the processor for calculation after being subjected to filtering and amplifying processing by the signal conditioning circuit and the high-speed AD, the processor calculates the amplitude and the change rate di/dt of the current of a branch circuit 1 or a branch circuit 2, the control system controls the high-speed mechanical switch and a semi-control type power semiconductor device based on the calculation result, the man-machine interaction interface displays the state and the calculation result in real time, and the communication module sends a fault, the processor comprises a memory including one or more read only memories ROM, random access memories RAM, flash memories or electrically erasable programmable read only memories EEPROM;
when the system current direction is from C1 to C2, the current amplitude and the change rate of the main current loop and the current amplitude and the change rate of the circuit 1 in the current transfer branch are calculated by a control system to control the actions of the power semiconductor devices VD1 to VD4 in the high-speed mechanical switch and the current transfer branch, and when the system current direction is from C2 to C1, the current amplitude and the change rate of the main current loop and the current amplitude and the change rate of the circuit 2 in the current transfer branch are calculated by the control system to control the actions of the power semiconductor devices VD1 to VD4 in the high-speed mechanical switch and the current transfer branch;
when the system is in a normal current flowing state, system current flows through the main current loop, a certain pre-charging voltage is arranged on the transfer capacitor C, all semi-controlled power semiconductor devices of the current transfer branch circuit are not triggered, the current transfer branch circuit has no current, the conduction threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch circuit is lower than the system voltage, no current flows through the overvoltage limiting branch circuit, when a short circuit fault occurs or the control system receives a brake-separating command of a superior control system, the control system sends a brake-separating command to the high-speed mechanical switch, the high-speed mechanical switch starts to act, then according to data returned by the online monitoring system, the control system triggers the semi-controlled power semiconductor devices VD1-VD4 at a specific time sequence based on the flow direction of the breaker current to complete forced zero crossing of the current and realize disconnection,
the overvoltage limiting branch circuit is in a cut-off state under the condition of normal operation of the circuit breaker, and the leakage current is less than 0.5 muA; the overvoltage limiting branch circuit comprises a circuit type metal oxide arrester, a gapless circuit type metal oxide arrester, a full-insulation composite-casing metal oxide arrester or a detachable arrester, wherein the conducting voltage threshold value of the overvoltage limiting branch circuit is 1.75 times of the system voltage of the circuit breaker, the design parameters of the overvoltage limiting branch circuit comprise the capacity of a voltage limiting circuit, the conducting voltage threshold value, the current reaching the conducting voltage, the highest limit voltage and the current at the highest limit voltage, the overvoltage limiting branch circuit comprises any one or more of the circuit type metal oxide arrester, the gapless circuit type metal oxide arrester, the full-insulation composite-casing metal oxide arrester or the detachable arrester, the control system comprises a processor, and the processor is a general processor, a digital signal processor, a special integrated circuit ASIC or a field programmable gate array FPGA.
2. A bi-directional breaking hybrid circuit breaker as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that: the high-speed mechanical switch is a high-speed mechanical switch based on electromagnetic repulsion, a mechanical switch based on high-speed motor drive or a high-speed mechanical switch based on explosion drive.
3. A breaking method when current flows from C1 to C2 using the bidirectional breaking hybrid breaker of claim 1 or 2, comprising the steps of:
in the first step (S1), the system current flows in from the outlet terminal C1, passes through the high-speed mechanical switch, and then flows out from the outlet terminal C2;
in the second step (S2), when the on-line monitoring system detects that the system has a short-circuit fault, the on-line monitoring system notifies the control system, the control system sends a brake-separating command, triggers the semi-controlled power semiconductors VD2 and VD4 according to the current direction, the high-speed mechanical switch starts to open, and according to the response characteristic of the high-speed mechanical switch, the high-speed mechanical switch is not opened at this time, and the current still flows through the main loop;
in the third step (S3), the main current loop is opened completely because the oscillating branch injects the inverted high-frequency oscillating current into the main current loop to force the current of the main current loop to be zero-crossed and the high-speed mechanical switch arcs due to the zero-crossed current;
in a fourth step (S4), the main current circuit is continuously charging the transfer capacitor C, and when the voltage across the circuit breaker exceeds the turn-on threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch, the overvoltage limiting branch is turned on, and the current is rapidly transferred to the overvoltage limiting branch because the on-resistance of the overvoltage limiting branch is much smaller than the on-resistance of the current transfer branch;
in the fifth step (S5), when the branch current passes through zero, the power semiconductors VD2 and VD4 are turned off by zero crossing, and since the system voltage is less than the turn-on threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch, the overvoltage limiting branch recovers the high impedance state, and the turn-off process is completed.
4. A breaking method when current flows from C2 to C1 using the bidirectional breaking hybrid breaker of claim 1 or 2, comprising the steps of:
in the first step (S1), the system current flows in from the outlet terminal C2, passes through the high-speed mechanical switch, and then flows out from the outlet terminal C1;
in the second step (S2), when the on-line monitoring system detects that the system has short-circuit fault, the control system is informed, the control system sends a brake-separating command, the semi-controlled power semiconductors VD1 and VD3 are triggered according to the current direction, the high-speed mechanical switch starts to be opened, and the current still flows through the main current loop when the high-speed mechanical switch is not opened according to the response characteristic of the high-speed mechanical switch;
in the third step (S3), the main current loop is opened completely because the oscillating branch injects the inverted high-frequency oscillating current into the main current loop to force the current of the main current loop to be zero-crossed and the high-speed mechanical switch arcs due to the zero-crossed current;
in a fourth step (S4), the main current circuit is continuously charging the transfer capacitor C, and when the voltage across the circuit breaker exceeds the turn-on threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch, the overvoltage limiting branch is turned on, and the current is rapidly transferred to the overvoltage limiting branch because the on-resistance of the overvoltage limiting branch is much smaller than the on-resistance of the transfer branch;
in the fifth step (S5), when the current of the current transfer branch passes zero, the power semiconductors VD1 and VD3 are turned off by zero crossing, and since the system voltage is less than the turn-on threshold of the overvoltage limiting branch, the overvoltage limiting branch recovers the high impedance state, and the turn-off process is completed.
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