CN106918531B - Dynamic and static combined loading rock testing machine and testing method for multi-phase coupling - Google Patents

Dynamic and static combined loading rock testing machine and testing method for multi-phase coupling Download PDF

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CN106918531B
CN106918531B CN201611234126.0A CN201611234126A CN106918531B CN 106918531 B CN106918531 B CN 106918531B CN 201611234126 A CN201611234126 A CN 201611234126A CN 106918531 B CN106918531 B CN 106918531B
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pressure
test piece
loading
channel
desorption
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CN106918531A (en
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王汉鹏
袁亮
张冰
李术才
李清川
朱海洋
张德民
张玉强
刘众众
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Shandong University
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Shandong University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N7/00Analysing materials by measuring the pressure or volume of a gas or vapour
    • G01N7/02Analysing materials by measuring the pressure or volume of a gas or vapour by absorption, adsorption, or combustion of components and measurement of the change in pressure or volume of the remainder
    • G01N7/04Analysing materials by measuring the pressure or volume of a gas or vapour by absorption, adsorption, or combustion of components and measurement of the change in pressure or volume of the remainder by absorption or adsorption alone
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/08Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/30Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying a single impulsive force, e.g. by falling weight
    • G01N3/303Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying a single impulsive force, e.g. by falling weight generated only by free-falling weight

Abstract

The invention discloses a dynamic and static combined loading rock testing machine and a testing method for multi-phase coupling.A device consists of a visual confining pressure loading chamber module, an air pressure control module, a power loading module and a constant volume module; the loading chamber of the visual confining pressure loading chamber module is of a steel cylinder type structure with square outside and round inside, windows are opened on three sides, toughened borosilicate glass is embedded in the windows to realize the visualization of the test process, a back door is installed on one side of the loading chamber to facilitate the replacement of a test piece, and various monitoring devices can be installed in the loading chamber and are led out through a sensor lead channel of a bottom plate to realize the real-time monitoring of each physical and mechanical parameter of the test piece in the test process; the whole set of device is small in size, simple in structure and convenient to disassemble and assemble, and realizes accurate, quantitative and visual monitoring of the adsorption and desorption characteristics of the coal rock mass standard test piece in different loading forms and coupling forms, and the permeability and damage dilatation damage processes of the gas-containing coal mass in different loading stages.

Description

Dynamic and static combined loading rock testing machine and testing method for multi-phase coupling
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of scientific research of mineral engineering and geotechnical engineering, and particularly relates to a test device system and a test method for researching and revealing an adsorption and desorption rule, a gas-containing coal body permeation change rule and a damage dilatation failure mechanism of a coal-rock mass in static loading and dynamic disturbance impact states.
Background
The coal and gas outburst is a very complex dynamic phenomenon, and the development process of the coal and gas outburst is divided into four stages by J.Hanes et al according to the investigation and analysis of Australian coal and gas outburst: an excitation phase, a critical phase, an occurrence phase and an end phase. For the highlighted excitation phase it is described as: the deformation and destruction of the gas-containing coal body reaches certain critical conditions or a disturbance load is suddenly applied from the outside, causing the unstable coal rock to be rapidly destroyed and thrown out and form initial protruding holes. However, the action mechanisms of the crustal stress, the gas pressure and the physical and mechanical properties of the coal in the coal and gas outburst process are not clearly researched at present.
The research results on the coal and gas outburst mechanism enable us to basically recognize the influence factors, development processes, action mechanisms and occurrence conditions of the coal and gas outburst, but the hypotheses and theories are greatly different in details. Particularly, the breaking and outburst-causing mechanism and the outburst excitation condition of the coal body containing gas under the disturbance condition still need to be deeply researched through means such as tests, theoretical analysis and the like, and the nature of coal and gas outburst is revealed from the surface to the inside layer by layer. Therefore, the development of a dynamic and static combined loading rock test device for multi-phase coupling is urgently needed.
At present, a large amount of research work has been carried out aiming at the research on the influence of adsorption, desorption and damage dilatation on gas-containing coal bodies, a series of simulation test devices are developed, and the research current situation is as follows:
(1) the invention discloses a constant-volume gas-containing coal gas-solid coupling physical mechanical parameter test device and a method thereof, which comprises a visual loading system for quantitative inflation and three-axis pressurization and pressure relief of a test piece and visual real-time monitoring of the whole process, a constant-volume system for realizing constant volume of an axial pressurization process and a normal-pressure visual gas volume measurement system for realizing quantitative unloading of confining pressure and visual monitoring of an adsorption and desorption process of the test piece. But the device has the problems that the test is inconvenient due to the large size, the pressure resistance of the whole loading chamber adopting the cylindrical glass cannot be ensured, images such as observation and shooting of the arc glass are easy to deform, and the like.
(2) The invention discloses a thermal-fluid-solid coupling triaxial servo seepage device for gas-containing coal, which comprises a lifting frame, a hydraulic servo control system, an axial loading device arranged at the top of the lifting frame and a triaxial pressure chamber connected to the lower end of the axial loading device, and can be used for carrying out gas-containing coal seepage test research under different states of different stresses, different gas pressures, different temperatures and the like and deformation damage characteristic research of the gas-containing coal in a seepage process.
(3) The Chinese patent with the application number of 201310137965.0 discloses a chemical solution seepage test device for a single rock crack at different temperatures, which comprises a test piece device system, an axial pressurizing system, a confining pressure system, a chemical solution pressure loading system, a servo control system and a data acquisition system, wherein the device is suitable for researching the chemical corrosion-stress coupling effect generated when chemical solutions at different temperatures seep through the single rock crack.
(4) The coal science and technology, published in 7 th month in 2009, 37 th volume, 7 th period, by liu jian, zhang ming, etc., discloses a triaxial pressure testing device in the 1.2 st subsection of the text, namely a seepage characteristic test of coal containing gas under different confining pressures (pages 86-89), which comprises a loading system, a measuring system and a gas supply system 3. The loading system is composed of Ag-250 and an independently developed triaxial gas seepage system, the measuring system is mainly a gas flowmeter, and the gas supply system is composed of a high-pressure gas tank, a pressure reducing valve and a pressure gauge. The coal sample seepage characteristics under the conditions of variable confining pressure and gas pressure can be researched.
The model test bench device system for comprehensively analyzing the units also has the following defects:
1. the test device can not realize dynamic loading of the coal rock test piece under the triaxial static loading and multiphase coupling action regardless of the size;
2. the test device has the advantages of complex operation, large volume and single function in the test process, and most of the phenomena of observation and damage which can only be qualitatively are difficult to realize the visual real-time monitoring of the test process.
Test device system for better researching and revealing adsorption and desorption rules of gas-containing coal bodies, permeation change rules of gas-containing coal bodies in different loading stages and damage dilatation failure mechanisms of coal rock bodies in static loading and dynamic disturbance impact states
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to overcome the defects of the prior art and provide a test device system and a test method which can be matched with the prior test press machine for static loading and can be independently controlled for simulating dynamic impact disturbance and the adsorption and desorption rules and damage dilatation failure mechanisms of gas-containing coal bodies under different gas pressures.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
the dynamic and static combined loading rock testing machine capable of being used for multi-phase coupling consists of a visual confining pressure loading chamber module, an air pressure control module, a power loading module and a constant volume module;
the visual confining pressure loading chamber module is of a steel drum type structure with an outer square and an inner circle; a loading chamber is formed inside the steel drum type structure; the top of the steel drum type structure is provided with a pressure head which penetrates through the top of the steel drum type structure and enters the loading chamber, a desorption passage is arranged in the pressure head, the bottom of the pressure head is provided with a surface type analysis groove communicated with the desorption passage, and a surface type filling groove which is opposite to the surface type analysis groove is arranged in the steel drum type structure; a test piece filling port and a confining pressure port are arranged on a bottom plate of the steel drum type structure;
the air pressure control module is respectively connected with the test piece filling port, the confining pressure port and the desorption channel, and gas is introduced into the sealed loading chamber through the confining pressure port to realize the function of simulating confining pressure ground stress; introducing gas into the loading chamber through the test piece filling port to quantitatively inflate the test piece; desorption gas enters the pressure head from the top surface type desorption groove through the desorption channel to realize the quantitative test of adsorption and desorption;
the power loading module provides power for the pressure head;
the constant volume module is arranged at the top of the visual confining pressure loading chamber module and comprises two transverse volume pistons, the two transverse volume pistons are pressed down or lifted up by a pressure head to drive the constant volume pistons at the two ends to be linked together, and the volume of the reaction chamber is constant in the axial pressurizing process so as to eliminate the interference of pressure intensity change on the test process.
Furthermore, the air pressure control module comprises a valve block, a valve block desorption passage, a test piece filling passage, a confining pressure discharging passage, a pressure sensor and a safety overflow valve are arranged on the valve block,
one end of the desorption channel is connected with the stop valve, the other end of the desorption channel is connected with a pressure head desorption channel opening in the pressure head through a pipeline, and desorption gas is introduced into the valve block desorption channel so as to realize pressure acquisition during desorption of the test piece;
one end of the test piece filling channel is connected with the stop valve, and the other end of the test piece filling channel is connected with the test piece filling port through a pipeline, so that gas filling of the test piece is realized;
one end of the confining pressure filling channel is connected with the stop valve, and the other end of the confining pressure filling channel is connected with the confining pressure port through a pipeline, so that gas in the loading chamber is filled to simulate horizontal stress;
one end of the confining pressure unloading channel is connected with the stop valve, the other end of the confining pressure unloading channel is combined with the confining pressure filling channel and is connected with the confining pressure port through a corresponding pipeline, and the gas in the loading chamber is unloaded to simulate the horizontal stress with different gradients;
the pressure sensor is arranged on the valve block and communicated with each channel, so that the real-time acquisition and monitoring of desorption pressure, filling pressure and loading chamber confining pressure are realized;
the safety overflow valve has the function of automatically releasing pressure when the pressure exceeds a safety value due to unexpected factors, and the stop valve has the functions of closing and cutting off an air source.
Further, during a dynamic impact test, the dynamic loading module comprises a support, a dowel bar and an impact weight, wherein the dowel bar is arranged on the support, and the impact weight is composed of a plurality of annular steel blocks with different masses; before the test, the dowel bar is sleeved with an impact weight in advance, then the impact weight is placed on a pressure head and is pressed tightly by the pressure head of a press machine, when the module works, the impact weight with certain mass slides along different heights of the axial direction of the dowel bar to be free fall, and finally, impact energy is transmitted to a test piece through the pressure head to complete the impact test;
furthermore, during static load test, the power loading module is a servo press.
Furthermore, the constant volume module also comprises two supports, the two supports are fixedly connected with the pressure head through a cross beam, and the two transverse volume pistons are respectively arranged on the supports and are pressed down or lifted together with the pressure head; and the sum of the sectional areas of the two constant volume pistons is equal to the sectional area of the part of the pressure head extending into the top plate, so that the test interference caused by the volume change due to the lifting of the pressure head is avoided, and the constant volume pistons are provided with sealing grooves for placing sealing rings to ensure the air tightness.
Furthermore, three sides of the four sides of the steel drum type structure are respectively provided with a transparent window body, and one side is provided with a rear door; a loading chamber is tightly pressed by a bottom plate at the bottom of a top plate at the top of the test piece through four upright posts to form a closed space, various monitoring devices (such as sensors and LED lamps) can be installed in the loading chamber, and the monitoring devices are led out through a sensor lead channel of the bottom plate to realize the real-time monitoring of each physical and mechanical parameter of the test piece in the test process.
Furthermore, the upper end and the lower end of the loading chamber, the contact surface of the top bottom plate and the opening of the rear door are respectively provided with a sealing groove for placing a sealing ring to realize the sealing effect after the steel structure is compressed.
Furthermore, three sealing grooves are arranged in the central opening of the top plate, and sealing rings are arranged in the sealing grooves to play a role in sealing the process that the pressure head penetrates through the top plate and goes deep into the loading chamber;
furthermore, the window body on install toughened borosilicate glass, annular asbestos packing ring is all pasted on toughened borosilicate glass's upper and lower surface and glass together is embedded in the window body and constitutes visual window can realize the visual observation of test process together.
The specific test steps of the triaxial loading multiphase coupling static load test are as follows:
1) placing a module main body of a visual confining pressure loading chamber of the device on an operation platform of a servo press machine to enable a press head of the device to be in butt joint with the press head of the press machine;
2) tightly sleeving the test piece by using a heat-shrinkable tube, and opening the upper end and the lower end of the test piece;
3) connecting outlets of the channels of the bottom plate and the pressure head with corresponding interfaces of a valve block, and connecting a sensor on the valve block with an acquisition system;
4) placing the test piece on a surface type filling groove;
5) starting the servo press to enable the pressure head to descend until the surface type desorption groove is contacted with the upper surface of the test piece;
6) connecting a confining pressure unloading channel on the air pressure control module with a vacuumizing device, and opening a stop valve to start vacuumizing;
6) after a pressure sensor for monitoring the confining pressure discharging channel reaches a target value, closing the stop valve and closing the vacuumizing device;
7) communicating an ambient pressure filling channel on the air pressure control module with an external air source;
8) opening a stop valve of the confining pressure filling channel, and opening an air source to confine pressure to the loading chamber;
9) connecting a test piece filling channel on the air pressure control module with an external air source;
10) opening a stop valve of a test piece filling channel, opening a high-pressure gas source or a water source, performing surface type inflation/water injection on the test piece, and simulating coal rock mass adsorption and desorption or hydraulic fracture working conditions;
11) after the readings of the pressure sensors of the confining pressure channel and the test piece filling channel reach the target values, closing the stop valves;
12) starting the servo press again to enable the press to be pressed down to reach a target value;
13) loading, unloading and multi-phase coupling with different strengths are carried out on a test piece by combining a test scheme, the axial loading pressure value is controlled by a servo pressure machine, and the confining pressure and the surface type filling quantity value are monitored by a pressure sensor in real time;
14) observing or recording a video through a visual window of the visual confining pressure loading chamber module, recording deformation damage characteristics of the test piece under different loading pressure conditions, and monitoring the desorption pressure of the coal rock test piece in a gas-solid coupling state through a desorption channel on the air pressure control module;
15) and after the test is finished, opening a confining pressure unloading channel on the air pressure control module to unload confining pressure, opening a side door, and taking out the test piece.
The method for carrying out dynamic load test by utilizing the dynamic and static combined loading rock tester which can be used for multi-phase coupling,
1) placing a visual confining pressure loading chamber module of the device on an operating platform of a servo press;
2) sleeving an impact force weight on the dowel bar, placing the dowel bar on a pressure head of a visual confining pressure loading chamber module, starting a servo press machine to enable the pressure head to descend, and pressing the dowel bar tightly;
3) tightly sleeving the test piece by using a heat-shrinkable tube, and opening the upper end and the lower end of the test piece;
4) connecting outlets of the channels of the bottom plate and the pressure head with corresponding interfaces of a valve block, and connecting a sensor on the valve block with an acquisition system;
5) placing the test piece on a surface type filling groove;
6) the pressure head is lowered until the surface type desorption groove is contacted with the upper surface of the test piece;
7) connecting a confining pressure unloading channel on the air pressure control module with a vacuumizing device, and opening a stop valve to start vacuumizing;
8) after a pressure sensor for monitoring the confining pressure discharging channel reaches a target value, closing the stop valve and closing the vacuumizing device;
9) communicating an ambient pressure filling channel on the air pressure control module with an external air source;
10) opening a stop valve of the confining pressure filling channel, and opening an air source to confine pressure to the loading chamber;
11) connecting a test piece filling channel on the air pressure control module with an external air source;
12) opening a stop valve of a test piece filling channel, opening a high-pressure gas source or a water source, performing surface type inflation/water injection on the test piece, and simulating working conditions such as coal rock mass adsorption and desorption or hydraulic fracture;
13) after the readings of the pressure sensors of the confining pressure channel and the test piece filling channel reach the target values, closing the stop valves;
14) starting the servo press again to enable the press to be pressed down to reach a target value;
15) according to the test scheme, impact weights with certain mass are placed at different heights to make free-fall motion along the axial direction of the dowel bar, so that impact work on a test piece under the condition of triaxial loading is completed, and the impact height, loading and unloading with different strengths and multi-phase coupling are changed;
16) observing or recording a video through a visual window of the visual confining pressure loading chamber module, recording deformation damage characteristics of the test piece under different loading pressure conditions, and monitoring the desorption pressure of the coal rock test piece in a gas-solid coupling state through a desorption channel on the air pressure control module;
17) and (5) after the test is finished, opening a confining pressure unloading channel on the air pressure control module to unload confining pressure, and taking out the test piece.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
the device 1 adopts a modular design, each module has clear division of labor, clear purpose and simple and convenient operation;
2, a conventional servo press can be combined to carry out triaxial loading on a test piece, and a power loading module can be installed to complete a dynamic impact test under a triaxial loading condition;
3, quantitative inflation/water injection, triaxial pressurization and pressure relief of the standard test piece of the coal rock mass and visual real-time monitoring of the whole process can be realized;
4, the air pressure control module is provided with a pressure sensor which can monitor and control the test pressure;
5, a back door is arranged on the visual confining pressure loading chamber module, and the back door can be opened/closed at any time, so that a test piece can be conveniently put in/taken out;
the method can realize the measurement of the desorption amount of the test piece in the gas-solid coupling state, the specific measurement method is that the external gas source and the pressure sensor are used for controlling, the known amount of gas is filled on the bottom surface of the test piece, the top end of the test piece is communicated with the surface type desorption channel, the desorption gas enters the air pressure control module through the adsorption desorption channel in the static loading or dynamic impact process, and the desorption pressure and the desorption amount are monitored and calculated through the pressure sensor or the external mass flow meter;
the volume of the axial pressurization process can be constant so as to eliminate the interference of pressure change on the test process, the specific method is that the constant volume piston synchronously moves downwards along with the downward pressure of the pressure head in the test process, the constant volume cylinder moves upwards relative to the constant volume piston, the gas confining pressure in the pressurization chamber is connected with the constant volume connecting port through a pipeline and enters the constant volume cylinder, and the sectional area of the part, extending into the top plate of the visual confining pressure loading chamber module, of the pressure head is equal to the sum of the areas of the constant volume cylinders at two ends, so that the volume is constant.
Drawings
FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 are overall structural schematic views of the components of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of a visual confining pressure loading chamber module;
FIG. 5 is a schematic view of the appearance of a visual confining pressure loading chamber module;
fig. 6, 7 and 8 are schematic structural diagrams of a bottom plate of a visual confining pressure loading chamber;
FIG. 9 is a schematic view of a pneumatic control module;
FIG. 10 is a schematic view of a power loading module;
fig. 11 and 12 are schematic diagrams of constant-capacity modules;
the device comprises a visual confining pressure loading chamber module, a 1-1 bottom plate, a 1-2 top plate, a 1-3 upright post, a 1-4 pressure head, a 1-5 surface type filling groove, a 1-6 surface type desorption groove, a 1-7 desorption passage, a 1-8 loading chamber, a 1-9 window body, 1-10 toughened borosilicate glass, a 1-11 rear door, a 1-12 sealing groove, a 1-13 sensor lead passage, a 1-14 test piece filling opening, a 1-15 confining pressure opening, a 1-16 aviation plug, a 1-17 plug fixing base and a 1-18 insulating lead, wherein the visual confining pressure loading chamber module is arranged on the bottom plate of the visual confining pressure loading chamber module; 2, an air pressure control module, 2-1 valve block, 2-2 desorption channel, 2-3 test piece filling channel, 2-4 confining pressure filling channel, 2-5 confining pressure discharging channel, 2-6 module connecting port, 2-7 pressure sensor, 2-8 safety overflow valve and 2-9 stop valve; 3, a power loading module, 3-1 a dowel bar and 3-2 an impact weight; 4 constant volume module, 4-1 constant volume support, 4-2 constant volume cylinder, 4-3 constant volume piston, 4-4 constant volume fixed beam, 4-5 constant volume connector.
Detailed Description
As shown in fig. 1, 2, and 3: the dynamic and static combined loading rock testing machine capable of being used for multi-phase coupling comprises a visual confining pressure loading chamber module 1, an air pressure control module 2, a power loading module 3 and a constant volume module 4; the modules have definite power distribution and are matched with each other, and the visual confining pressure loading chamber module 1 provides visual test space for multi-phase coupling and three-axis loading of the standard test piece; the air pressure control module 2 realizes quantitative filling and control of air pressure of each channel in the loading chamber; the dynamic loading module 3 completes a dynamic impact test on the test piece; the constant volume module 4 ensures that the volume of the reaction chamber is constant during the axial pressurization process to eliminate the interference of pressure changes on the test process. The high-pressure gas adsorption and confining pressure loading can be carried out on a test piece by combining a conventional servo press, and a power loading module can be installed for carrying out an impact load test;
the visual confining pressure loading chamber module can be opened/closed at any time, so that a test piece can be conveniently put in/taken out; various monitoring devices (such as sensors and led lamps) can be installed in the loading chamber and are led out through a sensor lead channel of the bottom plate to realize the real-time monitoring of each physical and mechanical parameter of the test piece in the test process;
each channel in the air pressure control module is connected with the corresponding visual confining pressure loading chamber module, and a pressure sensor is assembled to realize quantitative inflation and test piece desorption amount monitoring measurement in the visual confining pressure loading chamber module;
when the triaxial static loading is carried out, the pressure head is butted with a servo press to realize axial loading, and an external air source or an oil source is used for realizing inflation/oil filling of the coal rock test piece through a surrounding pressure channel of the air pressure control module so as to simulate horizontal stress;
during dynamic impact test, the dowel bar is sleeved with impact weights and placed on a pressure head of a visual confining pressure loading chamber module, a servo press machine is started to enable the pressure head to descend, the dowel bar is compressed, and impact weights with certain mass are placed at different heights to enable the impact weights to do free-fall motion along the axial direction of the dowel bar in combination with a test scheme, so that impact work on a test piece under a triaxial loading condition is completed.
As shown in fig. 4 and 5: the visual confining pressure loading chamber module 1 for a multi-phase coupled dynamic and static combined loading rock testing machine mainly comprises a bottom plate 1-1, a top plate 1-2, a stand column 1-3, a pressure head 1-4, a surface type filling groove 1-5, a surface type desorption groove 1-6, a desorption passage 1-7, a loading chamber 1-8, a window body 1-9, tempered high borosilicate glass 1-10, a rear door 1-11, a sealing groove 1-12, a sensor lead passage 1-13, a test piece filling opening 1-14, a confining pressure opening 1-15, an aviation plug 1-16, a plug fixing base 1-17 and an insulating lead 1-18.
A loading chamber 1-8 of the device is of a steel barrel type structure with an outer square and an inner circle, one side of the three-sided window is opened, and is respectively connected with a window body 1-9 and a rear door 1-11 through bolts, a bottom plate 1-1 and a top plate 1-2 of the device tightly press the loading chamber 1-8 through four upright posts 1-3 to form a closed space, the upper end and the lower end of the loading chamber 1-8 and the opening position of the rear door 1-11 are respectively provided with a sealing groove 1-12 for placing a sealing ring to realize the sealing function after the steel structure is tightly pressed, three sealing grooves 1-12 are arranged in a central opening of the top plate 1-2 to arrange a sealing ring inside the sealing groove 1-12 to play the sealing function of a pressure head 1-4 penetrating through the top plate 1-2 to deeply penetrate into the loading chamber 1-8, circular asbestos gaskets are adhered on the upper surface and the lower surface of, the back door 1-11 is an opening for placing a test piece and various sensors, an insulated lead 1-18 penetrates through a lead channel 1-13 of the sensor and is sealed by pouring high-strength sealant, aviation plugs 1-16 are welded at two ends of the lead and are fixed above plug fixing bases 1-17 so as to be convenient for the sensor to be connected, as shown in figures 6, 7 and 8, the filling port 1-14 of the test piece introduces gas into a face type filling groove 1-5 through an external gas source to realize uniform gas filling on the test piece, the confining pressure port 1-14 introduces gas into a sealed loading chamber 1-8 through the external gas source to realize the function of simulating confining pressure ground stress, and the face type desorption groove 1-6 is butted with a pressure head 1-4 to guide the desorption gas of the test piece to the outside through the desorption channel 1-7;
as shown in fig. 9: the air pressure control module 2 for the multi-phase coupled dynamic and static combined loading rock testing machine mainly comprises a valve block 2-1, a desorption channel 2-2, a test piece filling channel 2-3, a confining pressure filling channel 2-4, a confining pressure discharging channel 2-5, a module connecting port 2-6, a pressure sensor 2-7, a safety overflow valve 2-8 and a stop valve 2-9;
a valve block 2-1 is a rectangular aluminum block and contains a desorption channel 2-2, a test piece filling channel 2-3, a pressure filling channel 2-4 and a pressure relief channel 2-5, one end of the desorption channel 2-2 is connected with one end of a stop valve 2-9, and is connected with the desorption channel 1-7 in a pressure head 1-4 through a corresponding module connecting port 2-6, desorption gas is introduced into the desorption channel 2-2, and therefore pressure collection during desorption of the test piece is achieved; one end of the test piece filling channel 2-3 is connected with one end of the stop valve 2-9, and is connected with a 1-14 test piece filling port in the bottom plate 1-1 through a corresponding module connecting port 2-6 to realize gas filling of the test piece; one end of the filling confining pressure channel 2-4 is connected with one end of the stop valve 2-9 and is connected with the confining pressure port 1-15 in the bottom plate 1-1 through the corresponding module connecting port 2-6, so that gas in the loading chamber 1-8 is filled to simulate horizontal stress; one end of the pressure relief confining channel 2-5 is connected with one end of the stop valve 2-9 and the pressure filling channel 2-4 and is combined and connected with the pressure confining ports 1-15 in the bottom plate 1-1 through the corresponding module connecting ports 2-6, so that the gas in the loading chambers 1-8 can be relieved to simulate the horizontal stress with different gradients; the pressure sensors 2-7 are respectively arranged on the valve block 2-1 to realize the real-time acquisition of desorption pressure, filling pressure and loading chamber confining pressure; the safety overflow valve 2-8 has the function of automatic pressure relief when the pressure exceeds the safety value due to unexpected factors, and the stop valve 2-9 has the functions of closing and cutting off the air source.
As shown in fig. 10, the power loading module 3 is composed of a dowel bar 3-1 and an impact weight 3-2; a force transfer rod 3-1 of the impact test module is a thick-wall steel pipe, an impact weight 3-2 is composed of a plurality of annular steel blocks with different masses, the force transfer rod 3-1 is sleeved with the impact weight 3-2 in advance, then the impact weight is placed on a pressure head 1-4 and is pressed tightly by means of the pressure head of a press machine, when the module works, the impact weight 3-2 with certain mass slides down along different heights of the force transfer rod 3-1 in the axial direction to enable the impact weight to freely fall, and finally impact energy is transferred to a test piece through the pressure head 1-4 to complete an impact test;
as shown in fig. 11 and 12: a constant volume module 4 for a multi-phase coupled dynamic and static combined loading rock testing machine mainly comprises a constant volume support 4-1, a constant volume cylinder 4-2, a constant volume piston 4-3, a constant volume fixing beam 4-4 and a constant volume connecting port 4-5, wherein the constant volume support 4-1 is fixed on a top plate 1-2, the constant volume cylinder 4-2 is fixed on the constant volume support 4-1, the constant volume piston 4-3 is fixed at two ends of the constant volume fixing beam 4-4, the constant volume fixing beam 4-4 is fixed on a pressure head 1-4, the top of the constant volume cylinder 4-2 is connected with the constant volume connecting port 4-5 through a pipeline, when a system works, the pressure head presses down or rises, the constant volume pistons 4-3 at two ends are driven to be linked together, and the sum of the sectional areas of the two constant volume pistons 4-3 is equal to the sectional area of the part of the pressure head 1-4 extending into the top plate 1-2, so that the pressure The volume in the loading chamber is constant (test interference caused by volume change due to lifting of a pressure head is avoided), and a constant volume piston 4-3 is provided with a sealing groove 1-12 for placing a sealing ring to ensure air tightness;
the device is used for carrying out a triaxial loading multiphase coupling static load test, and the specific test steps are as follows:
1) placing a module main body of a visual confining pressure loading chamber of the device on an operation platform of a servo press machine to enable a press head of the device to be in butt joint with the press head of the press machine;
2) tightly sleeving the test piece by using a heat-shrinkable tube, and opening the upper end and the lower end of the test piece;
3) connecting outlets of the channels of the bottom plate and the pressure head with corresponding interfaces of a valve block, and connecting a sensor on the valve block with an acquisition system;
4) opening the back door, and placing the test piece on the surface type filling groove;
5) closing the back door and starting the servo press machine to enable the pressure head to descend until the surface type desorption groove is contacted with the upper surface of the test piece;
6) connecting a pressure relief channel on the air pressure control module with a vacuumizing device, and opening a stop valve to start vacuumizing (other stop valves are in a closed state);
6) after a pressure sensor for monitoring the confining pressure discharging channel reaches a target value, closing the stop valve and closing the vacuumizing device;
7) communicating an ambient pressure filling channel on the air pressure control module with an external air source;
8) opening a stop valve of a confining pressure filling channel, and opening an air source to confine pressure to a loading chamber (a coal sample can be filled with helium without adsorption and desorption properties, and a rock sample can be filled with oil pressure);
9) connecting a test piece filling channel on the air pressure control module with an external air source;
10) opening a stop valve of a test piece filling channel, opening a high-pressure gas source or a water source, performing surface type inflation/water injection on the test piece, and simulating working conditions such as coal rock mass adsorption and desorption or hydraulic fracture;
11) after the readings of the pressure sensors of the confining pressure channel and the test piece filling channel reach the target values, closing the stop valves;
12) starting the servo press again to enable the press to be pressed down to reach a target value;
13) loading, unloading and multi-phase coupling with different strengths are carried out on a test piece by combining a test scheme, the axial loading pressure value is controlled by a servo pressure machine, and the confining pressure and the surface type filling quantity value are monitored in real time by a pressure sensor (in the test process, a constant volume piston synchronously moves down along with the downward pressure of a pressure head, a constant volume cylinder moves up relative to the constant volume piston, and the gas confining pressure in a pressurizing chamber is connected with a constant volume connecting port through a pipeline and enters the constant volume cylinder to realize constant volume);
14) observing or recording the deformation damage characteristics of the test piece under different loading pressure conditions through a visual window, and monitoring the desorption pressure of the coal rock test piece in a gas-solid coupling state through a desorption channel on a gas pressure control module;
15) and after the test is finished, opening a confining pressure unloading channel on the air pressure control module to unload confining pressure, opening a side door, and taking out the test piece.
The device is used for carrying out dynamic load impact test, and the specific test steps are as follows:
1) placing a visual confining pressure loading chamber module of the device on an operating platform of a servo press;
2) sleeving an impact force weight on the dowel bar, placing the dowel bar on a pressure head of a visual confining pressure loading chamber module, starting a servo press machine to enable the pressure head to descend, and pressing the dowel bar tightly;
3) tightly sleeving the test piece by using a heat-shrinkable tube, and opening the upper end and the lower end of the test piece;
4) connecting outlets of the channels of the bottom plate and the pressure head with corresponding interfaces of a valve block, and connecting a sensor on the valve block with an acquisition system;
5) opening the back door, and placing the test piece on the surface type filling groove;
6) closing the back door, and enabling the pressure head to descend until the surface type desorption groove is contacted with the upper surface of the test piece;
7) connecting a pressure relief channel on the air pressure control module with a vacuumizing device, and opening a stop valve to start vacuumizing (other stop valves are in a closed state);
8) after a pressure sensor for monitoring the confining pressure discharging channel reaches a target value, closing the stop valve and closing the vacuumizing device;
9) communicating an ambient pressure filling channel on the air pressure control module with an external air source;
10) opening a stop valve of a confining pressure filling channel, and opening an air source to confine pressure to a loading chamber (a coal sample can be filled with helium without adsorption and desorption properties, and a rock sample can be filled with oil pressure);
11) connecting a test piece filling channel on the air pressure control module with an external air source;
12) opening a stop valve of a test piece filling channel, opening a high-pressure gas source or a water source, performing surface type inflation/water injection on the test piece, and simulating working conditions such as coal rock mass adsorption and desorption or hydraulic fracture;
13) after the readings of the pressure sensors of the confining pressure channel and the test piece filling channel reach the target values, closing the stop valves;
14) starting the servo press again to enable the press to be pressed down to reach a target value;
15) according to the test scheme, impact weights with certain mass are placed at different heights to make free-fall motion along the axial direction of the dowel bar, so that impact work on a test piece under the condition of triaxial loading is completed, and the impact height, loading and unloading with different strengths and multi-phase coupling are changed;
16) observing or recording the deformation damage characteristics of the test piece under different loading pressure conditions through a visual window, and monitoring the desorption pressure of the coal rock test piece in a gas-solid coupling state through a desorption channel on a gas pressure control module;
17) and after the test is finished, opening a confining pressure unloading channel on the air pressure control module to unload confining pressure, opening a side door, and taking out the test piece.
Although the embodiments of the present invention have been described with reference to the accompanying drawings, it is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention, and it should be understood by those skilled in the art that various modifications and variations can be made without inventive efforts by those skilled in the art based on the technical solution of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. The dynamic and static combined loading rock testing machine capable of being used for multi-phase coupling is characterized by comprising a visual confining pressure loading chamber module, an air pressure control module, a power loading module and a constant volume module;
the visual confining pressure loading chamber module is of a steel drum type structure with an outer square and an inner circle; a loading chamber is formed inside the steel drum type structure; the top of the steel drum type structure is provided with a pressure head which penetrates through the top of the steel drum type structure and enters the loading chamber, a desorption passage is arranged in the pressure head, the bottom of the pressure head is provided with a surface type analysis groove communicated with the desorption passage, and a surface type filling groove which is opposite to the surface type analysis groove is arranged in the steel drum type structure; a test piece filling port and a confining pressure port are arranged on a bottom plate of the steel drum type structure;
the air pressure control module is respectively connected with the test piece filling port, the confining pressure port and the desorption channel, and gas is introduced into the sealed loading chamber through the confining pressure port to realize the function of simulating confining pressure ground stress; introducing gas into the loading chamber through the test piece filling port to quantitatively inflate the test piece; desorption gas enters the pressure head from the top surface type desorption groove through the desorption channel to realize the quantitative test of adsorption and desorption;
the power loading module provides power for the pressure head;
the constant volume module is arranged at the top of the visual confining pressure loading chamber module and comprises two constant volume pistons, the two constant volume pistons are pressed down or lifted up by a pressure head to drive the constant volume pistons at the two ends to be linked together, and the volume of the reaction chamber is constant in the axial pressurizing process so as to eliminate the interference of pressure intensity change on the test process.
2. The dynamic-static combined loading rock testing machine applicable to multi-phase coupling of claim 1, wherein the air pressure control module comprises a valve block, a valve block desorption passage, a test piece filling passage, a confining pressure relief passage, a pressure sensor and a safety overflow valve are arranged on the valve block,
one end of the desorption channel is connected with the stop valve, the other end of the desorption channel is connected with a pressure head desorption channel opening in the pressure head through a pipeline, and desorption gas is introduced into the valve block desorption channel so as to realize pressure acquisition during desorption of the test piece;
one end of the test piece filling channel is connected with the stop valve, and the other end of the test piece filling channel is connected with the test piece filling port through a pipeline, so that gas filling of the test piece is realized;
one end of the confining pressure filling channel is connected with the stop valve, and the other end of the confining pressure filling channel is connected with the confining pressure port through a pipeline, so that gas in the loading chamber is filled to simulate horizontal stress;
one end of the confining pressure unloading channel is connected with the stop valve, the other end of the confining pressure unloading channel is combined with the confining pressure filling channel and is connected with the confining pressure port through a corresponding pipeline, and the gas in the loading chamber is unloaded to simulate the horizontal stress with different gradients;
the pressure sensor is arranged on the valve block and communicated with each channel, so that the real-time acquisition and monitoring of desorption pressure, filling pressure and loading chamber confining pressure are realized;
the safety overflow valve has the function of automatically releasing pressure when the pressure exceeds a safety value due to unexpected factors, and the stop valve has the functions of closing and cutting off an air source.
3. The dynamic-static combined loading rock testing machine applicable to multi-phase coupling according to claim 1, wherein during dynamic impact test, the dynamic loading module comprises a bracket, a dowel bar and an impact weight, the dowel bar is arranged on the bracket, and the impact weight is composed of a plurality of annular steel blocks with different masses.
4. The machine according to claim 1, wherein the dynamic-static combined loading rock tester is a servo press during static loading test.
5. The dynamic-static combined loading rock testing machine applicable to multi-phase coupling as claimed in claim 1, wherein the constant volume module further comprises two supports, the two supports are fixedly connected with the pressure head through a cross beam, and two constant volume pistons are respectively mounted on the supports and are pressed down or lifted together with the pressure head; and the sum of the sectional areas of the two constant volume pistons is equal to the sectional area of the part of the pressure head extending into the top plate, so that the test interference caused by the volume change due to the lifting of the pressure head is avoided, and the constant volume pistons are provided with sealing grooves for placing sealing rings to ensure the air tightness.
6. The dynamic-static combined loading rock testing machine applicable to multi-phase coupling of claim 1, wherein four sides of the steel drum type structure are respectively a transparent window body, and one side is provided with a back door; a bottom plate at the bottom of a top plate at the top of the test piece tightly presses a loading chamber through four stand columns to form a closed space, various monitoring devices can be installed in the loading chamber, and the monitoring devices are led out through a sensor lead channel of the bottom plate to realize real-time monitoring of various physical and mechanical parameters of a test piece in the test process.
7. The dynamic and static combined loading rock testing machine for multi-phase coupling according to claim 1, wherein the upper and lower ends of the loading chamber are provided with sealing grooves for placing sealing rings to realize the sealing effect after the steel structure is pressed.
8. The dynamic and static combined loading rock testing machine for multi-phase coupling according to claim 6, wherein the window body is provided with toughened borosilicate glass, and circular asbestos gaskets are adhered to the upper and lower surfaces of the toughened borosilicate glass and embedded in the window body together with the glass to form a visual window, so that visual observation of the testing process can be realized.
9. The method for carrying out the static load test by using the dynamic and static combined loading rock testing machine which can be used for multi-phase coupling according to any one of claims 2 to 8, is characterized in that:
1) placing a module main body of a visual confining pressure loading chamber of the device on an operation platform of a servo press machine to enable a press head of the device to be in butt joint with the press head of the press machine;
2) tightly sleeving the test piece by using a heat-shrinkable tube, and opening the upper end and the lower end of the test piece;
3) connecting outlets of the channels of the bottom plate and the pressure head with corresponding interfaces of a valve block, and connecting a sensor on the valve block with an acquisition system;
4) placing the test piece on a surface type filling groove;
5) starting the servo press to enable the pressure head to descend until the surface type desorption groove is contacted with the upper surface of the test piece;
6) connecting a confining pressure unloading channel on the air pressure control module with a vacuumizing device, and opening a stop valve to start vacuumizing;
6) after a pressure sensor for monitoring the confining pressure discharging channel reaches a target value, closing the stop valve and closing the vacuumizing device;
7) communicating an ambient pressure filling channel on the air pressure control module with an external air source;
8) opening a stop valve of the confining pressure filling channel, and opening an air source to confine pressure to the loading chamber;
9) connecting a test piece filling channel on the air pressure control module with an external air source;
10) opening a stop valve of a test piece filling channel, opening a high-pressure gas source or a water source, performing surface type inflation/water injection on the test piece, and simulating coal rock mass adsorption and desorption or hydraulic fracture working conditions;
11) after the readings of the pressure sensors of the confining pressure channel and the test piece filling channel reach the target values, closing the stop valves;
12) starting the servo press again to enable the press to be pressed down to reach a target value;
13) loading, unloading and multi-phase coupling with different strengths are carried out on a test piece by combining a test scheme, the axial loading pressure value is controlled by a servo pressure machine, and the confining pressure and the surface type filling quantity value are monitored by a pressure sensor in real time;
14) observing or recording a video through a visual window of the visual confining pressure loading chamber module, recording deformation damage characteristics of the test piece under different loading pressure conditions, and monitoring the desorption pressure of the coal rock test piece in a gas-solid coupling state through a desorption channel on the air pressure control module;
15) and after the test is finished, opening a confining pressure unloading channel on the air pressure control module to unload confining pressure, opening a side door, and taking out the test piece.
10. The method for carrying out dynamic load test by using the dynamic and static combined loading rock testing machine which can be used for multi-phase coupling according to any one of claims 2 to 8, is characterized in that:
1) placing a visual confining pressure loading chamber module of the device on an operating platform of a servo press;
2) sleeving an impact force weight on the dowel bar, placing the dowel bar on a pressure head of a visual confining pressure loading chamber module, starting a servo press machine to enable the pressure head to descend, and pressing the dowel bar tightly;
3) tightly sleeving the test piece by using a heat-shrinkable tube, and opening the upper end and the lower end of the test piece;
4) connecting outlets of the channels of the bottom plate and the pressure head with corresponding interfaces of a valve block, and connecting a sensor on the valve block with an acquisition system;
5) placing the test piece on a surface type filling groove;
6) the pressure head is lowered until the surface type desorption groove is contacted with the upper surface of the test piece;
7) connecting a confining pressure unloading channel on the air pressure control module with a vacuumizing device, and opening a stop valve to start vacuumizing;
8) after a pressure sensor for monitoring the confining pressure discharging channel reaches a target value, closing the stop valve and closing the vacuumizing device;
9) communicating an ambient pressure filling channel on the air pressure control module with an external air source;
10) opening a stop valve of the confining pressure filling channel, and opening an air source to confine pressure to the loading chamber;
11) connecting a test piece filling channel on the air pressure control module with an external air source;
12) opening a stop valve of a test piece filling channel, opening a high-pressure gas source or a water source, performing surface type inflation/water injection on the test piece, and simulating working conditions such as coal rock mass adsorption and desorption or hydraulic fracture;
13) after the readings of the pressure sensors of the confining pressure channel and the test piece filling channel reach the target values, closing the stop valves;
14) starting the servo press again to enable the press to be pressed down to reach a target value;
15) according to the test scheme, impact weights with certain mass are placed at different heights to make free-fall motion along the axial direction of the dowel bar, so that impact work on a test piece under the condition of triaxial loading is completed, and the impact height, loading and unloading with different strengths and multi-phase coupling are changed;
16) observing or recording a video through a visual window of the visual confining pressure loading chamber module, recording deformation damage characteristics of the test piece under different loading pressure conditions, and monitoring the desorption pressure of the coal rock test piece in a gas-solid coupling state through a desorption channel on the air pressure control module;
17) and (5) after the test is finished, opening a confining pressure unloading channel on the air pressure control module to unload confining pressure, and taking out the test piece.
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