CN106831202A - A kind of potato special fertilizer and its preparation and application process - Google Patents

A kind of potato special fertilizer and its preparation and application process Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106831202A
CN106831202A CN201710201542.9A CN201710201542A CN106831202A CN 106831202 A CN106831202 A CN 106831202A CN 201710201542 A CN201710201542 A CN 201710201542A CN 106831202 A CN106831202 A CN 106831202A
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Prior art keywords
potato
special fertilizer
fertilizer
potato special
rhapontici seu
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王蓉
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Land arrangement potential station, Lianyungang
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王蓉
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B1/00Superphosphates, i.e. fertilisers produced by reacting rock or bone phosphates with sulfuric or phosphoric acid in such amounts and concentrations as to yield solid products directly
    • C05B1/02Superphosphates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F17/00Preparation of fertilisers characterised by biological or biochemical treatment steps, e.g. composting or fermentation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/60Biocides or preservatives, e.g. disinfectants, pesticides or herbicides; Pest repellants or attractants
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of potato special fertilizer, it is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:Castor bean meal, tea seed cake, fresh Enteromorpha, silkworm excrement, the fish gill, snail shell, fish pond mud, gumbo stalk, azedarach, pepper, yak hair hydrolysate, EST microbial inoculums, Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract, calcium superphosphate, potassium sulfate, urea, appropriate amount of water.The invention also discloses the preparation method and application process of above-mentioned potato special fertilizer.Potato special fertilizer of the present invention not only has powerful lasting fertilizer efficiency, also reduces the incidence of pest and disease damage, improves the disease resistance and yield of potato, and Potato Quality, and green non-pollution.

Description

A kind of potato special fertilizer and its preparation and application process
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of fertilizers, and in particular to a kind of potato special fertilizer, the invention further relates to above-mentioned Ma Ling The preparation method and application process of potato special fertilizer.
Background technology
Potato, Solanaceae Solanum, annual herb plant, another name potato, potato, potato, potato, foreign sweet potato, Ma Ling Potato, steamed bun egg etc., are important grain, dish, raise dual-purpose crop, protein, fat, carbohydrate, crude fibre and various dimensions that it contains Raw element is all that human body is indispensable.
Fertilising is the important means for improving crop yield and improving quality, and the existing long-term fertilizer of potato raw is easily caused Soil physico-chemical property is bad, nutrient dificiency or imbalance, so as to influence the growth of potato, limits the yield and product of potato The raising of matter and, in order to prevent and treat potato main diseases and insect pests, from the chemical insecticide of instant effect more than people, although this is one Determine that erosion of the pest and disease damage to potato can be reduced in degree, but insecticide excess or the species of application are not suitable for, and are also easy to produce medicine Evil, influences Potato Quality, will also result in the serious problem of widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area.
The content of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is directed to the deficiencies in the prior art, it is proposed that a kind of fertilizer efficiency potato high is special With fertilizer, soil environment can be improved, reduce pest and disease damage and occur, improve Potato Quality and yield.
Another technical problem to be solved by this invention is to additionally provide one kind side of preparation of above-mentioned potato special fertilizer Method.
Another technical problem to be solved by this invention is to additionally provide a kind of administration side of above-mentioned potato special fertilizer Method.
The technical problems to be solved by the invention are realized by following technical scheme, and a kind of potato is special Fertilizer, is characterized in, it is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:
Castor bean meal 5-10;Tea seed cake 20-25;Fresh Enteromorpha 7-9;
Silkworm excrement 110-120;Fish gill 33-40;Snail shell 15-17;
Fish pond mud 15-20;Gumbo stalk 10-15;Azedarach 1-3;
Pepper 4-5;Yak hair hydrolysate 12-15;EST microbial inoculums 1-2;Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract 0.5-1.5;Calcium superphosphate 15-20;Sulphur Sour potassium 60-65;
Urea 25-35;Appropriate amount of water.
ETS microbial inoculums of the present invention, also referred to as ETS compound bacterias, or ETS microbial bacterial agent is commercially available matured product. One of production and sales business is the De Cuifeng developments in agricultural science and technology Co., Ltd of Beijing hundred, and name of product is:ETS microbial bacterias - hundred moral Cui Feng in the U.S. soil of agent-wood.The commercially available prod formulation:Pulvis;Specification:20kg;Living bacteria count:50000000/gram;ETS Composite flora contains more than 100 plants beneficial microbe, wherein aerobic bacteria 40%, anaerobic bacteria 60%.The characteristics of ETS microbial inoculums is:By Europe Using checking, ETS bacterium are the microbial inoculums for effecting a radical cure soil chronic disease within U.S. 30 years.Show:Miao Qi, Miao Zhuan, prevent dead;Take root more, it is many Bloom, many results;Increase chlorophyll, robust plant promotes Fruit, lists ahead of time;It is disease-resistant, degeneration-resistant, premature senescence resistance, anti-heavy Stubble, suppresses root-knot nematode, reduces soil-borne disease;With bacterium bacterium, soil micro-ecosystem balance is maintained;Purification soil, phosphorus decomposing, potassium decomposing, Fixed nitrogen, increases fertility of land.
The technical problems to be solved by the invention can also further be realized by following technical scheme, described hardship Chinaberry skin be amargosa, melia in one or two.
The technical problems to be solved by the invention can also further be realized by following technical scheme, described leakage Reed alcohol extract is, with Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis root as raw material, to be extracted by methyl alcohol or ethanol and obtained, and can be in the prior art disclosed any one The Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract obtained using methyl alcohol or ethanol is planted, or is commercially available Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract product.Preferably, described Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis Alcohol extract is prepared as follows:Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis root after drying is crushed, and is crossed and is mixed, by weight volume ratio 1:15-25 is to mixing The ethanol of addition methyl alcohol or 75-85% in raw material afterwards, ultrasonic extraction 2-3 times, 40-45 DEG C of ultrasonic temperature, ultrasonic 4-6h, then with 4000-6000rpm centrifugations 20-30min takes supernatant, merges supernatant, when the supernatant after merging is concentrated under reduced pressure into 60-65 DEG C Relative density is the concentrate of 1.35-1.55, and spray drying treatment obtains final product powdery Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract.
The technical problems to be solved by the invention can also further be realized by following technical scheme, described yak Ox hair hydrolyzate is prepared as follows:Volume ratio yak hair by weight:Hydrochloric acid=1:1.5-2 in yak hair to adding concentration It is the hydrochloric acid solution of 4-6M, after hydrolyzing 1.5-2h at 100-110 DEG C, cooling adjusts pH to 9.5-10, then add thereto with ammoniacal liquor Plus the alkali protease of 0.4-0.7%, 8-10h is incubated at 50-60 DEG C, heated up the enzyme that goes out, cooling, and pH is adjusted to neutrality with alkali lye, Spray drying, obtains yak hair hydrolysate.
Potato special fertilizer of the present invention, further preferred technical scheme is that the weight proportion of each raw material is:
Castor bean meal 8;Tea seed cake 20;Fresh Enteromorpha 8;
Silkworm excrement 118;The fish gill 35;Snail shell 17;
Fish pond mud 16;Gumbo stalk 13;Azedarach 2;
Pepper 4;Yak hair hydrolysate 14;EST microbial inoculums 1.5;
Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract 1.2;Calcium superphosphate 16;Potassium sulfate 60;
Urea 25;Appropriate amount of water.
The technical problems to be solved by the invention can also further realize that the present invention is also by following technical scheme There is provided the preparation method of above-mentioned potato special fertilizer, it is characterized in, its step is as follows:
(1)Snail shell is taken, is dried or is dried, crushed, cross 80-120 mesh sieves, obtain final product snail shell powder, it is standby;
(2)Fresh Enteromorpha is taken, 1 is compared by material water quality:4-6 adds water homogenate, obtains final product Enteromorpha homogenate, standby;
(3)Gumbo stalk is taken, is crushed, 0.4cm is less than to grain diameter, it is standby;
(4)Pepper and azedarach are crushed respectively, crosses 80-100 mesh sieves, mix to obtain mixed powder, added water to water logging and do not have mixed powder, boiled 0.8-1.5h is cooked by slow fire after boiling again, is cooled down, filtering obtains filter residue and filtrate, standby;
(5)By step(4)The filter residue for obtaining and castor bean meal, tea seed cake, fish pond mud, silkworm excrement, the fish gill, snail shell powder, Enteromorpha slurry Liquid and gumbo stalk are well mixed, then are added to EST microbial inoculums and are sufficiently stirred for, and obtain compound;It is suitable to being added in compound Amount water, moisture puts into fermentation vat after reaching 38-50% into compound, and fermentation temperature is controlled at 25-55 DEG C, when in compound When heart temperature rises to 50-55 DEG C, stirring cooling is carried out, fermented 15-20 days, obtain final product the material that becomes thoroughly decomposed;
(5)By step(4)The filtrate for obtaining and calcium superphosphate, potassium sulfate, urea, Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract, yak hair hydrolysate and corruption Ripe material is well mixed, granulation, obtains the fertiliser granulates that particle diameter is 2.8-3.5mm, dries, and to moisture≤8%, obtains final product Ma Ling Potato special fertilizer.
The technical problems to be solved by the invention can also further realize that the present invention is also by following technical scheme There is provided the application process of above-mentioned potato special fertilizer, be characterized in, the fertilizer during potato planting as base manure and Topdress administration, its application process is:Total dose is 60-100 kg/ mus, and base manure is 2 with the amount of application for topdressing:1, applied during sowing Base manure, topdresses once for 30-33 days after emerging.
Raw material of the present invention and its effect are as follows:
Castor bean meal:It is that castor bean takes remaining residue after oil, containing rich in protein and several amino acids, and with plant Nitrogen, phosphorus, the big element of potassium 3 needed for thing growth are especially most strong with nitrogenous fertilizer effect.
Tea seed cake:Also known as tea seed cake, alias tea bran, tea seed cake, tea seed cake are one of accessory substances of tea oil processing, with abundant The organic matter such as carbohydrate, crude fibre, protein, also contain several kinds of mineral elements, can be as making organic fertilizer Green material, can fully meet demand of the crop to nutrient, and with preventing and treating subterranean pest-insect(Such as the small weevil of potato) Effect, and can voluntarily decompose, non-toxic remaining, on human body without influence, uses safety.In addition, the tea contained in tea seed cake Saponin can be complexed with the heavy metal in soil, reduce heavy metal in soil content.
Fresh Enteromorpha:Enteromorpha is also known as tongue bar, green moss, Chlorophyceae, Ulvaceae, is the natural original containing high protein and abundant vitamin Material, also containing trace elements such as calcium, magnesium, iodine, zinc, and Enteromorpha active polysaccharide, alginic acid, highly unsaturated fatty acid and various Natural plants growth regulator, is conducive to crop growth.
Silkworm excrement:Become thoroughly decomposed containing abundant nutritional ingredient and easily, easily absorbed by crops, and also contain in silkworm excrement Auxin heteroauxin analog, with good production-increasing function.
Snail shell:Its main inorganic composition is calcium carbonate, can be used as the calcareous additive of animal feed, or plant life It is long that calcium constituent is provided.
Fish pond mud:It is during cultured fishes, some remaining bait, fertilizer, dead organisms, fishes to be deposited in fish pond Class excrement and other organic matters, add the mixing of silt, and in the mud that bottom of pond is formed, organic matter therein can be by microorganism Fermentation forms the nutrient that can be absorbed by crops.
Gumbo stalk:The nutrient such as containing cellulose, lignin, vitamin and N P and K, substantially nontoxic in gumbo stalk.
Yak hair hydrolysate:The main component of yak hair is protein, the hydrolysis that yak hair is obtained after the double hydrolysis of acid-enzyme Contain various amino acid that can be absorbed by crops in thing.
Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract:Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis (Stemmacanthauniflora (L.) Dittrich), wild blue, the terrible spunyarn of alias, wolf Headdress flower, is a kind of herbaceos perennial.Research shows that Radix Rhapontici extract Phytophthora infestans to have preferably suppress lives Property.
Pepper:Alias white pepper, black pepper, hide shoe branch, floating green pepper, beautiful green pepper, taste carries out branch, is Piperaceae plant pepper(Piper nigrum L.)Drying is near ripe or ripening fruits, its extract has the effect for suppressing various germs, including alternaria, Inhibiting rate is up to 73.9%, can reduce the incidence of disease of potato black spot.
Azedarach:China tree is the well-known variety in Meliaceae plant, and also known as bitter Siberian cocklebur, FRUCTUS TOOSENDAN, Zhan wingceltises, gloomy tree etc., this kind was both It is timber-used plant, is also medicinal plant, its flower, leaf, fruit, root skin can be used as medicine.Azedarach includes amargosa and chinaberry root Skin, can prevent and treat snout moth's larva, aphid, cabbage caterpillar, insect parasite which hurts rice plant, lice, cicada etc., to Ditylenchus dipsaci have kill line activity, have to potato ball compared with Good protection and therapeutic action.
Potato special fertilizer of the present invention with life waste material, production and processing discarded object be organic fertilizer primary raw material, by ETS Compound bacteria compost fermentation, the pathogen that will be there may exist in raw material kills and inactivates weed seed, by complicated organic matter It is decomposed into the nutritional ingredient for being available for growth of sweet potato to utilize, and increased the type and quantity of beneficial bacterium in soil, improves soil Environment.The yak hair hydrolysate that the present invention is used can provide amino acid nutrient for sweet potato, meanwhile, with reference to it is various with desinsection, The raw material of fungistatic effect so that fertilizer of the present invention not only has powerful lasting fertilizer efficiency, also reduces the incidence of pest and disease damage, carries The high disease resistance and yield of potato, and Potato Quality, and green non-pollution.
Specific embodiment
The present invention is described in further detail with reference to embodiments, further in order to those skilled in the art Ground understands the present invention, without constituting the limitation to its right.
Embodiment 1, a kind of potato special fertilizer, it is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:
Castor bean meal 5;Tea seed cake 20;Fresh Enteromorpha 7;
Silkworm excrement 110;The fish gill 33;Snail shell 15;
Fish pond mud 15;Gumbo stalk 10;Azedarach 1;
Pepper 4;Yak hair hydrolysate 12;EST microbial inoculums 1;
Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract 0.5;Calcium superphosphate 15;Potassium sulfate 60;
Urea 25;Appropriate amount of water.
Embodiment 2, a kind of potato special fertilizer, it is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:
Castor bean meal 10;Tea seed cake 25;Fresh Enteromorpha 9;
Silkworm excrement 120;The fish gill 40;Snail shell 17;
Fish pond mud 20;Gumbo stalk 15;Azedarach 3;
Pepper 5;Yak hair hydrolysate 15;EST microbial inoculums 2;
Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract 1.5;Calcium superphosphate 20;Potassium sulfate 65;
Urea 35;Appropriate amount of water.
Embodiment 3, a kind of potato special fertilizer, it is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:
Castor bean meal 8;Tea seed cake 23;Fresh Enteromorpha 8;
Silkworm excrement 115;The fish gill 36;Snail shell 16;
Fish pond mud 18;Gumbo stalk 13;Azedarach 2;
Pepper 4.5;Yak hair hydrolysate 14;EST microbial inoculums 1.5;
Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract 1;Calcium superphosphate 15-20;Potassium sulfate 63;
Urea 30;Appropriate amount of water.
Embodiment 4, in the potato special fertilizer described in embodiment 1-3 any one, described azedarach is amargosa, One or two in melia.
Embodiment 5, in the potato special fertilizer described in embodiment 1-4 any one, described Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract is to leak Reed rhizome is raw material, is extracted by methyl alcohol or ethanol and obtained, and preparation method is as follows:Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis root after drying is crushed, and is crossed and is mixed, and is pressed W/v 1:15 to methyl alcohol or 75% ethanol is added in mixed raw material, ultrasonic extraction 2 times, 40 DEG C of ultrasonic temperature is super Sound 4h, then supernatant is taken with 4000rpm centrifugations 20min, merging supernatant, the supernatant after merging is concentrated under reduced pressure into 60 DEG C of phases It is 1.35 concentrate to density, spray drying treatment obtains final product Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract.
Embodiment 6, in the potato special fertilizer described in embodiment 1-4 any one, described Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract is to leak Reed rhizome is raw material, is extracted by methyl alcohol or ethanol and obtained, and preparation method is as follows:Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis root after drying is crushed, and is crossed and is mixed, and is pressed W/v 1:25 to methyl alcohol or 85% ethanol is added in mixed raw material, ultrasonic extraction 3 times, 45 DEG C of ultrasonic temperature is super Sound 6h, then supernatant is taken with 6000rpm centrifugations 30min, merging supernatant, the supernatant after merging is concentrated under reduced pressure into 65 DEG C of phases It is 1.55 concentrate to density, spray drying treatment obtains final product Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract.
Embodiment 7, in the potato special fertilizer described in embodiment 1-6 any one, described yak hair hydrolyzate according to It is prepared by following method:Volume ratio yak hair by weight:Hydrochloric acid=1:1.5 is the hydrochloric acid solution of 4M to concentration is added in yak hair, After hydrolyzing 1.5h at 100 DEG C, cooling adjusts pH to 9.5 with ammoniacal liquor, then is added to 0.4% alkali protease, at 50 DEG C Insulation 8h, heated up the enzyme that goes out, cooling, and pH to neutrality is adjusted with alkali lye, and spray drying obtains yak hair hydrolysate.
Embodiment 8, in the potato special fertilizer described in embodiment 1-6 any one, described yak hair hydrolyzate according to It is prepared by following method:Volume ratio yak hair by weight:Hydrochloric acid=1:2 is the hydrochloric acid solution of 6M to concentration is added in yak hair, After hydrolyzing 2h at 110 DEG C, cooling adjusts pH to 10 with ammoniacal liquor, then is added to 0.7% alkali protease, is incubated at 60 DEG C 10h, heated up the enzyme that goes out, cooling, and pH to neutrality is adjusted with alkali lye, and spray drying obtains yak hair hydrolysate.
Embodiment 9, a kind of potato special fertilizer, it is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:
Castor bean meal 8;Tea seed cake 20;Fresh Enteromorpha 8;
Silkworm excrement 118;The fish gill 35;Snail shell 17;
Fish pond mud 16;Gumbo stalk 13;Azedarach 2;
Pepper 4;Yak hair hydrolysate 14;EST microbial inoculums 1.5;
Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract 1.2;Calcium superphosphate 16;Potassium sulfate 60;
Urea 25;Appropriate amount of water;
Described azedarach be amargosa, melia in one or two.
Described Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract is, with Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis root as raw material, to be extracted by methyl alcohol or ethanol and obtained, and preparation method is as follows: Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis root after drying is crushed, and is crossed and is mixed, by weight volume ratio 1:20 to addition methyl alcohol or 80% second in mixed raw material Alcohol, ultrasonic extraction 3 times, 40 DEG C of ultrasonic temperature, ultrasonic 5h, then supernatant is taken with 5000rpm centrifugations 25min, and merge supernatant, close And after supernatant when being concentrated under reduced pressure into 60 DEG C relative density be 1.45 concentrate, spray drying treatment obtains final product Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extracting Thing.
Described yak hair hydrolyzate is prepared as follows:Volume ratio yak hair by weight:Hydrochloric acid=1:1.7 to yak It is the hydrochloric acid solution of 5M that concentration is added in ox hair, and after hydrolyzing 1.8h at 105 DEG C, cooling adjusts pH to 10 with ammoniacal liquor, then thereto The alkali protease of addition 0.6%, is incubated 9h at 55 DEG C, and heat up the enzyme that goes out, and alkali lye is used in cooling(Such as sodium hydroxide solution)Regulation PH is spray-dried to neutrality, obtains yak hair hydrolysate.
Embodiment 10, the preparation method of the potato special fertilizer described in embodiment 1-9 any one, its step is as follows:
(1)Snail shell is taken, is dried or is dried, crushed, cross 80 mesh sieves, obtain final product snail shell powder, it is standby;
(2)Fresh Enteromorpha is taken, 1 is compared by material water quality:4 add water homogenate, obtain final product Enteromorpha homogenate, standby;
(3)Gumbo stalk is taken, is crushed, 0.4cm is less than to grain diameter, it is standby;
(4)Pepper and azedarach are crushed respectively, crosses 80 mesh sieves, mix to obtain mixed powder, added water to water logging and do not have mixed powder, after boiling 0.8h being cooked by slow fire again, being cooled down, filtering obtains filter residue and filtrate, standby;
(5)By step(4)The filter residue for obtaining and castor bean meal, tea seed cake, fish pond mud, silkworm excrement, the fish gill, snail shell powder, Enteromorpha slurry Liquid and gumbo stalk are well mixed, then are added to EST microbial inoculums and are sufficiently stirred for, and obtain compound;It is suitable to being added in compound Amount water, up to fermentation vat is put into after 38%, fermentation temperature is controlled at 25-55 DEG C moisture, when compound center temperature into compound When degree rises to 50 DEG C, stirring cooling is carried out, fermented 15 days, obtain final product the material that becomes thoroughly decomposed;
(5)By step(4)The filtrate for obtaining and calcium superphosphate, potassium sulfate, urea, Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract, yak hair hydrolysate and corruption Ripe material is well mixed, granulation, obtains the fertiliser granulates that particle diameter is 2.8mm, dries, and to moisture≤8%, obtains final product potato special With fertilizer.
Embodiment 11, the preparation method of the potato special fertilizer described in embodiment 1-9 any one, its step is as follows:
(1)Snail shell is taken, is dried or is dried, crushed, cross 120 mesh sieves, obtain final product snail shell powder, it is standby;
(2)Fresh Enteromorpha is taken, 1 is compared by material water quality:6 add water homogenate, obtain final product Enteromorpha homogenate, standby;
(3)Gumbo stalk is taken, is crushed, 0.4cm is less than to grain diameter, it is standby;
(4)Pepper and azedarach are crushed respectively, crosses 100 mesh sieves, mix to obtain mixed powder, added water to water logging and do not have mixed powder, boiled It is cooked by slow fire 1.5h again afterwards, cools down, filtering obtains filter residue and filtrate, standby;
(5)By step(4)The filter residue for obtaining and castor bean meal, tea seed cake, fish pond mud, silkworm excrement, the fish gill, snail shell powder, Enteromorpha slurry Liquid and gumbo stalk are well mixed, then are added to EST microbial inoculums and are sufficiently stirred for, and obtain compound;It is suitable to being added in compound Amount water, moisture puts into fermentation vat after reaching 38-50% into compound, and fermentation temperature is controlled at 25-55 DEG C, when in compound When heart temperature rises to 55 DEG C, stirring cooling is carried out, fermented 20 days, obtain final product the material that becomes thoroughly decomposed;
(5)By step(4)The filtrate for obtaining and calcium superphosphate, potassium sulfate, urea, Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract, yak hair hydrolysate and corruption Ripe material is well mixed, granulation, obtains the fertiliser granulates that particle diameter is 3.5mm, dries, and to moisture≤8%, obtains final product potato special With fertilizer.
A kind of embodiment 12, preparation method of potato special fertilizer as described in Example 9, its step is as follows:
(1)Snail shell is taken, is dried or is dried, crushed, cross 100 mesh sieves, obtain final product snail shell powder, it is standby;
(2)Fresh Enteromorpha is taken, 1 is compared by material water quality:5 add water homogenate, obtain final product Enteromorpha homogenate, standby;
(3)Gumbo stalk is taken, is crushed, 0.4cm is less than to grain diameter, it is standby;
(4)Pepper and azedarach are crushed respectively, crosses 90 mesh sieves, mix to obtain mixed powder, added water to water logging and do not have mixed powder, after boiling 1.2h being cooked by slow fire again, being cooled down, filtering obtains filter residue and filtrate, standby;
(5)By step(4)The filter residue for obtaining and castor bean meal, tea seed cake, fish pond mud, silkworm excrement, the fish gill, snail shell powder, Enteromorpha slurry Liquid and gumbo stalk are well mixed, then are added to EST microbial inoculums and are sufficiently stirred for, and obtain compound;It is suitable to being added in compound Amount water, up to fermentation vat is put into after 45%, fermentation temperature is controlled at 25-55 DEG C moisture, when compound center temperature into compound When degree rises to 53 DEG C, stirring cooling is carried out, fermented 17 days, obtain final product the material that becomes thoroughly decomposed;
(5)By step(4)The filtrate for obtaining and calcium superphosphate, potassium sulfate, urea, Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract, yak hair hydrolysate and corruption Ripe material is well mixed, granulation, obtains the fertiliser granulates that particle diameter is 3.3mm, dries, and to moisture≤8%, obtains final product potato special With fertilizer.
Embodiment 13, the application process of the potato special fertilizer described in embodiment 1-12 any one, the fertilizer is in Ma Ling As base manure and administration of topdressing during planting potato, its application process is:Total dose is 100 kg/ mus, base manure with topdress Amount of application is 2:1, basal dressing during sowing topdresses once for 30 days after emerging.
Embodiment 14, the application process of the potato special fertilizer described in embodiment 1-12 any one, the fertilizer is in Ma Ling As base manure and administration of topdressing during planting potato, its application process is:Total dose is 80 kg/ mus, base manure and applying for topdressing Consumption is 2:1, basal dressing during sowing topdresses once for 33 days after emerging.
Embodiment 15, the application process of the potato special fertilizer described in embodiment 12, the fertilizer is in potato planting process Middle as base manure and to topdress administration, its application process is:Total dose is 60kg/ mus, and base manure is 2 with the amount of application for topdressing:1, Basal dressing during sowing, topdresses once for 30 days after emerging.
Embodiment 16, potato special fertilizer application effect verification experimental verification example of the present invention.
First, influence of the potato special fertilizer of the present invention to potato yield and quality
1st, test period:2016.
2nd, test site:Jiangsu Province Lianyun Harbour Ganyu County potato plot, soil is mountain yellow soil, quality loam clay, Middle fertility, totally 7 mu, wherein 4 mu used as experimental field, 3 mu used as control field.
3rd, for examination Potato Cultivars:Double rich No. 5 one-level virus-free seed potatos.
4th, for examination fertilizer:
(1)Test group fertilizer:Using the potato special fertilizer described in embodiment 9, the preparation method of potato special fertilizer is using real Apply the method described in example 12.
(2)Control group fertilizer:Universal composite organic-inorganic fertilizer(The content of organic matter 23%, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium total nutrient 16%).
5th, test method:
The administration total amount of test group and control group fertilizer is 60kg/ mus, and method of application is and takes 2/3 and make base manure, and remaining 1/3 exists Potato combines to pour water and spreads manuer in holes for 30 days after emerging.In addition to fertilization type and mode, during potato growth, two groups of fields are adopted Manage in a like fashion.
2 months 2016 No. 26, the consistent detoxification potato seedling growth of growth selection is planted, every mu plant foot 5500 plants, when harvesting, Statistics potato weight(Based on fresh weight), and determine stem tuber protein content, Vc contents and content of starch.
6th, result of the test:
The potato per mu yield and root tuber nutritional ingredient of test group and control group the results are shown in Table 1.
The potato per mu yield of table 1. and root tuber nutritional ingredient
Group Per mu yield (kg) Vc(μg/g) Crude protein (%) Starch (%)
Test group 2430 257.4 2.5 17.2
Control group 2060 204.9 2.3 16.8
It is the horse using general composite fertilizer using the potato yield of the special fertilizer described in the embodiment of the present invention 9 from result 1.18 times of bell potato yield, meanwhile, increase using the Vc of the root tuber of special fertilizer of the present invention results, crude protein and content of starch Plus, show that fertilizer of the present invention can meet the demand of vine growth and development, and the smooth bright, color in test group potato surface Unanimously, value is higher.
2nd, potato special fertilizer insect prevention experiment of the present invention
1st, test period:2016.
2nd, test site:Jiangsu Province Lianyungang Ganyu County and Donghai County potato planting field, selection last year insect pest are tighter The plot of weight is tested, and all treatment are in addition to fertilizer, and other management are consistent.
3rd, for examination Potato Cultivars:Middle potato 2.
4th, experimental design:
In potato planting field, 3 treatment are set, each 3 repetition for the treatment of sets experiment small using randomized block experiment method Area, each cell 150m2
(1)For examination fertilizer and method of application:Treatment 1 is not applied fertilizer, and universal composite organic-inorganic fertilizer is applied in treatment 2(It is organic Matter content 23%, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium total nutrient 16%), treatment 3 is using the potato special fertilizer described in the embodiment of the present invention 9, potato The preparation method of special fertilizer is 60kg/ mus, treatment 2 using the method described in embodiment 12, treatment 2 and 3 total fertilization amounts for the treatment of It is with the fertilization mode for the treatment of 3 and takes 2/3 and make base manure, ditch before potato seedling growth is transplanted and applied, residue 1/3 is 30 days after potato emerges Spreaded manuer in holes with reference to pouring water.During potato growth, not dispenser preventing and treating during fertility, in addition to fertilising, each cell is using identical Mode manage.
(2)Investigation method:In potato harvest, using whole district's investigation method, worm potato number is recorded, calculate worm potato rate, worm Potato rate(%)=worm potato number/total potato number × 100%, the results are shown in Table 2.
5th, result of the test:
The potato potato wedges insect pest result of the test of table 2.
From result, compared with universal composite organic-inorganic fertilizer is applied, horse is significantly reduced using special fertilizer of the present invention The worm potato rate of bell potato, improves the quality of potato.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of potato special fertilizer, it is characterised in that it is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:
Castor bean meal 5-10;Tea seed cake 20-25;Fresh Enteromorpha 7-9;
Silkworm excrement 110-120;Fish gill 33-40;Snail shell 15-17;
Fish pond mud 15-20;Gumbo stalk 10-15;Azedarach 1-3;
Pepper 4-5;Yak hair hydrolysate 12-15;EST microbial inoculums 1-2;Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract 0.5-1.5;Calcium superphosphate 15-20;Sulfuric acid Potassium 60-65;
Urea 25-35;Appropriate amount of water.
2. potato special fertilizer according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described azedarach is amargosa, China tree One or two in root skin.
3. potato special fertilizer according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract is to be with Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis root Raw material, is extracted by methyl alcohol or ethanol and obtained, and preparation method is as follows:Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis root after drying is crushed, and is crossed and is mixed, by weight body Product compares 1:15-25 is to the ethanol that methyl alcohol or 75-85% are added in mixed raw material, ultrasonic extraction 2-3 times, ultrasonic temperature 40-45 DEG C, ultrasonic 4-6h, then supernatant is taken with 4000-6000rpm centrifugations 20-30min, merging supernatant, the supernatant after merging subtracts Relative density is the concentrate of 1.35-1.55 when pressure is concentrated into 60-65 DEG C, and spray drying treatment obtains final product Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract.
4. potato special fertilizer according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described yak hair hydrolyzate is according to such as lower section It is prepared by method:Volume ratio yak hair by weight:Hydrochloric acid=1:1.5-2 is the hydrochloric acid solution of 4-6M to concentration is added in yak hair, After hydrolyzing 1.5-2h at 100-110 DEG C, cooling adjusts pH to 9.5-10, then the alkaline egg for being added to 0.4-0.7% with ammoniacal liquor White enzyme, is incubated 8-10h at 50-60 DEG C, and heat up the enzyme that goes out, cooling, and pH to neutrality is adjusted with alkali lye, and spray drying obtains yak hair Hydrolysate.
5. potato special fertilizer according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the weight proportion of each raw material is:
Castor bean meal 8;Tea seed cake 20;Fresh Enteromorpha 8;
Silkworm excrement 118;The fish gill 35;Snail shell 17;
Fish pond mud 16;Gumbo stalk 13;Azedarach 2;
Pepper 4;Yak hair hydrolysate 14;EST microbial inoculums 1.5;
Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract 1.2;Calcium superphosphate 16;Potassium sulfate 60;
Urea 25;Appropriate amount of water.
6. a kind of preparation method of potato special fertilizer as described in claim 1-5 any one, it is characterised in that its step It is as follows:
(1)Snail shell is taken, is dried or is dried, crushed, cross 80-120 mesh sieves, obtain final product snail shell powder, it is standby;
(2)Fresh Enteromorpha is taken, 1 is compared by material water quality:4-6 adds water homogenate, obtains final product Enteromorpha homogenate, standby;
(3)Gumbo stalk is taken, is crushed, 0.4cm is less than to grain diameter, it is standby;
(4)Pepper and azedarach are crushed respectively, crosses 80-100 mesh sieves, mix to obtain mixed powder, added water to water logging and do not have mixed powder, boiled 0.8-1.5h is cooked by slow fire after boiling again, is cooled down, filtering obtains filter residue and filtrate, standby;
(5)By step(4)The filter residue for obtaining and castor bean meal, tea seed cake, fish pond mud, silkworm excrement, the fish gill, snail shell powder, Enteromorpha slurry Liquid and gumbo stalk are well mixed, then are added to EST microbial inoculums and are sufficiently stirred for, and obtain compound;It is suitable to being added in compound Amount water, moisture puts into fermentation vat after reaching 38-50% into compound, and fermentation temperature is controlled at 25-55 DEG C, when in compound When heart temperature rises to 50-55 DEG C, stirring cooling is carried out, fermented 15-20 days, obtain final product the material that becomes thoroughly decomposed;
(5)By step(4)The filtrate for obtaining and calcium superphosphate, potassium sulfate, urea, Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis alcohol extract, yak hair hydrolysate and corruption Ripe material is well mixed, granulation, obtains the fertiliser granulates that particle diameter is 2.8-3.5mm, dries, and to moisture≤8%, obtains final product Ma Ling Potato special fertilizer.
7. a kind of application process of potato special fertilizer as described in claim 1-5 any one, it is characterised in that the fertilizer As base manure and administration of topdressing during potato planting, its application process is:Total dose is 60-100 kg/ mus, base manure It is 2 with the amount of application for topdressing:1, basal dressing during sowing topdresses once for 30-33 days after emerging.
CN201710201542.9A 2017-03-30 2017-03-30 A kind of potato special fertilizer and its preparation and application process Pending CN106831202A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108440168A (en) * 2018-06-22 2018-08-24 山东三方化工集团有限公司 A kind of bio-organic fertilizer and preparation method thereof for the plantation of potato continuous cropping
CN109748713A (en) * 2017-11-08 2019-05-14 山东沃科奇实业有限公司 A kind of amino acid controlled release synergy organic fertilizer and preparation method thereof containing rubbish from cooking
CN109748714A (en) * 2017-11-08 2019-05-14 山东沃科奇实业有限公司 A kind of potato bio-organic fertilizer special and preparation method thereof containing silkworm excrement
CN109748715A (en) * 2017-11-08 2019-05-14 山东沃科奇实业有限公司 A kind of compound nutritional organic fertilizer of the decomposed solution containing animal hair and preparation method thereof

Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103553841A (en) * 2013-11-19 2014-02-05 山东省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所 Special fertilizer for tuberiferous plant, and preparation method thereof

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103553841A (en) * 2013-11-19 2014-02-05 山东省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所 Special fertilizer for tuberiferous plant, and preparation method thereof

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109748713A (en) * 2017-11-08 2019-05-14 山东沃科奇实业有限公司 A kind of amino acid controlled release synergy organic fertilizer and preparation method thereof containing rubbish from cooking
CN109748714A (en) * 2017-11-08 2019-05-14 山东沃科奇实业有限公司 A kind of potato bio-organic fertilizer special and preparation method thereof containing silkworm excrement
CN109748715A (en) * 2017-11-08 2019-05-14 山东沃科奇实业有限公司 A kind of compound nutritional organic fertilizer of the decomposed solution containing animal hair and preparation method thereof
CN108440168A (en) * 2018-06-22 2018-08-24 山东三方化工集团有限公司 A kind of bio-organic fertilizer and preparation method thereof for the plantation of potato continuous cropping

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