CN107037830A - A kind of arrangement and its tracking of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system - Google Patents

A kind of arrangement and its tracking of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107037830A
CN107037830A CN201610078501.0A CN201610078501A CN107037830A CN 107037830 A CN107037830 A CN 107037830A CN 201610078501 A CN201610078501 A CN 201610078501A CN 107037830 A CN107037830 A CN 107037830A
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China
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speculum
angle
rotating shaft
reception
condenser
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CN201610078501.0A
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刘阳
李维
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BEIJING TERASOLAR PHOTOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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BEIJING TERASOLAR PHOTOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201610078501.0A priority Critical patent/CN107037830A/en
Publication of CN107037830A publication Critical patent/CN107037830A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D3/00Control of position or direction
    • G05D3/12Control of position or direction using feedback

Abstract

The arrangement and its tracking of the condenser mirror for the tower condenser system that the present invention is provided, the arrangement of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system therein include reception device the ambient level rotating device arranged and the multiple reflecting members arranged on the rotating device;And the reflecting member is in rotary moving using the vertical line of the central point of the reception device as axis in the horizontal plane under the drive of the rotating device so that the azimuth of all unified tracking sun of the reflecting member;The reflecting member includes a rotating shaft and the speculum affixed with the rotating shaft, and the rotating shaft is in tilted layout with horizontal plane and perpendicular in fixed angle;Wherein, the rotating shaft drives the speculum rotation so that the speculum tracking sun altitude simultaneously reflexes to sun incident light in the range of receiving of the reception device.It can significantly simplify the complexity of speculum follower, improve its reliability, reduce cost.

Description

A kind of arrangement and its tracking of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system
Technical field
The present invention relates to the arrangement of condenser mirror, and in particular to a kind of condenser mirror of tower condenser system Arrangement and its tracking.
Background technology
Solar energy tower type light and heat collection power station is general by heliostat, high tower, the reception device on high tower, heat transfer heat accumulation The part such as system and generator is constituted, because its light concentrating times is high, reception device can obtain higher heat-collecting temperature, thus wide General popularization and application.
Wherein, the arrangement of heliostat is generally equipped with many heliostats, many heliostats on the place of large area Arrangement forms heliostat mirror field, and because each heliostat present position in mirror is different, and locus residing for the sun is in height Each mobile change in angle and two, azimuth dimension is spent, to ensure each heliostat synchronous sun tracking movement, every settled date Mirror all each independently uses dual-axis tracking system, i.e., the follower of two dimensions each all is equipped with to every heliostat, so that The elevation angle of each autotracking sun of all heliostats and azimuth are rotated, sunlight is reflexed into the convergent point of tower top i.e. Reception device.
Generally, the tracking drive mechanism of tower heliostat is by a set of drive device rotated around vertical axis and a set of The drive device rotated around trunnion axis is constituted, because position of each heliostat in mirror is different from, so each heliostat The anglecs of rotation of two axial brake devices have a difference, and the anglec of rotation side again with the sun of two axles of each heliostat Parallactic angle and elevation angle are all associated, so control signal is considerably complicated, it is necessary to carry out complicated calculations at any time and to thousands of Two axles of heliostat send different driving control signal.In addition, these heliostat followers need very high tracking essence Spend to ensure the precision of heliostat optically focused angle, in addition it is also necessary to have very strong structural strength to ensure heliostat eyeglass in strong wind atmosphere Middle holding shape and angle are constant and are not destroyed, and the double requirements considerably increase the cost of follower.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of arrangement of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system, it can be significantly simple Change the complexity of speculum follower, improve its reliability, reduce cost.
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of tracking of the condenser mirror of condenser system, it can significantly simplify instead The complexity of mirror follower is penetrated, its reliability is improved, reduces cost.
The arrangement of the condenser mirror for the tower condenser system that the present invention is provided, it includes reception device ambient level The multiple reflecting members arranged on the rotating device of arrangement and the rotating device;And the reflecting member is in the rotating device Drive under it is in rotary moving using the vertical line of the central point of the reception device as axis in the horizontal plane so that all reflections The azimuth of the unified tracking sun of component;The rotating disk that the reflecting member is either rotated comprising a rotating shaft around the imaginary axis is (for letter Change description, hereinafter rotating shaft includes true rotating shaft or the imaginary axis), and the speculum with the rotating shaft Joint, the rotating shaft with Horizontal plane and perpendicular are in tilted layout in fixed angle;
Wherein, the rotating shaft drives the speculum rotation, only needs one-dimensional rotation to may be such that the speculum tracking too Positive elevation angle simultaneously reflexes to sun incident light in the range of receiving of the reception device.
Further, the angle α of the rotation axis of the rotating shaft and transverse axis, the rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the folder of the longitudinal axis The normal of angle beta, the rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle δ of vertical pivot and the speculum and the rotation axis of the rotating shaft Angle η;Pass through incident ray vectorThe reflection light vector reflected through the speculumThe minute surface center of the speculum Coordinate points O and the corresponding elevation angle of three different sunrays calculate and determine.
Further, three different elevation angle h from due south direction sunray are passed through1、h2、h3, it is determined that correspondence Elevation angle h1The speculum normal vectorRespective heights angle h2The speculum normal vectorIt is high with correspondence Spend angle h3The speculum normal vector
Pass throughAndDetermine the vector of the rotation axis of the rotating shaftAnd pass through the rotation of the rotating shaft The vector of axisDetermine the rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle α of transverse axis, the rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the folder of the longitudinal axis Angle is β, and the rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle of vertical pivot are δ;
Pass through the vector of the rotation axis of the rotating shaft againIt is described anti-with the elevation angle h of any sunray of correspondence Penetrate the normal vector of mirrorDetermine the angle η of the normal of the speculum and the rotation axis of the rotating shaft.
Further, the calculation formula of the angle α of the rotation axis of the rotating shaft and transverse axis is,
The rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle β of the longitudinal axis calculation formula is,
The rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle δ of vertical pivot calculation formula is,
The calculation formula of the normal of the speculum and the angle η of the rotation axis of the rotating shaft is,
Wherein, A is respective heights angle h1The speculum normal vectorThe inverse of mould, B is respective heights angle h2 The speculum normal vectorMould inverse, C be respective heights angle h3The speculum normal vectorMould Inverse, K is the normal vector of the correspondence arbitrary height angle h speculumMould inverse, E be rotating shaft rotation axis VectorMould.
Further, the coordinate points O at the minute surface center of the speculum is defined as, O (- H0cotλsin b,-H0cosλ cosb,0);The incident ray vectorCalculation formula be,
The reflection light vector reflected through the speculumCalculation formula be,
The respective heights angle h1The speculum normal vectorCalculation formula be,
Respective heights angle h2The speculum normal vectorCalculation formula be,
Respective heights angle h3The speculum normal vectorCalculation formula be,
The normal vector of the correspondence arbitrary height angle h speculumCalculation formula be,
The vector of the rotation axis of the rotating shaftCalculation formula be,
Wherein, the focusing that λ is formed for the minute surface central point of the speculum with the speculum in the reception device The line of point and the angle of horizontal plane formation, b fill for the minute surface central point of the speculum with the speculum in described receive Put the angle that the line of the subpoint of the focus point of formation in the horizontal plane is formed with due south direction, H0For the speculum The difference in height of minute surface central point and its focus point formed in the reception device, γ is the azimuth of sunray, and h is to appoint The elevation angle of meaning sunray, h1、h2、h3Respectively three different to come from the corresponding elevation angle of due south direction sunray.
Further, one reflector element of multiple reflecting member formation in the mirror, the reflector element exists The linear light extended along the short transverse of the reception device is formed in the reception device.
Further, multiple rotating shaft linkages in the reflector element.
Further, the linear light is located in the range of receiving of the reception device.
Further, the side in the subpoint from the inside to the outside is upwardly formed at least one region that is circular layout, the ring Shape layout area is arranged and formed in a ring by multiple reflector elements around the subpoint.
Further, the region that is circular layout is multiple, and multiple described is circular layout region in the subpoint It is in be spaced apart on direction from the inside to the outside.
Further, multiple reflector elements are circular layout in region described in where it in uniform.
Further, the rotating device includes cistern and is placed in the cistern and floats to be covered on the water surface Kickboard, the subpoint of the central point of the reception device in the horizontal plane is located at the center of the cistern, the kickboard structure Cause in the cistern using the central point of reception device subpoint in the horizontal plane as center of circle knot in rotary moving Structure;The reflecting member is arranged in the kickboard.
Further, heat exchanger tube is additionally provided with the cistern, the heat exchanger tube connects with exhaust steam in steam turbine cooling line Connect.
Further, the rotating device includes swivel plate and using the subpoint of the reception device in the horizontal plane as circle At least one circular orbit of heart arrangement, the swivel plate is along throwing of the circular orbit with the reception device in the horizontal plane Shadow point is that the center of circle is in rotary moving;The reflecting member is arranged on the swivel plate.
The tracking of the condenser mirror for the tower condenser system that the present invention is provided, based on above-mentioned tower condenser system Condenser mirror arrangement, the tracking of the condenser mirror of the tower condenser system includes:According to sun side The change of parallactic angle degree adjusts the anglec of rotation of the rotating device in real time so that the unified rotation tracking sun side of all reflecting members Parallactic angle;The anglec of rotation of the rotating shaft is adjusted according to the change of altitude of the sun angle, the speculum is driven by the rotating shaft Rotation so that each speculum tracks sun altitude and sun incident light is reflexed to the reception of the reception device In the range of.
Compared with prior art, the arrangement for the condenser mirror of tower condenser system that the present invention is provided, by Reception device ambient level arranges rotating device, and arranges on the rotating device multiple reflecting members, and all reflecting members exist Rotated in the horizontal plane by axis (vertical axle) of the vertical line of the central point of reception device under the drive of rotating device) so that All speculums in all reflecting members are unified around the rotation of vertical axle, the change of real-time tracking solar azimuth, and then ensure each The relativeness of speculum, convergent point and solar azimuth is constant.Further, the spotlight tracking of each speculum can be reduced to A kind of unitary variant that in the case where constant bearing angle is constant elevation angle change only occurs for the sun tracks (i.e. each ad-hoc location Speculum is uniformly being carried out after vertical axle rotation tracking solar azimuth, its further spotlight tracking angle and the sun The variable quantity of elevation angle is relevant, and relevant no longer with the change of solar azimuth).Therefore, tower optically focused system of the present invention The arrangement of the condenser mirror of system has dramatically different with traditional labyrinth, and it can be driven all by rotating device Speculum is unified around vertical axle rotation tracking solar azimuth, and passes through the rotating shaft (being inclined shaft) point in each reflecting member Speculum that Dai Dong be in respective axes of rotation only carry out one-dimensional rotation just can real-time tracking sun altitude change, it is therein around hanging down Axle rotation tracking angle is only relevant with solar azimuth change, and inclined shaft rotation tracking angle is only relevant with sun altitude change, Its sound construction is reliable, control is simple, and the cost of tower condenser system can be greatly reduced, its reliability of operation is improved.
In further technical scheme, by the way that multiple rotating shafts in reflector element are linked, it is ensured that in reflector element All reflecting member synchronous sun trackings rotate.
In further technical scheme, what reflector element was formed on the reception device prolongs along the short transverse of reception device The linear light stretched can be located in the range of receiving of reception device, i.e., the linear light can be received by reception device completely, it is to avoid Linear light extends to the loss of the light energy caused outside reception device.
In further technical scheme, by the way that the arrangement of reflector element is set into mirror unit around subpoint Arrange in a ring, so as to form the region that is circular layout so that the arrangement of reflector element is more orderly, regular, and reflection can be improved The overall spotlight effect of mirror arrangement.
In further technical scheme, by setting multiple regions that are circular layout, and by the plurality of region that is circular layout It is spaced apart on the direction of subpoint from the inside to the outside, so that the reserved passageway between two adjacent annular regions, is easy to out The work such as daily cleaning, the maintenance of speculum in extensor reflex unit.
In further technical scheme, by the way that multiple reflector elements are laid in the region that is circular layout where it Put, so as to simplify the arrangement of mirror unit.
In further technical scheme, by using cistern and the kickboard being placed in cistern as rotating device, Reflecting member can be avoided to be arranged in the high cost for needing to level land on ground and causing.
In further technical scheme, by setting heat exchanger tube in cistern, using relative inside cistern The water cooling exhaust steam in steam turbine of low temperature.
Brief description of the drawings
Hereinafter the present invention will in more detail be retouched based on only non-limiting embodiment and refer to the attached drawing State.Wherein:
Fig. 1,2 be the embodiment of the present invention one provide tower power stations in speculum arrangement structural representation.
The structural representation of speculum arrangement in the tower power station that Fig. 3 provides for the embodiment of the present invention two.
The structural representation of speculum arrangement in the tower power station that Fig. 4 to 6 provides for the embodiment of the present invention three.
The structural representation of speculum arrangement in the tower power station that Fig. 7 provides for the embodiment of the present invention four.
Brief description of the drawings:
1- rotating devices, 2- reflecting members, 3- reception devices, 4- cisterns, 5- kickboards, 6- rotating shafts, 7- speculums, 8- rotations Shaft axis, 9- normals the first reflector elements of 21-, the reflector elements of 22- second, 23- third reflecting units, the reflector elements of 24- the 4th.
Embodiment
The technical scheme in the embodiment of the present invention is clearly and completely described with reference to the accompanying drawings and examples, shown So, described embodiment is only a part of embodiment of the invention, rather than whole embodiments.Based on the reality in the present invention Apply example, the every other embodiment that those of ordinary skill in the art are obtained on the premise of creative work is not made, all Belong to the scope of protection of the invention.
Embodiment one
As shown in Figure 1, 2, the speculum arrangement in the tower power station that the present embodiment is provided, including reception device 3 weeks Enclose horizontally disposed rotating device 1 and the multiple reflecting members 2 arranged on rotating device 1;And the reflecting member 2 is in institute State in rotary moving using the vertical line of the central point of the reception device 3 as axis in the horizontal plane under the drive of rotating device 1 so that The azimuth of the unified tracking sun of the reflecting member 1;Reflecting member 2 therein includes a rotating shaft 6 and solid with the rotating shaft 6 The speculum 7 connect, the rotating shaft 6 is in tilted layout with horizontal plane and perpendicular in fixed angle;Wherein, the band of rotating shaft 6 Move the speculum 7 to rotate so that sun incident light is simultaneously reflexed to the reception dress by the tracking sun altitude of speculum 7 Put in 3 range of receiving.As shown in Fig. 2 horizontal plane therein is the plane of x-axis and y-axis formation, perpendicular therein is y Axle and the plane of z-axis formation, the reflection light c that the reflected mirrors 7 of incident ray b are reflected to form form optically focused in reception device 3 Point, the convergent point for the light that all tracking sun altitudes of speculum 7 are reflected when rotating is respectively positioned on the reception of reception device 3 In the range of.
The arrangement of the condenser mirror for the tower condenser system that the present embodiment is provided, by around reception device 3 Horizontally disposed rotating device 1, and multiple reflecting members 2 are arranged on the rotating device 1, pass through horizontally disposed rotating device 1 So that all reflecting members 2 are arranged in same level reference plane, then drive of all reflecting members 2 in rotating device 1 Under the convergent point of the optically focused light of reflecting member 2 that is formed in the horizontal plane using in reception device 3 revolved as axis (vertical axle) is unified Turn) so that all speculums 7 in all reflecting members 2 are unified around the rotation of vertical axle, the change of real-time tracking solar azimuth Change, and then ensure that the relativeness of each speculum 7, convergent point and solar azimuth is constant.
Further, the spotlight tracking of each speculum 7 can be reduced to the sun in the case where constant bearing angle is constant only (speculum 7 of i.e. each ad-hoc location is uniformly carrying out rotating around vertical axle for a kind of unitary variant tracking of generation elevation angle change Track solar azimuth after, its further spotlight tracking angle only it is relevant with the variable quantity of sun altitude, and no longer with The change of solar azimuth is relevant).Therefore, the arrangement and biography of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system of the present invention The labyrinth of system has dramatically different, and it can be driven all speculums 7 unified by rotating device 1 and be tracked too around the rotation of vertical axle Positive azimuth, and drive the speculum 7 in respective axes of rotation 6 real respectively by the rotating shaft 6 (being inclined shaft) in each reflecting member 2 When track the change of sun altitude, it is therein only relevant with solar azimuth change around vertical axle rotation tracking angle, around the shaft 6 (inclined shaft) rotation tracking angle is only relevant with sun altitude change, and then realizes multiple speculums 7 using a vertical axle as the One rotation axis carries out overall tracking, speculum 7 with respective rotating shaft 6 (inclined shaft) be the second rotation axis carry out it is independent with Track, i.e., with a vertical axle and multiple rotating shafts 6, (i.e. 1+N rotary shaft, wherein N is the number with the one-to-one rotating shaft of speculum 76 Amount) two-dimensional tracking of speculum 7 is completed, its structure is reliable, control is simple, and the cost of tower condenser system can be greatly reduced, Improve its reliability of operation.
It should be noted that horizontally disposed rotating device 1 provides the horizontal base of an arrangement for all reflecting members 2 Quasi- face, but each reflecting member 2 be arranged in the vertical direction on rotating device 1 height can according to actual conditions misplace arrange, So as to the mirror surface of other adjacent reflecting members 2 of the shadow occlusion for being effectively reduced reflecting member 2.
Embodiment two
As shown in figure 3, the arrangement of the condenser mirror for the tower condenser system that the present embodiment is provided, it includes receiving The multiple reflecting members 2 arranged on the rotating device and the rotating device of the ambient level of device 3 arrangement;And the reflecting member 2 is in rotary moving using the vertical line of the central point of the reception device 3 as axis in the horizontal plane under the drive of the rotating device, So that the azimuth of the unified tracking sun of all reflecting members 2;The reflecting member 2 comprising a rotating shaft 6 and with it is described The affixed speculum 7 of rotating shaft 6, the rotating shaft 6 is in tilted layout with horizontal plane and perpendicular in fixed angle;Wherein, it is described Rotating shaft 6 drives the speculum 7 to rotate so that sun incident light is simultaneously reflected aggregation by the tracking sun altitude of speculum 7 At same focal point on to the reception device 3.
Wherein, the angle α of the rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6 and transverse axis x, the rotation axis 8 and longitudinal axis y's of the rotating shaft 6 Angle β, the rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6 and the normal 9 of vertical pivot z angle δ and the speculum 7 and the rotation of the rotating shaft 6 The angle η of shaft axis 8;Incident ray vector can be passed throughThe reflection light vector reflected through the speculum 7The reflection The coordinate points O at the minute surface center of mirror 7 and the corresponding elevation angle of three different sunrays are calculated and determined.For ease of meter Calculate, specifically, three different elevation angle h from due south direction sunray can be passed through1、h2、h3(due to all anti- When penetrating the vertical line of the unified central point around reception device 3 under the drive of rotating device of component 2 for axis rotation tracking azimuth, Sunray can be considered as and come from due south direction so that it is 0 to obtain sunray azimuth γ, therefore, in calculating rotating shaft 6 During position, the elevation angle of the different sunrays from due south direction can be chosen, to facilitate calculating), it is determined that correspondence is high Spend angle h1The speculum 7 normal vectorRespective heights angle h2The speculum 7 normal vectorIt is high with correspondence Spend angle h3The speculum 7 normal vectorAnd pass throughAndDetermine the rotating shaft 6 rotation axis 8 to AmountAnd the vector of the rotation axis 8 by the rotating shaft 6Determine the rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6 and transverse axis x folder Angle α, the rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6 and longitudinal axis y angle are β, and the angle of the rotation axis 8 and vertical pivot z of the rotating shaft 6 is δ;Pass through the vector of the rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6 againWith the elevation angle h of any sunray of the correspondence speculum Normal vectorDetermine the angle η of the normal 9 of the speculum 7 and the rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6.
To obtain the rotation axis 8 of rotating shaft 6 and transverse axis x angle α, the rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6 and longitudinal axis y folder Angle beta, the rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6 and the normal 9 of vertical pivot z angle δ and the speculum 7 and the rotation of the rotating shaft 6 The angle η of axis 8 specific formula for calculation, can set transverse axis x, represent east-west direction, longitudinal axis y, represent North and South direction, vertical pivot z, Represent perpendicular to the direction of horizontal plane.And set the minute surface central point of λ as the speculum 7 and connect with the speculum 7 described The line of the focus point formed on receiving apparatus 3 and the angle of horizontal plane formation, minute surface central points and institute of the b for the speculum 7 The line for stating the subpoint of focus point that speculum 7 formed in the reception device 3 in the horizontal plane is formed with due south direction Angle, H0The difference in height of minute surface central point and its focus point formed in the reception device 3 for the speculum 7, γ is the azimuth of sunray, and h is the elevation angle of any sunray, h1、h2、h3Respectively three different to come from due south The corresponding elevation angle of direction light, and set speculum 7 minute surface center coordinate points O as,
O(-H0cotλsin b,-H0cosλcosb,0).And following variable is determined according to above-mentioned parameter:
Incident ray vectorCalculation formula be,
The reflection light vector that reflected mirror 7 reflectsCalculation formula be,
Respective heights angle h1The speculum 7 normal vectorCalculation formula be:
Respective heights angle h2Speculum 7 normal vectorCalculation formula be:
Respective heights angle h3Speculum 7 normal directionCalculation formula be:
The normal vector of the correspondence arbitrary height angle h speculumCalculation formula be,
The vector of the rotation axis 8 of rotating shaft 6Calculation formula be:
Obtain rotation axis 8 and the transverse axis x of rotating shaft 6 angle α according to above-mentioned parameter, the rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6 with Longitudinal axis y angle β, the rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6 and vertical pivot z angle δ and the normal 9 of the speculum 7 and described turn The angle η of the rotation axis 8 of axle 6 specific calculating calculation formula is as follows:
The calculation formula of the rotation axis 8 and transverse axis x angle α of rotating shaft 6 is,
The calculation formula of the rotation axis 8 of rotating shaft 6 and longitudinal axis y angle β is,
The calculation formula of the rotation axis 8 of rotating shaft 6 and vertical pivot z angle δ is,
The calculation formula of the normal 9 of speculum 7 and the angle η of the rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6 is,
Wherein, A is respective heights angle h1The speculum 7 normal vectorThe inverse of mould, B is respective heights angle h2The speculum 7 normal vectorMould inverse, C be respective heights angle h3The speculum 7 normal vector Mould inverse, K for any sunray elevation angle h of the correspondence speculum normal vectorMould inverse, E for turn The vector of the rotation axis 8 of axle 6Mould.
It should be noted that the value that above-mentioned formula calculates obtained α, β, δ, η is calculated value, therefore α, β, δ, η value In rational error range (such as ± 2 °), it should also fall within the scope of protection of the invention.
For the rotation axis 8 and transverse axis x of clear and definite rotating shaft 6 angle α, the rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6 and longitudinal axis y folder Angle beta, the rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6 and the normal 9 of vertical pivot z angle δ and the speculum 7 and the rotation of the rotating shaft 6 The angle η of axis 8 concrete numerical value, the present embodiment by detailed description below give corresponding α under different parameters, β, δ and η value.
First, if the height difference H of the minute surface central point of speculum 7 and its focus point formed in the reception device 30 For the line and water of 44m, the minute surface central point of speculum 7 focus point formed with the speculum 7 in the reception device 3 The angle λ of plane formation is 14.8 °.The reflecting member is received with described in the horizontal plane under the drive of the rotating device The vertical line of the central point of device 3 is that axis is in rotary moving so that the azimuth of all unified tracking sun of the reflecting member;Institute State the azimuth for needing the angle rotated to be equal to the sun.
The focus point formed in the reception device 3 when minute surface central point and the speculum 7 of speculum 7 is in level The angle b that the line of subpoint on face is formed with due south direction (due south direction be 0 °) is 30 °, and three different from due south The corresponding elevation angle h of direction sunray1For 15 °, h2For 45 °, h3For 75 ° when, by above-mentioned formula calculate obtain rotating shaft 6 Rotation axis 8 and transverse axis x angle α be 35.27 °, the rotation axis 8 of rotating shaft 6 is 68.26 °, rotating shaft with longitudinal axis y angle β 6 rotation axis 8 is 63.69 ° with vertical pivot z angle δ, the normal 9 of the speculum 7 and the rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6 Angle η is 36.74 °.The focus point formed when the minute surface central point of speculum 7 with the speculum 7 in the reception device 3 The angle b that the line of subpoint in the horizontal plane is formed with due south direction (due south direction be 0 °) is 60 °, and three different From the corresponding elevation angle h of due south direction sunray1For 15 °, h2For 45 °, h3For 75 ° when, by above-mentioned formula calculate obtain The rotation axis 8 of rotating shaft 6 is 17.19 ° with transverse axis x angle α, and the rotation axis 8 of rotating shaft 6 is with longitudinal axis y angle β 77.71 °, the rotation axis 8 of rotating shaft 6 is 78.16 ° with vertical pivot z angle δ, the normal 9 of the speculum 7 and the rotating shaft 6 The angle η of rotation axis 8 is 42.84 °.
The focus point formed in the reception device 3 when minute surface central point and the speculum 7 of speculum 7 is in level The angle b that the line of subpoint on face is formed with due south direction (due south direction be 0 °) is 90 °, and three different from due south The corresponding elevation angle h of direction sunray1For 15 °, h2For 45 °, h3For 75 ° when, by above-mentioned formula calculate obtain rotating shaft 6 Rotation axis 8 and transverse axis x angle α be 7.01 °, the rotation axis 8 of rotating shaft 6 is 89.77 °, rotating shaft 6 with longitudinal axis y angle β Rotation axis 8 and vertical pivot z angle δ be 82.98 °, the normal 9 of the speculum 7 and the rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6 Angle η is 45.35 °.
The rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6 determined it can be seen from above-mentioned embodiment by above-mentioned formula respectively with Transverse axis x, longitudinal axis y, vertical pivot z angle, and the position of the rotating shaft 6 determined by its angle, in light path simulation, correspondence position Light can be gathered in reception device 3 by the speculum 7 in rotating shaft 6 completely, and same reflection mirror 7 is in the drive backspin of rotating shaft 6 When going to diverse location, it can form same focal point in reception device 3.So as to demonstrate the correctness of above-mentioned formula.
In the present embodiment, formed with the minute surface central point of speculum 7 and the speculum 7 in the reception device 3 The angle b that the line of the subpoint of focus point in the horizontal plane is formed with due south direction (due south direction is 0 °) is 30 °, speculum The height difference H of 7 minute surface central point and its focus point formed in the reception device 30For 44m, in the minute surface of speculum 7 The angle λ that the line for the focus point that heart point is formed with the speculum 7 in the reception device 3 is formed with horizontal plane is Exemplified by 14.8 °, and define when altitude of the sun angle is h=0, rotating shaft 6 is in original position, and calculates start angle θ; It is computed drawing as altitude of the sun angle h1For 15 ° when, rotating shaft 6 is rotated after 32.03 ° from start angle θ, and sun incident light is through anti- The position for penetrating the focus point formed after mirror 7 reflects in reception device 3 does not change;As altitude of the sun angle h2For 45 ° when, Rotating shaft 6 is rotated after 72.43 ° from start angle θ, the focusing that the reflected mirror 7 of sun incident light is formed after reflecting in reception device 3 The position of point does not change;As altitude of the sun angle h3For 75 ° when, rotating shaft 6 from start angle θ rotate 77.98 ° after, the sun The position for the focus point that the reflected mirror 7 of incident light is formed after reflecting in reception device 3 does not change.Hence, it can be determined that, When the rotation axis 8 and transverse axis x angle α of the rotating shaft 6 that the calculation formula that rotating shaft 6 is provided by the present invention is drawn, the rotating shaft 6 Rotation axis 8 and longitudinal axis y angle β, the method for the rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6 and vertical pivot z angle δ and the speculum 7 After the angle η of line 9 and the rotation axis 8 of the rotating shaft 6 is arranged, with the change of altitude of the sun angle, only it need to cause rotating shaft 6 Rotated and can be achieved to reflex to the sunshine under different altitude of the sun angles in the range of receiving of reception device 3, from And realize and the tracking sun altitude of speculum 7 may be such that by the rotation of rotating shaft 6 and sun incident light is reflexed into reception dress Put in 3 range of receiving, and then realize the rotation tracking of two axles.
Embodiment three
As shown in Figs. 4-6, the arrangement of the condenser mirror for the tower condenser system that the present embodiment is provided, it includes The multiple reflecting members arranged on the rotating device and the rotating device of the ambient level of reception device 3 arrangement;And the reflection Component rotates by axis of the vertical line of the central point of the reception device 3 in the horizontal plane under the drive of the rotating device to be moved It is dynamic so that the azimuth of all unified tracking sun of the reflecting member;The reflecting member comprising a rotating shaft and with it is described The affixed speculum of rotating shaft, the rotating shaft is in tilted layout with horizontal plane and perpendicular in fixed angle;Wherein, the rotating shaft The speculum is driven to rotate so that sun incident light is simultaneously reflexed to the reception dress by the speculum tracking sun altitude Put in 3 range of receiving.
Wherein, the rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle of transverse axis are α, the rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle of the longitudinal axis For β, the rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle of vertical pivot are δ, the normal of the speculum and the rotation axis of the rotating shaft Angle is η, wherein, α, β, δ and η calculation formula have been given by embodiment, will not be repeated here.
Wherein, one reflector element of multiple reflecting member formation, reflector element forms one along reception dress in reception device 3 Multiple rotating shaft linkages connection in the linear light of 3 short transverse extension, reflector element is put, so as to ensure in reflector element All reflecting members under the drive of rotating shaft synchronous rotary, to track sun altitude.Linear light therein, which should be located at, to be connect In the range of receiving of receiving apparatus 3, i.e., the linear light can be received by reception device 3 completely, it is to avoid linear light extends to reception The loss of the light energy caused outside device 3.
The subpoint formed in the horizontal plane using the central point of reception device 3 is the center of circle, and side from the inside to the outside is upwardly formed At least one region that is circular layout, the region that is circular layout is arranged in a ring by multiple reflector elements around the subpoint to be formed.Its In be circular layout region can be multiple, it is the plurality of be circular layout region on subpoint direction from the inside to the outside in interval Distribution.All reflecting members in reflector element are under the drive of rotating device in the horizontal plane with the reception device 3 The vertical line of heart point is that axis is in rotary moving so that the orientation of all reflecting member synchronous sun trackings in each reflector element Angle, so that sunray is gathered in reception device, and short transverse of the formation one along reception device 3 in reception device 3 The linear light of extension.
In one of embodiment in the present embodiment, multiple reflector elements being circular layout in region where it Circular passage can be formed between two adjacent regions that are circular layout in uniform, be easy to workman or machine logical in the annular Pass through in road, and then the daily cleaning and maintenance of reflector element can be facilitated.
The optically focused form of reflector element in speculum arrangement for ease of understanding the present embodiment, will for convenience of description Reflector element in Fig. 4, Fig. 5 is respectively designated as the first reflector element 21, the second reflector element 22.As shown in figure 4, the first reflection The sunray of multiple speculums reflection in multiple reflecting members in unit 21 is converged in reception device 3, and second is anti- The sunray for penetrating the reflection of multiple speculums in multiple reflecting members in unit 22 is converged in reception device 3.Such as Fig. 5 Shown, the sunray of multiple speculums reflection in multiple reflecting members in the first reflector element 21 is respectively in reception device Different focus points are formed on 3;Wherein, in reflecting member close to subpoint Q one end speculum reflection light-ray condensing to connecing At the bottom of receiving apparatus 3, the i.e. B of reception device 3;The light of the speculum reflection of one end away from subpoint Q in reflecting member Assemble to the upper end of reception device 3, the i.e. A of reception device 3;And in other reflecting members in the first reflector element 21 Speculum, which then reflects sunray to be gathered in reception device 3, to be located in the region between A and B.Similarly, the second reflector element In 22 close to subpoint Q one end speculum reflection light-ray condensing to the bottom of reception device 3;In second reflector element 22 The light-ray condensing of the speculum reflection of one end away from subpoint Q is to the upper end of reception device 3;And in the second reflector element 22 Other reflective components in speculum then by sunray reflection be gathered in reception device 3 be located at reception device 3 under In region between end and upper end.
In summary, the light of reflected unit reflection can form one along the height side of reception device 3 in reception device 3 To the linear light of extension, and the linear light is located in the range of receiving of reception device 3.I.e. the linear light can be connect completely Receiving apparatus 3 is received, it is to avoid linear light extends to the loss of the light energy caused outside reception device 3.In the case of optimal, Two end points of the linear light are respectively A points, B points just.
In addition, as shown in fig. 6, to ensure that the light that all reflector elements are formed in reception device 3 is respectively positioned on reception dress Put in 3 range of receiving, the quantity of the reflecting member in the reflector element in subpoint Q annular region should be less, and The quantity of the reflecting member in reflector element in annular region away from subpoint Q should be more.As shown in fig. 6, the 3rd reflection The quantity of reflecting member in unit 23 should be more than the quantity of the reflecting member in the first reflector element 21;4th reflector element 24 In reflecting member quantity should be more than the second reflector element 22 in reflecting member quantity.I.e., from subpoint Q from the inside to the outside Direction on the quantity time of reflecting member that is circular layout in the reflector element arranged in region of the difference that is distributed gradually increase.
Example IV
As shown in fig. 7, the arrangement of the condenser mirror for the tower condenser system that the present embodiment is provided, it includes receiving The multiple reflecting members 2 arranged on the rotating device and the rotating device of the ambient level of device 3 arrangement;And the reflecting member 2 is in rotary moving using the vertical line of the central point of the reception device 3 as axis in the horizontal plane under the drive of the rotating device, So that the azimuth of the unified tracking sun of all reflecting members 2;The reflecting member 2 comprising a rotating shaft and with described turn The affixed speculum of axle, the rotating shaft is in tilted layout with horizontal plane and perpendicular in fixed angle;Wherein, the rotating shaft band The dynamic speculum rotation so that sun incident light is simultaneously reflexed to the reception device by the speculum tracking sun altitude In 3 range of receiving.
Wherein, the rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle of transverse axis are α, the rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle of the longitudinal axis For β, the rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle of vertical pivot are δ, the normal of the speculum and the rotation axis of the rotating shaft Angle is η, wherein, α, β, δ and η calculation formula have been given by embodiment, will not be repeated here.
The arrangement of multiple reflecting members therein has been specifically described in embodiment two, will not be repeated here.This reality Example is applied to focus on to describe the concrete structure of rotating device.
In one of implementation of the present embodiment, rotating device is included swivel plate and existed with the central point of reception device 3 Subpoint on horizontal plane is at least one circular orbit that the center of circle is arranged, rotating device therein can be disposed at smooth ground On, wherein circular orbit can be multiple, and swivel plate is respectively arranged on multiple circular orbits.Rotating device therein also can be disposed at The top of warmhouse booth, circular orbit therein can arranged for interval in the top of warmhouse booth, and on circular orbit arrange rotation Flap, is greenhouse also using the sunshine through rotating device in the support member by the use of warmhouse booth as rotating device The crops of greenhouse provide the illumination needed for growth.
Wherein, swivel plate rotates along subpoint of the circular orbit using the central point of reception device 3 in the horizontal plane as the center of circle Mobile, reflecting member 2 therein is arranged on the swivel plate.By the circular orbit of arrangement on the ground base is provided for swivel plate Plinth platform, and it is in rotary moving in the horizontal plane around the subpoint with reception device 3 in the horizontal plane using swivel plate so that rotation All reflecting members 2 on plate it is synchronous it is unified around with the central point of reception device 3 subpoint in the horizontal plane in the horizontal plane It is in rotary moving, so that the synchronous unified tracking solar azimuth of all reflecting members 2 on swivel plate.Meanwhile, pass through regulation The rotation of rotating shaft in reflecting member 2 drives speculum rotation tracking sun altitude, so that in all reflecting members 2 Speculum synchronous sun tracking azimuth and elevation angle, and then lift the solar energy that reception device 3 is received.
The mirror that speculum arrangement in traditional tower power station will be generally made up of the reflecting member 2 of large scale array Field is arranged on ground, for the unified tracking sun for the extensive reflecting member 2 for ensureing array arrangement, improves its tracking accuracy, Need uniformly to be arranged in reflecting member 2 on smooth soil, but due to the difference of physical features in actual environment, wide area How rough and uneven in surface ground is, it is necessary to the smooth processing of ground progress, substantially increase the cost of layout of reflecting member 2.Therefore, In the one of embodiment of the present embodiment, as shown in fig. 6, rotating device therein includes cistern 4 and is placed in cistern 4 And float and be covered in kickboard 5 on the water surface, the subpoint of the central point of reception device 3 in the horizontal plane is located at the cistern 4 Center, kickboard 5 is configured in the cistern 4 using the central point of reception device 3 subpoint in the horizontal plane as center of circle rotation Transfer is dynamic, and reflecting member 2 is arranged in the kickboard 5.
In addition, the resource to make full use of cistern 4, can also set heat exchanger tube, by heat exchanger tube and steamer in cistern 4 Machine exhaust steam cooling line is connected, and turbine discharge is cooled down using the relatively low temperature of temperature in cistern 4.Can also be in cistern Apparatus of oxygen supply is set in 4, to ensure the biological growth in cistern 4, so as to improve the comprehensive utilization ratio of the cistern 4.
Use cistern 4 to provide platform for the arrangement of reflecting member 2, and the water surface is covered in by being arranged in cistern 4 On kickboard 5, the moisture evaporation in cistern 4 can be avoided by the kickboard 5, also one can be provided for the arrangement of reflecting member 2 Rotation platform, while also ensuring that all reflecting members 2 are in same reference plane.Kickboard 5 is around with the center of reception device 3 The subpoint that point is formed on the water surface makees in rotary moving for the center of circle, so as to drive all reflecting members 2 in kickboard 5 synchronous Make in rotary moving as the center of circle around the subpoint formed using the central point of reception device 3 on the water surface, to cause all reflecting members 2 Track solar azimuth.Meanwhile, the rotation by adjusting the rotating shaft in reflecting member 2 drives speculum rotation tracking altitude of the sun Angle, so that speculum synchronous sun tracking azimuth and elevation angle in all reflecting members 2, and then lift reception device 3 solar energies received.
Embodiment five
A kind of tracking of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system is present embodiments provided, is implemented based on claim The arrangement of the condenser mirror of any described tower condenser system into example IV of example one, the tower condenser system The tracking of condenser mirror includes:
The anglec of rotation of the rotating device is adjusted according to the change of solar azimuth angle in real time so that all reflecting members Unified rotation tracking solar azimuth;
The anglec of rotation of the rotating shaft is adjusted according to the change of altitude of the sun angle, the reflection is driven by the rotating shaft Mirror rotates so that each speculum tracks sun altitude and sun incident light is reflexed into connecing for the reception device In the range of receipts.
The tracking of the condenser mirror for the tower condenser system that the present embodiment is provided, it drives institute by rotating device There is speculum unified around vertical axle rotation tracking solar azimuth, and by the rotating shaft (being inclined shaft) in each reflecting member respectively Drive respective axes of rotation on speculum real-time tracking sun altitude change, it is therein around vertical axle rotation tracking angle only with too Positive azimuthal variation is relevant, and it is only relevant with sun altitude change to rotate tracking angle around inclined shaft, and then realizes multiple reflections Mirror carries out overall tracking around vertical axle using one as first rotation, speculum with respective rotating shaft (being inclined shaft) for second Rotation axis carry out it is independently tracked, i.e., with a vertical axle and multiple rotating shafts (i.e. 1+N rotary shaft, wherein N for speculum one by one The quantity of corresponding rotating shaft) two-dimensional tracking of speculum is completed, its structure is reliable, control is simple, can be greatly reduced tower poly- The cost of photosystem, improves its reliability of operation.
It is last it should be noted that:The above embodiments are merely illustrative of the technical solutions of the present invention, rather than its limitations;To the greatest extent The present invention is described in detail with reference to aforementioned embodiments for pipe, it will be understood by those within the art that:Its according to The technical scheme that aforementioned embodiments are recorded can so be modified, or which part technical characteristic is equally replaced Change;And these modifications or replacement, the essence of appropriate technical solution is departed from the essence of embodiment of the present invention technical scheme God and scope.

Claims (15)

1. a kind of arrangement of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system, it is characterised in that including reception device ambient level The multiple reflecting members arranged on the rotating device of arrangement and the rotating device;And the reflecting member is in the rotating device Drive under it is in rotary moving using the vertical line of the central point of the reception device as axis in the horizontal plane so that all reflections The azimuth of the unified tracking sun of component;
The reflecting member includes a rotating shaft and the speculum with the rotating shaft Joint, and the rotating shaft is with horizontal plane and vertically Plane is in tilted layout in fixed angle;
Wherein, the rotating shaft drives the speculum rotation so that the speculum tracking sun altitude is simultaneously incident by the sun Light is reflexed in the range of receiving of the reception device.
2. the arrangement of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described turn The rotation axis of axle and the angle α of transverse axis, the rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle β of the longitudinal axis, the rotation axis of the rotating shaft With the angle δ of the vertical pivot and angle η of the normal of the speculum and the rotation axis of the rotating shaft;Pass through incident ray vectorThe reflection light vector reflected through the speculumThe coordinate points O at the minute surface center of the speculum and three differences The corresponding elevation angle of sunray calculate and determine.
3. the arrangement of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system according to claim 2, it is characterised in that pass through three The individual different elevation angle h from due south direction sunray1、h2、h3, determine respective heights angle h1The speculum Normal vectorRespective heights angle h2The speculum normal vectorWith respective heights angle h3The speculum Normal vector
Pass throughAndDetermine the vector of the rotation axis of the rotating shaftAnd the rotation axis for passing through the rotating shaft VectorThe rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle α of transverse axis are determined, the rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle of the longitudinal axis are β, The rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle of vertical pivot are δ;
Pass through the vector of the rotation axis of the rotating shaft againWith the elevation angle h of any sunray of the correspondence speculum Normal vectorDetermine the angle η of the normal of the speculum and the rotation axis of the rotating shaft.
4. the arrangement of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system according to claim 3, it is characterised in that
The calculation formula of the rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle α of transverse axis is,
The rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle β of the longitudinal axis calculation formula is,
The rotation axis of the rotating shaft and the angle δ of vertical pivot calculation formula is,
The calculation formula of the normal of the speculum and the angle η of the rotation axis of the rotating shaft is,
Wherein, A is respective heights angle h1The speculum normal vectorThe inverse of mould, B is respective heights angle h2Institute State the normal vector of speculumMould inverse, C be respective heights angle h3The speculum normal vectorMould fall Number, K is the normal vector of the correspondence arbitrary height angle h speculumMould inverse, E for rotating shaft rotation axis to AmountMould.
5. the arrangement of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system according to claim 4, it is characterised in that
The coordinate points O at the minute surface center of the speculum is defined as, O (- H0cotλsinb,-H0cosλcosb,0);
The calculation formula of incident ray vector is,
Through the speculum reflect reflection light vector calculation formula be,
The respective heights angle h1The speculum normal vectorCalculation formula be,
Respective heights angle h2The speculum normal vectorCalculation formula be,
Respective heights angle h3The speculum normal vectorCalculation formula be,
The normal vector of the correspondence arbitrary height angle h speculumCalculation formula be,
The vector of the rotation axis of the rotating shaftCalculation formula be,
Wherein, the focus point that λ is formed for the minute surface central point of the speculum with the speculum in the reception device Line and the angle of horizontal plane formation, b are the minute surface central point and the speculum of the speculum in the reception device The angle that the line of the subpoint of the focus point of formation in the horizontal plane is formed with due south direction, H0For the minute surface of the speculum The difference in height of central point and its focus point formed in the reception device, γ is the azimuth of sunray, and h is arbitrarily too The elevation angle of sunlight line, h1、h2、h3Respectively three different to come from the corresponding elevation angle of due south direction sunray.
6. the arrangement of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the mirror One reflector element of multiple reflecting member formation in, the reflector element forms one along institute in the reception device State the linear light of the short transverse extension of reception device.
7. the arrangement of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system according to claim 6, it is characterised in that described anti- The multiple rotating shaft linkages penetrated in unit.
8. the arrangement of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system according to claim 6, it is characterised in that the line Property light be located at the reception device range of receiving in.
9. the arrangement of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system according to claim 6, it is characterised in that described The side of subpoint from the inside to the outside is upwardly formed at least one region that is circular layout, and the region that is circular layout is by multiple reflections Unit is arranged to be formed in a ring around the subpoint.
10. the arrangement of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system according to claim 9, it is characterised in that described Region be circular layout to be multiple, and it is multiple it is described be circular layout region on subpoint direction from the inside to the outside in interval Distribution.
11. the arrangement of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system according to claim 9, it is characterised in that multiple The reflector element is circular layout in region described in where it in uniform.
12. the arrangement of the condenser mirror of the tower condenser system according to any one of claim 1 to 11, it is special Levy and be, the rotating device includes cistern and is placed in the cistern and floats the kickboard being covered on the water surface, described The subpoint of the central point of reception device in the horizontal plane is located at the center of the cistern, and the kickboard is configured to described The subpoint of the interior central point using the reception device of cistern in the horizontal plane is center of circle structure in rotary moving;
The reflecting member is arranged in the kickboard.
13. the arrangement of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system according to claim 12, it is characterised in that described Heat exchanger tube is additionally provided with cistern, the heat exchanger tube is connected with exhaust steam in steam turbine cooling line.
14. the arrangement of the condenser mirror of the tower condenser system according to any one of claim 1 to 11, it is special Levy and be, the rotating device includes swivel plate and using the subpoint of the central point of the reception device in the horizontal plane as the center of circle At least one circular orbit of arrangement, the swivel plate is along the circular orbit with the central point of the reception device in horizontal plane On subpoint for the center of circle it is in rotary moving;
The reflecting member is arranged on the swivel plate.
15. a kind of tracking of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system, it is characterised in that based on claim 1 to 14 institute The arrangement of the condenser mirror for the tower condenser system stated, the tracking of the condenser mirror of the tower condenser system Including:
The anglec of rotation of the rotating device is adjusted according to the change of solar azimuth angle in real time so that all reflecting members are unified Rotation tracking solar azimuth;
The anglec of rotation of the rotating shaft is adjusted according to the change of altitude of the sun angle, drives the speculum to revolve by the rotating shaft Turn so that each speculum tracks sun altitude and sun incident light is reflexed to the reception model of the reception device In enclosing.
CN201610078501.0A 2016-02-04 2016-02-04 A kind of arrangement and its tracking of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system Pending CN107037830A (en)

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CN201610078501.0A CN107037830A (en) 2016-02-04 2016-02-04 A kind of arrangement and its tracking of the condenser mirror of tower condenser system
MA43093A MA43093B1 (en) 2016-02-04 2017-01-22 Arrangement and structure of tower-mounted light condenser system light condensing reflectors and associated tracking method
AU2017215575A AU2017215575A1 (en) 2016-02-04 2017-01-22 Layout and structure of light condensing reflectors of tower-mounted light condensing system and tracking method therefor
PCT/CN2017/072037 WO2017133516A1 (en) 2016-02-04 2017-01-22 Layout and structure of light condensing reflectors of tower-mounted light condensing system and tracking method therefor

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