CN106772778B - Thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber - Google Patents

Thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106772778B
CN106772778B CN201611153286.2A CN201611153286A CN106772778B CN 106772778 B CN106772778 B CN 106772778B CN 201611153286 A CN201611153286 A CN 201611153286A CN 106772778 B CN106772778 B CN 106772778B
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fibre core
interior
refractive index
core
inner cladding
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CN201611153286.2A
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CN106772778A (en
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曹涧秋
刘文博
奚小明
孔令超
王泽锋
陈金宝
陆启生
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中国人民解放军国防科学技术大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of thermotropic super large mode field optical fibers, it is therefore an objective to solve the problems, such as that fibre core numerical aperture reduces limited and big manufacture difficulty problem.Thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber is made of fibre core and covering, and the refractive index of core material increases as the temperature increases;Fibre core includes interior fibre core and outer fibre core, and interior fibre core is located at the center of outer fibre core, and the refractive index of interior fibre core is less than or equal to the refractive index of outer fibre core;Mixed with gain media in interior fibre core;Gain media is free of in outer fibre core;Interior core diameter is more than or equal to 20 microns, and the ratio of interior core diameter and outer core diameter is less than or equal to 50%;Gain media, including inner cladding and surrounding layer are free of in covering;Surrounding layer wraps up inner cladding, and inner cladding wraps up outer fibre core;The refractive index of inner cladding is less than the refractive index of outer fibre core;The refractive index of surrounding layer is less than the refractive index of inner cladding.Fibre core numerical aperture further reduces in the present invention, and manufacture difficulty reduces, and alleviates cladding light and filter out pressure.

Description

Thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber

Technical field

The present invention relates to field of laser device technology.More particularly to it is a kind of based on fuel factor realization waveguiding structure, and can be real Existing super large mould field laser output, the simple Active Optical Fiber of manufacture craft.

Background technique

Optical fiber laser has the characteristics that light weight, compact-sized, the service life is long, good beam quality, strong antijamming capability, The fields such as communication, sensing, machining, medical treatment, scientific research and defense military have a wide range of applications.In particular in recent years The rapid development of optical fiber laser power level, the application range of optical fiber laser are also constantly being expanded, concerned degree It is higher and higher.Although the power level of optical fiber laser has the development advanced by leaps and bounds, 10kW magnitude is reached.But it is single The power level of optical fiber laser further promotes the limitation being still to by nonlinear effect, and super large mode field optical fiber is to alleviate this The effective way of one power limit.

Super large mode field optical fiber is to refer to support super large mould field light field (generally, mode field diameter should be greater than being equal to 30 microns) The optical fiber of transmission is used for optical fiber laser frequently as doped gain fiber, to generate the laser light field with super large mould field.Super large Mould field optical fiber is the mode field diameter or area by increasing light field, the nonlinear effect threshold value in Lai Tisheng optical fiber laser, from And realize the inhibition of nonlinear effect.The key of super large mode field optical fiber is how while increasing mode field area, reduces defeated The mode quantity of light field out, to guarantee the beam quality of output light field.Why this is crucial, is because increasing mould field face Product, it is necessary to increase the diameter of fiber core, and the normalized frequency that the increase of core diameter just will increase fibre core (is proportional to fibre The product of core diameter and numerical aperture, normalized frequency is bigger, and the mode that light field is transmitted in fibre core is more), this will lead to output The increase of light field mode quantity, influences the beam quality of light field.At this stage, realize that there are mainly two types of schemes for super large mode field optical fiber. First is that reducing the numerical aperture of fibre core, that is, the refringence between fibre core and covering is reduced, thus guaranteeing normalization frequency Under the premise of rate or mode quantity are met the requirements, increase core diameter, to realize the increase of mode field area.But, by technique It is limited, the numerical aperture of fibre core cannot be reduced infinitely, and the minimum numerical aperture realized at this stage is 0.028, and corresponding fibre core is straight Diameter is about 30~40 microns.Another scheme is introducing micro-structure (such as: the micron dimension aperture of periodic arrangement) in a fiber, with Increase the loss of higher order mode or the gain of low step mode, to realize the control of output light field mode.It is real based on this scheme Existing super large mode field optical fiber type is more, such as leakage channel optical fiber, chiral doped core optical fiber, large-spacing photonic crystal fiber, benefit With this scheme, mode field diameter can increase to 50~100 microns.But, the fibre-optical microstructure design comparison of this scheme is multiple Miscellaneous, complex manufacturing technology brings difficulty for the engineering production of optical fiber.

Summary of the invention

The technical problem to be solved by the present invention is to solve the problems, such as that fibre core numerical aperture reduces limited in the first scheme, Under the premise of not introducing micro-structure, increase the core diameter of optical fiber, to solve to cause in second scheme because introducing micro-structure The big problem of manufacture difficulty.

To solve the technical problem, novel super large mode field optical fiber disclosed by the invention is a kind of based on fuel factor generation wave The super large mode field optical fiber of guide structure, the optical fiber are made of fibre core and covering.It is required that the refractive index of the core material of the optical fiber with The increase of temperature and increase.

Fibre core includes interior fibre core and outer fibre core, and interior fibre core and outer fibre core are all round, and interior fibre core is located in outer fibre core The heart, the refractive index of interior fibre core are less than or equal to refractive index (preferably, the difference of interior fiber core refractive index and outer fiber core refractive index of outer fibre core Not less than 0.0001).Mixed with gain media in interior fibre core, gain media is to refer to generate light field and can be realized light field to be excited The particle or element of amplification, such as: erbium, ytterbium, thulium, holmium, praseodymium, rubidium, bismuth, it is desirable that gain media can be by absorbing pump light, in spy Population inversion is realized between fixed two energy levels, and is generated and swashed using induced transition process of the particle between the two energy levels Light can generate heat based on Excited state effect while generating laser.Gain media is free of in outer fibre core.Interior fibre core Diameter should be greater than being equal to 20 microns (preferably, should be greater than being equal to 30 microns), and the ratio of interior core diameter and outer core diameter is answered Less than or equal to 50%.It is noted herein that interior fibre core is bigger, the ratio of interior core diameter and outer core diameter is smaller, outside The diameter of fibre core is bigger, correspondingly, the diameter of final optical fiber entirety cross section is also bigger.Therefore, interior core diameter and interior fibre Core diameter can be chosen with the two parameters of the ratio of outer core diameter under conditions of drawing process allows.

Gain media, including inner cladding and surrounding layer are free of in covering.Surrounding layer wraps up inner cladding, and inner cladding package is outer fine Core.The refractive index of inner cladding is less than the refractive index of outer fibre core, it is preferable that outer fibre core (is equal to relative to the numerical aperture of inner cladding The square root of the difference of two squares of the refractive index and inner cladding refractive index of outer fibre core) it is less than or equal to 0.2.The refractive index of surrounding layer is less than interior The refractive index of covering, it is preferable that the numerical aperture (refractive index and cladding refractive index of inner cladding of the inner cladding relative to surrounding layer The difference of two squares square root) should be greater than be equal to 0.2.Inner cladding is used for the transmission of pump light, and inner cladding cross-sectional can be round, D Type, regular polygon, in order to promote absorption of the interior fibre core for pump light, preferably well known D type structure is (such as: document " Optimized absorption in a chaotic double-clad fiber amplifier " (chaos double clad light The absorption of fiber amplifier optimizes), author: Val é rie Doya, Olivier Legrand and Fabrice Mortessagne, out Place: Optics Letters, 2001,26 (12), 872-874)) Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and the second segment of page 873 in about " D- The description of shaped inner cladding " (D type inner cladding)) or regular polygon (preferably, regular hexagon, octagon) Structure.

Optionally, profile pump coupled structure can also be used i.e. in surrounding layer in super large mode field optical fiber disclosed in this invention The multimode fibre that K and inner cladding optical contact are added should be as transmission line, K is pumped less than or equal to [π (1+R1/r1)] Natural number, wherein R1It is inner cladding diameter (if inner cladding cross-sectional is circle, for round diameter;If inner cladding cross-sectional Then it is D type or regular polygon circumscribed circle diameter for D type or regular polygon), r1For the minimum core diameter of multimode fibre, pumping The process that light transmits in multimode fibre is coupled in inner cladding by optical contact (such as evanescent wave coupling), and is pumped interior fine Gain media in core, to generate laser.Specific structure can be used but be not limited to side disclosed in patent 2011102505933 Multi fiber composite structure (the Multi-Fiber of pumping optical fiber structure or United States Patent (USP) US7660034 and US7221822 Arrangement)。

The principle of the present invention is to generate waveguiding structure using the fuel factor in interior fibre core, to break numerical value in existing scheme The light field transmission of super large mode field area is realized in the limitation in aperture.Concrete principle is: due in interior fibre core mixed with gain media, it is interior After gain media in fibre core absorbs pump light, while generating laser, since well known Excited state is (with absorption pump light The increase of energy and increase) presence, can also generate heat (referred to as heat load).So that the temperature of interior fibre core is greater than outer fibre The temperature of core and interior surrounding layer (because being free of gain media in outer fibre core and interior surrounding layer, would not also generate heat, therefore its Temperature should be determined by ambient temperature), this spreads temperature outward via outer fibre core and interior surrounding layer from interior fibre core, thus Produce the heat distribution that temperature is gradually reduced from interior core centre to surrounding layer.Due to fiber optic materials refractive index with temperature liter High and increase, the high temperature of interior fibre core will make the refractive index of interior fibre core higher than the refractive index of outer fibre core, so as to form new Waveguiding structure (referred to as thermotropic waveguiding structure).Therefore, even if the optical fiber is not at no heat load (generating laser), interior fibre core Refractive index be less than outer fibre core refractive index (light field can not be constrained in interior fibre core at this time, also referred to as anti-waveguiding structure is shown in figure 1);When the optical fiber is for when generating laser, the thermotropic waveguiding structure that the heat load in interior fibre core generates can equally to make interior fibre The refractive index of core is greater than the refractive index (see Fig. 2) of outer fibre core, transmits so that the laser of generation be constrained in interior fibre core.Due to this Kind of waveguiding structure is caused by the heat load generated as gain media in interior fibre core, and the heat load is related with Pumping light absorption, It therefore, can be negative to adjust the heat in interior fibre core by adjusting Pumping light absorption (can be used but be not limited to change pumping light power) It carries, and then adjusts thermotropic waveguiding structure (refringence including interior fibre core Yu outer fibre core);When due to there is no temperature rise, interior fibre core Therefore using the principle, arbitrarily small interior fibre core numerical aperture may be implemented in the refractive index that refractive index is less than or equal to outer fibre core (being defined as the square root of the difference of two squares of interior fibre core mean refractive index and surrounding layer mean refractive index, see Fig. 2), to break existing There is scheme for the limitation of fibre core numerical aperture, promote core diameter further, realizing has the laser of super large mould field Output.

Technical effect of the invention:

1, waveguiding structure (i.e. thermotropic waveguiding structure) is generated using fuel factor, broken in existing scheme for fibre core numerical value The limitation in aperture, so that interior fibre core numerical aperture is further reduced;It is real so as to while control model quantity The expansion and the output of super large mould field laser of existing light field mode field diameter.

2, outer fibre core reduces the manufacture difficulty of the optical fiber.This is because to realize thermotropic wave if being added without surrounding layer Guide structure just need interior fibre core refractive index be less than inner cladding refractive index (because if without outer fibre core, interior fibre core will be by interior Covering package), this, which equally exists the refractive index faced in existing scheme, reduces limited problem.Pass through outer fibre core in the present invention Structure design, improves the refractive index benchmark of interior fibre core, requirement of the invention can be met without too low refractive index, To reduce the manufacture difficulty of optical fiber.

3, another effect for introducing outer fibre core is to alleviate cladding light to filter out pressure.In optical fiber laser, in order to eliminate Influence of the remnant pump light for signal light output, needs the filtering pump light before signal light output.Since pump light is in light It is transmitted in fine inner cladding, therefore pump light, which filters out, to be realized by filtering out cladding light.For heat disclosed in this invention It causes for super large mode field optical fiber, when pump light is weaker, when the pump light of absorption is less, since the heat that Excited state generates just compares Less, this will lead to thermotropic waveguiding structure and is not enough to constrain in signal light field in interior fibre core, at this point, signal light field will be inside Fibre core external diffusion.If the signal light field of these diffusions will enter inner cladding without outer fibre core, when cladding light filters out, It can be filtered out together with pump light.Its result not only affects the transmission of signal light field, also adds the light field power filtered out, filter Except the increase of power will lead to the temperature rise increase that cladding light filters out position, to increase the heat management pressure that cladding light filters out position Power.And the introducing of outer fibre core, independent transmission channel is provided for the signal light field of diffusion, this not only eliminates cladding light and filters out Influence for signal optical transport, but also (i.e. cladding light filters out the object that does not filter out in referred to as cladding light of this part signal light What is mainly filtered out is pump light), alleviate the pressure that cladding light filters out.

4, super large mode field optical fiber disclosed in this invention does not use micro-structure, and this reduces the manufacture difficulties of optical fiber.

Detailed description of the invention

Fig. 1 is the cross-sectional structure schematic diagram of the thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber of present invention when not having heat load.

Fig. 2 is a kind of possible cross-sectional structure schematic diagram of the thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber of the present invention there are when heat load.

Fig. 3 is the cross-sectional structure schematic diagram of the thermotropic super large mould field optical fiber embodiments one of the present invention.

Fig. 4 is the cross-sectional structure schematic diagram of the thermotropic super large mould field optical fiber embodiments two of the present invention.

Specific embodiment

Fig. 1 is when not having heat load, and the cross-sectional structure schematic diagram of the thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber of the present invention, arrow indicates folding The positive direction of rate n is penetrated, right side solid line indicates index distribution.Optical fiber includes fibre core 10 and covering 20.The refraction of 10 material of fibre core Rate increases as the temperature increases.

Fibre core 10 includes interior fibre core 11 and outer fibre core 12, and the cross section of interior fibre core 11 and outer fibre core 12 is all round, and interior Fibre core 11 is located at the center of outer fibre core 12, and the refractive index of interior fibre core 11 is less than or equal to refractive index (preferably, the interior fibre of outer fibre core 12 0.0001) difference of the refractive index of core 11 and the refractive index of outer fibre core 12 should be less than.Mixed with gain media, outer fibre in interior fibre core 11 Gain media is free of in core 12.The diameter ratio of interior fibre core 11 and outer fibre core 12 should be less than 50%, and interior core diameter should be greater than In 20 microns (preferably, should be greater than being equal to 30 microns).

Gain media, including inner cladding 21 and surrounding layer 22 are free of in covering 20.Surrounding layer 22 wraps up inner cladding 21, interior packet The 21 outer fibre core 12 of package of layer.The refractive index of inner cladding 21 should be less than the refractive index of outer fibre core 12, it is preferable that outer fibre core 12 relative to The numerical aperture of inner cladding 21 should be less than being equal to 0.2.The refractive index of surrounding layer 22 should be less than the refractive index of inner cladding 21, preferably Ground, inner cladding 21 should be greater than being equal to 0.2 relative to the numerical aperture of surrounding layer 22.Inner cladding 21 is used for the transmission of pump light, is Absorption of the fibre core 11 for pump light in promoting, inner cladding 21 preferred D type structure or regular polygon (preferably, regular hexagon, Octagon) structure.

Fig. 2 is a kind of possible cross-sectional structure schematic diagram of the thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber of the present invention there are when heat load, arrow Head indicates the positive direction of refractive index n, and right side solid line indicates index distribution.As described in preceding principle, the gain media of interior fibre core 11 During generating laser, due to Excited state effect generate heat, thermal diffusion as a result, temperature can be made by interior fibre core 11 The outside monotonic decreasing in center.Since the refractive index of fibre core 10 increases as the temperature rises, the high temperature of interior fibre core 11 will So that the refractive index of interior fibre core 11 is higher than the refractive index of outer fibre core 12, so as to form thermotropic waveguiding structure.Covering is assumed in Fig. 2 20 refractive index is also to increase as the temperature rises, and therefore, the refractive index of inner cladding 21 and surrounding layer 22 is passed from inside to outside Subtract.But, larger relative to the numerical aperture of surrounding layer 22 due to inner cladding 21, the influence of thermotropic variations in refractive index is by comparison It can ignore, therefore the thermotropic variations in refractive index of 20 material of covering will not have an impact effect of the invention.

As long as specific particle or element are to this in addition, the present invention claims gain medias can generate laser and heat The effect of invention (generation of i.e. thermotropic waveguiding structure) influences little.Meanwhile the diameter of inner cladding, surrounding layer only will affect It is little to influential effect of the invention to the coupling and transmission of pump light, in the range of technique license, in combination with pump light source Characterisitic parameter flexible setting therefore do not need to provide index of correlation in the embodiment that table 1 provides.Meanwhile interior packet in table 1 Layer is 0.46 relative to the maximum value that the numerical aperture of surrounding layer provides, this is mostly in reference to common outsourcing layer at this stage Refractive index still meets requirement of the invention, to of the invention if inner cladding is greater than 0.46 relative to the numerical aperture of surrounding layer Effect does not influence.

Embodiment one

Fig. 3 gives one embodiment of the present of invention (the 37th embodiment of corresponding table 1), and arrow indicates refractive index n's Positive direction, right side solid line indicate index distribution.11 diameter of interior fibre core that the embodiment is selected is 30 microns, is mixed in interior fibre core 11 Some gain medias are erbium ion and ytterbium ion, and outer 12 diameter of fibre core is 150 microns, the refractive index of outer fibre core 12 and interior fibre core 11 Refractive index it is equal.Inner cladding 21 uses regular hexagon structure, and inscribed circle diameter is 400 microns, and outer fibre core 12 is relative to interior The numerical aperture of covering 21 is 0.1.Surrounding layer 22 is circle, and inner cladding 21 is 0.46 relative to the numerical aperture of surrounding layer 22.

The 864 kinds of embodiments provided in table 1 all can achieve desired effect of the invention, i.e., real using thermotropic waveguiding structure The laser output of existing super large mould field.

Embodiment two

Fig. 4 gives another embodiment (the 527th embodiment of corresponding table 1) of the invention, what which selected Interior 11 diameter of fibre core is 50 microns, in interior fibre core 11 mixed with gain media be ytterbium ion, outer 12 diameter of fibre core is 125 microns, The refractive index of outer fibre core 12 is less than the refractive index of interior fibre core 11, and the difference of the two is 0.00005.Inner cladding 21 uses octagon Structure, and inscribed circle diameter is 250 microns, inner cladding 21 is 0.15 relative to the numerical aperture of outer fibre core 12.In surrounding layer 22 Inside include a root multimode fiber 23,23 fibre core of multimode fibre is circle, and diameter is 250 microns, and with 21 optical contact of inner cladding. Surrounding layer 22 is circle, and inner cladding 21 is 0.35 relative to the numerical aperture of surrounding layer 22.

In the surrounding layer that table 1 provides example structure, the multimode fibre of K root fibre core and inner cladding optical contact is added, Also it can reach desired effect.

1 embodiment of table summarizes

Claims (11)

1. a kind of thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber, it is characterised in that thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber is made of fibre core and covering, it is desirable that fine The refractive index of core material increases as the temperature increases;
Fibre core includes interior fibre core and outer fibre core, and interior fibre core and outer fibre core are all round, and interior fibre core is located at the center of outer fibre core, interior The refractive index of fibre core is less than or equal to the refractive index of outer fibre core;Mixed with gain media in interior fibre core;Gain media is free of in outer fibre core; Interior core diameter is more than or equal to 20 microns;The ratio of interior core diameter and outer core diameter is less than or equal to 50%;The increasing of interior fibre core Beneficial medium during generating laser, due to Excited state effect generate heat and thermal diffusion as a result, making temperature by interior The outside monotonic decreasing in the center of fibre core, the high temperature of interior fibre core make the refractive index of interior fibre core higher than the refractive index of outer fibre core, thus Form thermotropic waveguiding structure;
Gain media, including inner cladding and surrounding layer are free of in covering;Surrounding layer wraps up inner cladding, and inner cladding wraps up outer fibre core; The refractive index of inner cladding is less than the refractive index of outer fibre core;The refractive index of surrounding layer is less than the refractive index of inner cladding.
2. thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that the interior fiber core refractive index and outer fibre core are rolled over The difference of rate is penetrated less than 0.0001.
3. thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that the gain media is to refer to generate light Field simultaneously can be realized particle or element that light field is excited amplification, it is desirable that gain media can be by absorbing pump light, specific two Population inversion is realized between a energy level, and generates laser using induced transition process of the particle between the two energy levels, While generating laser, heat can be generated based on Excited state effect.
4. thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber as claimed in claim 3, it is characterised in that the gain media refer to erbium, ytterbium, thulium, holmium, Praseodymium, rubidium, bismuth.
5. thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that it is micro- that the interior core diameter is more than or equal to 30 Rice.
6. thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that number of the outer fibre core relative to inner cladding It is worth aperture and is less than or equal to 0.2.
7. thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that number of the inner cladding relative to surrounding layer It is worth aperture and is more than or equal to 0.2.
8. thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that the inner cladding cross-sectional is round or D type Or regular polygon.
9. thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber as claimed in claim 8, it is characterised in that the inner cladding cross-sectional is using D type or just Polygon.
10. thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber as claimed in claim 9, it is characterised in that the inner cladding cross-sectional uses just more Side shape is regular hexagon or octagon.
11. thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that super large mode field optical fiber uses profile pump coupling Structure is closed, the profile pump coupled structure refers to that the multimode fibre that K and inner cladding optical contact are added in surrounding layer is made To pump transmission line, K is less than or equal to [π (1+R1/r1)] natural number, R1For inner cladding diameter, even inner cladding is transversal Face is circle, then R1For round diameter, if inner cladding cross-sectional is D type or regular polygon, R1It is external for D type or regular polygon Circular diameter, r1For the minimum core diameter of multimode fibre.
CN201611153286.2A 2016-12-14 2016-12-14 Thermotropic super large mode field optical fiber CN106772778B (en)

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