CN106869931B - A kind of barren rock and cementing layering wedging mining with stowing technique and its structure - Google Patents

A kind of barren rock and cementing layering wedging mining with stowing technique and its structure Download PDF

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CN106869931B
CN106869931B CN201710077514.0A CN201710077514A CN106869931B CN 106869931 B CN106869931 B CN 106869931B CN 201710077514 A CN201710077514 A CN 201710077514A CN 106869931 B CN106869931 B CN 106869931B
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filling
layering
mining
ore
barren rock
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CN106869931A (en
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罗先伟
赵元元
韦军
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GUANGXI GAOFENG MINING Co Ltd
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GUANGXI GAOFENG MINING Co Ltd
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/16Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21FSAFETY DEVICES, TRANSPORT, FILLING-UP, RESCUE, VENTILATION, OR DRAINING IN OR OF MINES OR TUNNELS
    • E21F15/00Methods or devices for placing filling-up materials in underground workings
    • E21F15/005Methods or devices for placing filling-up materials in underground workings characterised by the kind or composition of the backfilling material

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of barren rocks and cementing layering wedging mining with stowing technique and its structure, during using upward horizontal slice cut and fill, using 3 ~ 4m, mono- layering raise mining and filling, three layerings are as a segmentation, tailing cemented filling is respectively adopted in first layer and third, the second intermediate layering is using refuse compartment every mixed filling, bottom surface is laid with range and is arranged according to Stope dimension and keeps certain spacing with surrounding, tailing cemented filling is still used in hillock surrounding, and contacts and is connected with upper and lower, layering cemented fill.The present invention solves prior art processes complexity, it is at high cost, labor productivity and nugget production capacity are relatively low, barren rock not can be carried out the problem of reasonable application, using layering wedging mixed filling method, it ensure that strength of filling mass, largely consume deads, cemented filling material has been saved, has had the characteristics that operation safety, pack effectiveness are high, at low cost.

Description

A kind of barren rock and cementing layering wedging mining with stowing technique and its structure
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of sub-terrain mines upward horizontal slice mining with stowing structure and its techniques, and in particular to a kind of barren rock With cementing layering wedging mining with stowing technique and its structure.
Background technique
When earth's surface does not allow that avalanche, the grade of ore are higher, Value of Ore Deposits is larger or ore body upper lower burrs country rock moderately stable Or when stability difference, generally exploited using the method for mining by the way of filling.This method is moved using obturation control country rock avalanche and earth's surface It moves to carry out underground pressure management, and carries out back production in the obturation of formation or under its protection.It is adaptable strong, ore back production Rate is high, and the rate of dilution is low, and operation is safer, can utilize industrial waste, protection earth's surface etc.;The disadvantage is that complex process, at high cost, labour Productivity and nugget production capacity are relatively low.
Chats volume of cargo in storage in China's is up to 44,000,000,000 tons at present, and 15,000,000,000 tons of tailings impoundment, wherein nonferrous metal mine is useless Stone utilization rate is averagely lower than 10%, and comprehensive utilization of tailing rate is 19% or so, causes very big environment and security risk.With peace Entirely, environment and the continuous improvement required the rate of extraction of resource, cut and fill obtain popularization and application energetically, or even in iron Also start to use in mine and the orebody mining of grade.In terms of Mine Solid Wastes resource utilization, using tailings, give up The Mine Solid Wastes such as stone are the optimal selection of filling mining as underground filling material.Not only solve Mine Solid Wastes Resource utilization problem, and be reduce mining cost and improve the performance of enterprises effective way.
A large amount of research and industrial application, part mill tailings utilization rate are carried out currently with tailing filling aspect Higher level is reached.Filling technique is also cementing from the low concentration classified tailings consolidated fill of early stage to crude tailings high concentration Filling, lotion, Paste-like body and barren rock-defeated filling technique of crude tailings high concentration pipe etc..Make a general survey of current mine down-hole filling skill Art, tailings and barren rock are still the main source of filling in mine aggregate.For stratified filling method exploitation mine, using tailings into The technique and technology of row consolidated fill comparative maturity, but at present for the filling process technology of chats and crude tailings still Be point and with it, thus most mines fail to efficiently use barren rock and are filled with crude tailings.
Domestic patent database disclosed the technical report of some similar filling mining methods in recent years:
[application number] ZL201610264170X, [title] bottom-column-free sectional cemented filling mining method, [publication number] CN105909247A discloses a kind of bottom-column-free sectional cemented filling mining method, it by using be segmented into back production unit, Between upper and lower subsection interleaving arrangement extracting drift, substoping diamond shape point, step pitch be basic back production unit, on fallen to fan shaped medium length hole Ore removal under the conditions of mine, multiple rows of hole short-delay blasting, barnyard adopts rear consolidated fill in time and using the diamond shape air cushion that can be recycled Fill partition wall and reserve compensating space in blasting and the explosion scope of freedom etc., but its filling method fail to efficiently use barren rock and crude tailings into Row filling.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is provided one kind and can largely be backfilled using deads, and combines the cementing layering wedging mixing of crude tailings The barren rock of filling and cementing layering wedging mining with stowing process and structure solve prior art processes complexity, at high cost, labour life Yield and nugget production capacity are relatively low, and barren rock not can be carried out reasonable application, and storing surface trouble, transportation cost is high to ask Topic.
Barren rock of the present invention and cementing layering wedging mining with stowing technique, steps are as follows:
Step 1: determining structural parameters, nugget capwise is arranged, nugget height is consistent with miding level height, along ore body It moves towards direction and carries out the mode of one stop panel to promote, the not shrink stone studding in exploitation process, when the stability of ore body is poor, Using concrete casting partition wall, ore body and filling material is isolated.
Step 2: carrying out mining preparation work, mining preparation work mainly includes that stage haulage way, slice drift and segmentation ore removal are flat Lane, segmentation and layered-liaison tunnel, return air filling well, tailgate, drop shaft, filling gully, cutting crosscut and cutting gallery etc..
Step 3: cut and adopt work, predominantly undercut work, column of not keeping on file, is expanded to mine as the scope of freedom to undercut gallery Room bottom gross area forms pulling end space, and pours and form reinforced concrete artificial bottom, to reduce ore losses.
Step 4: actual mining carries out back production and filling by 3 ~ 4m, mono- layering from bottom to top, and 3 are layered as one point Section is used when ore stability is good to shallow bore hole ore caving, and when stability difference uses horizontal shallow hole ore caving, and short formula chisel can also be used Rock bench vehicle is to improve production rock penetration performance, and a stoping operation filled is adopted in use one, and excavation height is filled when reaching 7-8m Operation is filled out, using scraper ore removal, for the orebody mining of ore stability difference, when exposed area is big, it should be noted that use anchor Press to the controlling measurements such as bar or long cable supporting.
Step 5: tailing cemented filling is respectively adopted in stope filling, the first layer and third of each segmentation, intermediate The second layering using refuse compartment every mixed filling, filling material fills underground by return air and expects to stope, the second barren rock being layered Barren rock is transported to stope using scraper by filling.
The ore body of the upward horizontal slice cut and fill of the technique should be thick big inclination and inclined orebody, using nugget Capwise arrangement, back production width take 8-10m.
The waste fill of the technique forms four water chestnut platform shapes when stacking, and bottom is protected with the ore body of two sides, country rock respectively Hold the distance of 0.5m.It is formed by hillock body to be stacked with the natural repose angle of 40-45, stacks height 4m, upper surface paving Flat, the surrounding of hillock body uses tailing cemented filling, and 0.4m or so top dressing is reserved to guarantee higher slice operation in upper surface.
Barren rock of the invention and cementing layering wedging mining with stowing structure, including return air filling well location work in stope mining Above face, filling material can fill well by return air and be transported to stope, and reinforced concrete artificial bottom is located at mineral building bottom, each Section orebody mining, should have cutting gallery and layered-liaison tunnel layered-liaison tunnel to connect with each layer of stope, two sections stope Layered-liaison tunnel by filling draining The Small Well connection, cut gallery and layered-liaison tunnel and converge to slice drift, segmentation contact Road connection segment gallery, drop shaft run through segmentation connecting taxiway from top to bottom, adopt quasi- ramp and gang up with segmentation connecting taxiway tail end, stope Most beneath layering use tailing cemented filling, intermediate hierarchical, which starts interval, to carry out barren rock and stacks mixed filling, i.e. consolidated fill Body and barren rock are stacked mixed filling and are spaced apart in intermediate hierarchical, and stope is topmost layered as tailing cemented filling.
Tailing cemented filling layer and barren rock, which stack mixed filling layer, has same thickness.
The present invention is higher suitable for the grade of ore, Value of Ore Deposits is larger or ore body upper lower burrs country rock moderately stable or firm Property difference orebody mining, be especially suitable for applying when upward horizontal slice cut and fill.
The present invention, using layering wedging mixed filling method, is segmented when uplink horizontal cut and fill stoping is exploited by utilizing Intermediate hierarchical carry out barren rock stockpiling and in the all-tailing cemented filling of Upward slicing carry out wedging, still used in hillock surrounding Tailing cemented filling, and contact and be connected with upper and lower, layering Cemented Filling, guarantee mixed filling body intensity, prevents mine Dilution caused by being caving when body or unstable rock reaches deads and maximally utilizes, and guarantees that layering cemented fill is strong The purpose of degree realizes safety and high efficiency, and filling cost is greatly lowered and reduces discharge of the mine waste to earth's surface, can be effective The stockpiling that stope is carried out using mine down-hole ore greatly reduces the storing surface and transportation cost of barren rock, improves waste stone utilization Rate, and all-tailing cemented filling is combined to realize the supporting role to country rock and adjacent stope ore body, there is operation safety, filling effect Rate height, feature at low cost.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the main view of sub-terrain mines upward horizontal slice mining with stowing structure of the present invention, i.e., along I-I section of Fig. 2.
Fig. 2 is II-II line profile along Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is III-III line profile along Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is the stereoscopic schematic diagram that waste fill is stacked.
In figure: 1- return air fills well;2- stope;3- barren rock;4- cemented fill;5- reinforced concrete artificial bottom; 6- tailgate;7- stage haulage way;8- slice drift;9- layered-liaison tunnel;10- drop shaft;11- is segmented connecting taxiway;12- is adopted Quasi- ramp;13- filling draining The Small Well;14- fills gully;15- ore body;16- cuts gallery.
Specific embodiment
The concrete use case of mining concept proposed by the present invention is: for the exploitation of above-mentioned classification ore body, level interval takes 40 ~ 60m, nugget length generally take 50 ~ 60m, can reduce when ore body is broken and ground pressure is larger to 30 ~ 40m.First pass through ore body bottom plate Level haulage gallery and incline boring exploiting field connecting taxiway, slice drift, segmentation ore removal gallery, drop shaft, then close to ore body Bottom plate driving return air filling well is communicated with upper middle section prospect tunnel.Before back production, cutting crosscut is tunneled in nugget bottom, along ore body Driving cutting gallery is moved towards, is undercuted as the scope of freedom along cutting gallery using cutting crosscut, with the propulsion of layering, sets up drainage Well and bury porose plastic film capicitor with filling draining The Small Well be connected, and to be segmented ore removal gallery chute caunch, be allowed to Loaded vehicle descending is gradually become from loaded vehicle upward slope.
After completing to adopt quasi- cutting work, by slicing from bottom to top, a stoping operation mode filled is adopted in use one, Utilize shallow bore hole or short formula drill jumbo rock drilling, scraper ore removal.The first layer and third of each segmentation are respectively adopted Tailing cemented filling, the second intermediate layering is using refuse compartment every mixed filling.Barren rock is stacked when waste fill upwards and forms four Water chestnut platform shape.Bottom surface barren rock is laid with range and is arranged according to Stope dimension and keeps certain spacing with surrounding, in hillock surrounding Tailing cemented filling is still used, and contacts and is connected with upper and lower, layering Cemented Filling, guarantees mixed filling body intensity, Prevent dilution caused by being caving when ore body or unstable rock.
The present invention will be further described below with reference to the drawings.
Fig. 2 is a kind of layering wedging mixed filling mining concept figure of the invention.First according to the actual (real) thickness of ore body and Inclination angle arranges that the mining mine section of ore body and the structure size of nugget, nugget height take 60m, and the wide 10m of mineral building, long mineral building is ore body Thickness, this attached drawing take 12m;First pass through the level haulage gallery 7 of ore body bottom plate and adopt quasi- ramp 12 driving segmentation connecting taxiway 11, Slice drift 8, layered-liaison tunnel 9, filling gully 14 and drop shaft 10.Then close to ore body bottom plate driving return air filling well 1 with Upper middle section gallery communicates.Before back production, in the vertical orebody trend driving cutting gallery 16 in nugget bottom, to cut crosscut as freely Face undercuts along cutting gallery.After pulling end space is formed, pouring forms reinforced concrete artificial bottom 5, height 6m.It presses from bottom to top Mono- layering of 4m carries out back production and filling, and 3 are layered as a segmentation.Set two back production units in nugget, one stop panel, one When the filling of back production unit or maintenance, another back production unit can carry out normal back production, tunnel at ore body lower wall in each be segmented Filling draining The Small Well, section 1m × 1m are dehydrated convenient for stope filling.
The ore of 2 avalanche of stope utilize scraper, by layered-liaison tunnel 9, slice drift 9 be transported to drop shaft 10 into Row ore drawing.It is fresh it is distinguished and admirable by level haulage gallery 7, filling gully 14, ramp 12 and segmentation connecting taxiway 11 enter, it is segmented Gallery 8, layered-liaison tunnel 9 enter stope, and after washing away stope, waste air is discharged into upper middle section return air filling gallery from return air filling well 1 Road 6.In order to improve Stope face ventilation condition, reinforce divulging information using portable blower.
Work cycle is adopted one for one and is filled, i.e., fills immediately after back production one layering.First layer 4 is filled using crude tailings are cementing It fills out, cement mortar ratio uses 1:8.Filling material fills the decentralization of well 1 to stope, every layering top cement bonded sand of 1:4 by return air Slurry carries out top dressing 0.4m, convenient for working normally scraper function in every layering.Second layering is filled using barren rock and tailings mixing It fills out, wherein waste stone utilization scraper is stacked to stope, is stacked barren rock 3 upwards and is formed four water chestnut platform shapes.Bottom surface barren rock is laid with and four Week keeps the spacing of 0.5m, still uses tailing cemented filling in hillock surrounding, and connect with upper and lower, layering Cemented Filling It touches and is connected.The middle layer for guaranteeing each three layerings of segmentation is barren rock and the cementing mixed filling layer of tailings, stope top point Layer connects top for tailing cemented filling layer to realize.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of barren rock and cementing layering wedging mining with stowing technique, including upward horizontal slice cut and fill method is used, It is characterized by:
Step 1: determining structural parameters, nugget capwise is arranged, nugget height is consistent with miding level height, along ore body (15) Move towards direction and carry out the mode of one stop panel to promote, the not shrink stone studding in exploitation process, when ore body (15) stability compared with When poor, using concrete casting partition wall, ore body (15) and filling material is isolated;
Step 2: carrying out mining preparation work, mining preparation work mainly includes stage haulage way (7), slice drift (8) and segmentation ore removal Gallery, segmentation and layered-liaison tunnel (9), return air filling well, tailgate, drop shaft (10), filling gully (14), cut crosscut With cutting gallery (16);
Step 3: cut and adopt work, predominantly undercut work, column of not keeping on file, is expanded to mineral building bottom as the scope of freedom to undercut gallery Portion's gross area forms pulling end space, and pours and form reinforced concrete artificial bottom (5), to reduce ore losses;
Step 4: actual mining carries out back production and filling by 3 ~ 4m, mono- layering from bottom to top, and 3 are layered as a segmentation, mine To shallow bore hole ore caving on using when stone stability is good, when stability difference, uses horizontal shallow hole ore caving, or uses short formula drill jumbo Rock penetration performance is produced to improve, a stoping operation filled is adopted in use one, and excavation height carries out packing job when reaching 7-8m, Using scraper ore removal, for the orebody mining of ore stability difference, when exposed area is big, it should be noted that use anchor pole or long anchor Rope supporting measure control ground pressure;
Step 5: stope filling, the most beneath layering and layering topmost of stope use tailing cemented filling, and intermediate hierarchical starts Interval carries out barren rock (3) and stacks mixed filling, i.e. cemented fill (4) and barren rock is stacked mixed filling and be spaced in intermediate hierarchical The barren rock of distribution, intermediate hierarchical is transported to stope using scraper.
2. barren rock according to claim 1 and cementing layering wedging mining with stowing technique, it is characterised in that: on described to The ore body of horizontal cut and fill stoping exploitation should be thick big inclined orebody, be arranged using nugget capwise, and back production width takes 8- 10m。
3. barren rock according to claim 1 and cementing layering wedging mining with stowing technique, it is characterised in that: the barren rock (3) four water chestnut platform shapes are formed when being filled in stacking, bottom is kept at a distance from 0.5m with the ore body of two sides, country rock respectively.
4. barren rock according to claim 1 and cementing layering wedging mining with stowing technique, it is characterised in that: be formed by useless Clitter body is stacked with 40 ~ 45 natural repose angle, stacks height 4m, and upper surface is paved, and the surrounding of barren rock (3) heap body is adopted With tailing cemented filling, and 0.4m or so top dressing is reserved to guarantee higher slice operation in upper surface.
5. a kind of filled using barren rock as described in claim 1 with the structure of cementing layering wedging mining with stowing technique, return air Well (1) is located above stope mining working face (2), and filling material can fill well (1) by return air and be transported to stope (2), Reinforced concrete artificial bottom (5) is located at mineral building bottom, and each section of ore body (15) exploitation should have cutting gallery (16) and layering contact Road (9) layered-liaison tunnel is connect with each layer of stope, and the layered-liaison tunnel (9) of two sections stope passes through filling draining The Small Well (13) it is connected to, cuts gallery (16) and layered-liaison tunnel (9) converges to slice drift (8), be segmented connecting taxiway (11) connection segment Gallery (8), drop shaft (10) through segmentation connecting taxiway (11), adopt quasi- ramp (12) and segmentation connecting taxiway (11) tail end from top to bottom It gangs up, it is characterised in that: the most beneath layering of stope uses tailing cemented filling, and intermediate hierarchical starts interval and carries out barren rock (3) Mixed filling is stacked, i.e. cemented fill (4) and barren rock (3) is stacked mixed filling and be spaced apart in intermediate hierarchical, and stope is most Top higher slice is tailing cemented filling.
6. barren rock according to claim 5 and cementing layering wedging mining with stowing structure, it is characterised in that: tailings is cementing to be filled Packing course and barren rock, which stack mixed filling layer, has same thickness.
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