CN106735612B - A method of improving gear honing processing - Google Patents

A method of improving gear honing processing Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106735612B
CN106735612B CN201611149828.9A CN201611149828A CN106735612B CN 106735612 B CN106735612 B CN 106735612B CN 201611149828 A CN201611149828 A CN 201611149828A CN 106735612 B CN106735612 B CN 106735612B
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gear
tooth
honing
sections
honing wheel
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CN106735612A (en
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林家春
张轩
石照耀
于渤
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Beijing University of Technology
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Beijing University of Technology
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23FMAKING GEARS OR TOOTHED RACKS
    • B23F19/00Finishing gear teeth by other tools than those used for manufacturing gear teeth
    • B23F19/05Honing gear teeth

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of methods of improvement gear honing processing, belong to gear mechanism manufacturing field.The present invention will not have the top sword engaged section of application to be applied in raker tooth gear honing processing method, realize the secondary skin processing of the root portions flank of tooth, improve surface quality.Tooth top preprocessing and tooth top tip relief or chamfered edge can also be carried out, the function of gear honing machining tool is increased.The processing quality of gear can be improved in this method, reduces processing cost.

Description

A method of improving gear honing processing
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of methods of improvement gear honing processing, belong to gear mechanism manufacturing field.
Background technique
Gear honing processing technology is a kind of Hardened gear face method for fine finishing.Its principle is to be engaged using honing wheel with processed gear The pressure that generates when movement and relative sliding velocity are realized.The entire motion process of gear honing is similar to shaving, difference It is that gear honing is that have the indefinite cutting edge of geometry using cutter similar with roll flute.The precision of gear honing can achieve 6 ~7 grades.
Gear honing can be divided into external toothing gear honing and internal messing gear honing, and external toothing gear honing can be divided into external tooth honing wheel gear honing and snail again Rod honing wheel gear honing.External tooth honing wheel plover tooth process is high-efficient, at low cost, and it is excellent that gear honing machine tool structure is simple and convenient to operate etc. Point, but have the shortcomings that two it is fatal, first, profile accuracy cannot be improved, and generate concave tooth form;Second, honing wheel is kept Precision Time is short.Gear honing process is not in the surface defects such as grinding burning and crack since cutting speed is lower, therefore gear honing The flank of tooth crossed has preferable flank of tooth integrality.Meanwhile gear honing can reduce the residual stress generated when heat treatment, increase surface Compression extends the service life of gear.Texture caused by gear honing is aperiodic microstructure, reduces gear engagement Noise in the process increases the stationarity of work.With the development of electroplating CBN technology, hard matrix CBN honing wheel makes Hardened gear face gear honing technology is promoted, finishing function of the hard matrix honing wheel in addition to traditional gear honing may be implemented also makes pair Profile error, pitch error, the correction capability of tooth alignment error have obtained significantly being promoted.
In order to solve the problems, such as that external toothing gear honing generates concave tooth form, raker tooth gear honing processing method is suggested.But raker tooth It is that involute engaged section completes processing that master is to be applied in gear honing processing method, lacks utilization to top sword engaged section.
Summary of the invention
In order to further improve the quality of gear honing processing gear, gear honing is set to have more functions, the invention proposes one The method that kind improves gear honing processing gear, this method utilize two sections of top sword engagement processes in raker tooth gear honing processing method, into Row preprocessing and secondary operation complete tooth top tip relief or chamfered edge to improve flank of tooth quality.
When raker tooth gear honing is processed, honing wheel and Gear Contact point are distributed as shown in Figure 1 on the flank of tooth.Honing wheel connects with gear Contact is distributed on the flank of tooth is divided into AB sections, BC sections, CD sections;AB sections are gear top sword engagement process, are to be processed gear teeth tips Capable process is scraped in honing wheel surface.BC sections are involute helicoid engagement process, the shape by two standard involute helicoid engagements At.CD sections are honing wheel top sword engagement process, are that honing wheel tooth top in processed gear surface scrapes row.In raker tooth gear honing processing side Main to complete gear honing processing using BC sections of processes in method, AB sections and CD sections are not utilized well.Assuming that honing wheel along The direction of v in Fig. 1, that is, gear tooth width direction feed processing, BC sections are contact line of the honing wheel in current axial position, BC sections with On part be not processed also, BC sections of parts below have completed to process.The AB section contact point mark of raker tooth gear honing processing method Line is the tooth top of undressed part, carries out preprocessing using tooth top of this section to gear, reduces the processing of BC sections of processing tooth tops Surplus also can use AB sections of realization tooth top tip reliefs or chamfered edge function, increase the function of raker tooth gear honing processing method.Raker tooth adds The CD section contact point trace of work method is the flank of tooth of the close tooth root of machined part, can use this section and completes this part tooth The secondary operation in face improves processing quality.
AB sections for processing, specific step is as follows:
Step 1.1 establishes the engagement coordinate system of spatial intersecting axis shown in Fig. 2, wherein Ss(Os-xs,ys,zs) and Sg(Og-xg,yg, zg) it is rest frame where honing wheel and gear, z respectivelysAxis and zgAxis is overlapped with the axis of honing wheel and gear respectively, Indicate static lower honing wheel and Gear axis, S1(O1-x1,y1,z1) and S2(O2-x2,y2,z2) be respectively and honing wheel and gear Connected kinetic coordinate system, z1Axis and z2Axis is overlapped with the axis of honing wheel and gear respectively, indicates the lower honing wheel of dynamic and gear Axis,WithFor the rotational angle of honing wheel and gear, rp1And rp2The respectively operating pitch radius of honing wheel and gear, λ It is the crossed axis angle of honing wheel and gear, P is the node of honing wheel and gear.There are two types of AB sections of major functions, first is that completing pre- Processing, second is that completing tooth top tip relief or chamfered edge.For both functions, the surface of honing wheel is ideal involute helicoid, spiral shell Any point phasor coordinate is expressed as on radial facingμ1And θ1It is two parameters that can arbitrarily indicate honing wheel helicoid. For the first function, the flank of tooth of gear is also ideal involute helicoid, for second of function, the flank of tooth middle section of gear Shape for ideal involute helicoid, tip portion is related to design requirement, including chamfered edge, circular arc and conic section etc. no matter Any flank of tooth, process be all it is identical, any point phasor coordinate on the flank of tooth is expressed asμ2And θ2 It is two parameters that can arbitrarily indicate gear teeth face.
Step 1.2 is by the expression formula of the honing wheel surface and gear surface that provide in step 1.1, according to spatial conjugate original Reason, two surfaces meet at the time of contact
WhereinWithFor in SgIn coordinate system on honing wheel helicoid any point phasor coordinate with it is any on gear teeth face The expression formula of point vector coordinate, can be byWithIt is obtained through coordinate transform.Variable honing wheel corner is introduced through coordinate transformThereforeTogether When engagement contact, two o'clock is overlapped, therefore has equationThis etc. Formula includes 3 equations, 6 variables.WithFor in SgIn coordinate system on honing wheel helicoid the unit normal vector of any point with The unit normal vector of any point on gear teeth face.WhereinWhen engagement contact, Two o'clock normal vector is overlapped, therefore has equationThe equation also contains 3 equations, 6 variables.Simultaneous Equations It is availableWithRelationship, by μ1122,All useIt indicates.
Step 1.3 calculates the corner of the gear met the requirements by the corner of step 1.2 honing wheel, AB sections processed Journey corresponds to oneWithArray:
Wherein(i=1~n) respectively indicates turn of honing wheel and gear in i-th group of angle data when contact is engaged Angle.This array is input in control system, makes gear honing machine according to the rule control honing wheel and gear movement in array, it is complete The preprocessing and tooth top tip relief to be completed at AB sections or chamfered edge.
CD sections for processing, specific step is as follows:
Step 2.1 establishes coordinate system, such as Fig. 2 in the way of in AB sections of procedure of processings 1.1.CD sections exist for honing wheel tooth top Gear surface scrapes row, and standard honing wheel tooth top is a crest line, and it is easy to wear that crest line scrapes row on the flank of tooth, and this method is by the honing gear teeth Top is designed to the cydariforms curve such as arc-shaped or conic section, increases its service life.In S1In coordinate system, addendum circle arc equation isξ1For the parameter of circular arc.CD sections are that honing wheel carries out secondary operation to the machined flank of tooth, this process is one The process of skin processing improves gear surface quality.Gear teeth face is ideal involute helicoid, and any point phasor coordinate is thereon
Honing wheel surface any point phasor coordinate is given in step 2.2 step 1.1 and any point vector of gear surface is sat Target expression formula, according to space meshing principle, two surfaces meet at the time of contact
WhereinFor in SgThe unit normal vector of honing wheel flank of tooth any point in coordinate system,For in SgTooth in coordinate system The unit normal vector for taking turns flank of tooth any point after solve system of equation, obtainsWithRelationship, ξ122,Entirely It uses in portionIt indicates.
Step 2.3 according to the corner of honing wheel, calculates the corner of the gear met the requirements by step 2.2, and CD section add Work process corresponds to oneWithArray:
This array is input in control system, makes gear honing machine according to the rule control honing wheel and gear fortune in array It is dynamic, complete the CD sections of gear surface finishings to be completed.
The method of improvement gear honing processing of the invention has following distinguishing feature:
1, it is processed using honing wheel top sword engagement process, improves the surface matter for being processed the Gear Root part flank of tooth Amount, increases its fatigue strength;
2, preprocessing is carried out to tooth top using gear top sword engagement process, reduces machining allowance when formal processing, from And improve the processing quality of tooth top;
3, tooth top tip relief or chamfered edge can be carried out using gear top sword engagement process, increases the function of gear honing lathe;
4, this method can also be used for the processing methods such as gear hobbing, shaving and roll flute, the cutter of use include hobboing cutter, gear shaver, Worm grinding wheel and external-gearing honing wheel.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is contact point trace on the flank of tooth in the processing of raker tooth gear honing.
Fig. 2 is that spatial intersecting axis engages coordinate system.
Specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific processing instance, the present invention will be described:
Helical gears are processed using raker tooth gear honing processing method, are processed gear parameter: normal pressure angle αn2= 20 °, normal module mn2=4, tooth number Z2=56, helixangleβ2=12 °, dextrorotation, height of teeth top ha2=4, height of teeth root hf2=5.Worm screw Shape grinding wheel parameter: normal pressure angle αn1=20 °, normal module mn1=4, head number Z1=3, helix angle γ1=8 °, dextrorotation, tooth Rise ha1=4.85, height of teeth root hf1=5.5.
AB sections for processing, specific step is as follows:
(1) coordinate system shown in Fig. 2 is established, wherein Ss(Os-xs,ys,zs) and Sg(Og-xg,yg,zg) be respectively honing wheel and Rest frame where gear, zsAxis and zgAxis is overlapped with the axis of honing wheel and gear respectively, S1(O1-x1,y1,z1) and S2 (O2-x2,y2,z2) it is the kinetic coordinate system connected with honing wheel and gear, z respectively1Axis and z2Axis respectively with honing wheel and gear Axis be overlapped,WithFor the rotational angle of honing wheel and gear, rp1And rp2The respectively operating pitch of honing wheel and gear Radius, λ are the crossed axis angles of honing wheel and gear, and P is the node of honing wheel and gear.There are two types of AB sections of major functions, first is that Preprocessing is completed, second is that completing tooth top tip relief or chamfered edge.For both functions, the surface of honing wheel is that ideal gradually opens spiral Face, any point phasor coordinate is expressed as thereonμ1And θ1It is two parameters that can arbitrarily indicate honing wheel surface. For the first function, the flank of tooth of gear is also ideal involute helicoid, for second of function, the flank of tooth middle section of gear Shape for ideal involute helicoid, tip portion is related to design requirement, including chamfered edge, circular arc and conic section etc. no matter Be it is any, process be all it is identical, any point phasor coordinate on gear teeth face is expressed asμ2And θ2 It is two parameters that can arbitrarily indicate gear surface.
(2) honing wheel surface any point phasor coordinate and gear surface any point phasor coordinate are given in step (1) Expression formula, according to space meshing principle, two surfaces meet at the time of contact
WhereinFor in SgThe unit normal vector of honing wheel flank of tooth any point in coordinate system,For in SgTooth in coordinate system The unit normal vector for taking turns flank of tooth any point, it is available after solve system of equationWithRelationship, μ11, μ22,It can all useIt indicates.
(3) corner of the gear met the requirements can be calculated according to the corner of honing wheel by step (2), AB section add Work process corresponds to oneWithArray:
This array is input in control system, makes gear honing machine according to the rule control honing wheel and gear fortune in array It is dynamic, preprocessing that AB sections to be completed and tooth top tip relief or chamfered edge can be completed.
CD sections for processing, specific step is as follows:
(1) coordinate system, such as Fig. 2 are established in the way of in AB sections of procedure of processings (1).CD sections are honing wheel tooth top in gear Row is scraped on surface, and standard honing wheel tooth top is a crest line, and crest line scrapes row on the flank of tooth and is easy to wear, and this patent is by the honing gear teeth Top is designed to arc-shaped, increases its service life.In S1In coordinate system, addendum circle arc equation isξ1For circular arc Parameter.CD sections are that honing wheel carries out secondary operation to the machined flank of tooth, this process is the process of a skin processing, is improved Gear surface quality.Gear teeth face equation is ideal involute helicoid
(2) honing wheel surface any point phasor coordinate and gear surface any point phasor coordinate are given in step (1) Expression formula, according to space meshing principle, two surfaces meet at the time of contact
WhereinFor in SgThe unit normal vector of honing wheel flank of tooth any point in coordinate system,For in SgTooth in coordinate system The unit normal vector for taking turns flank of tooth any point, it is available after solve system of equationWithRelationship, ξ122,It can all useIt indicates.
(3) corner of the gear met the requirements can be calculated according to the corner of honing wheel by step (2), CD section add Work process corresponds to oneWithArray:
This array is input in control system, makes gear honing machine according to the rule control honing wheel and gear fortune in array It is dynamic, the CD sections of gear surface finishings to be completed can be completed.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of method for improving gear honing processing, it is characterised in that: this method utilizes two sections of tops in raker tooth gear honing processing method Sword engagement process completes tooth top tip relief or chamfered edge to carry out preprocessing and secondary operation;
When raker tooth gear honing is processed, honing wheel and Gear Contact point are distributed on the flank of tooth and are divided into AB sections, BC sections, CD sections;AB sections are Gear top sword engagement process is to be processed gear teeth tips to scrape capable process in honing wheel surface;BC sections are engaged for involute helicoid Process is formed by two standard involute helicoid engagements;CD sections are honing wheel top sword engagement process, are honing wheel tooth tops in quilt Processing gear surface scrapes row;It is main to be processed using BC sections of processes completion gear honings in raker tooth gear honing processing method, AB sections and CD sections Do not utilized well;Assuming that honing wheel is processed along direction, that is, gear tooth width direction feed of v, BC sections are that honing wheel exists The contact line of current axial position, BC sections or more of part are not processed also, and BC sections of parts below have completed to process;Raker tooth The AB section contact point trace of gear honing processing method is the tooth top of undressed part, carries out pre-add using tooth top of this section to gear Work reduces the machining allowance of BC sections of processing tooth tops, also utilizes AB sections of realization tooth top tip reliefs or chamfered edge function, processes raker tooth gear honing The function of method increases;The CD section contact point trace of raker tooth processing method is the flank of tooth of the close tooth root of machined part, is utilized This section completes the secondary operation of this part flank of tooth;
AB sections for processing, specific step is as follows:
Step 1.1 establishes spatial intersecting axis engagement coordinate system, wherein Ss(Os-xs,ys,zs) and Sg(Og-xg,yg,zg) it is the top gem of a girdle-pendant respectively Rest frame where emery wheel and gear, zsAxis and zgAxis is overlapped with the axis of honing wheel and gear respectively, indicates the static lower top gem of a girdle-pendant Emery wheel and Gear axis, S1(O1-x1,y1,z1) and S2(O2-x2,y2,z2) it is that the movement connected with honing wheel and gear is sat respectively Mark system, z1Axis and z2Axis is overlapped with the axis of honing wheel and gear respectively, indicates the lower honing wheel of dynamic and Gear axis,With For the rotational angle of honing wheel and gear, rp1And rp2The respectively operating pitch radius of honing wheel and gear, λ be honing wheel with The crossed axis angle of gear, P are the nodes of honing wheel and gear;There are two types of AB sections of major functions, first is that preprocessing is completed, second is that complete At tooth top tip relief or chamfered edge;For both functions, the surface of honing wheel is ideal involute helicoid, any point on helicoid Phasor coordinate is expressed asμ1And θ1It is two parameters that can arbitrarily indicate honing wheel helicoid;For the first function Can, the flank of tooth of gear is also ideal involute helicoid, and for second of function, the flank of tooth middle section of gear is that ideal gradually opens spiral shell The shape of radial facing, tip portion is related to design requirement, including chamfered edge, circular arc and conic section etc., either any flank of tooth, Process be all it is identical, any point phasor coordinate on the flank of tooth is expressed asμ2And θ2It is any expression tooth Take turns two parameters of the flank of tooth;
Step 1.2 is by the expression formula of the honing wheel surface and gear surface that provide in step 1.1, according to space meshing principle, Two surfaces meet at the time of contact
WhereinWithFor in SgAny point phasor coordinate is sweared with any point on gear teeth face on honing wheel helicoid in coordinate system The expression formula for measuring coordinate, byWithIt is obtained through coordinate transform;Variable honing wheel corner is introduced through coordinate transformTherefore TogetherWhen engagement contact, two o'clock is overlapped, therefore has equationThe equation packet Containing 3 equations, 6 variables;WithFor in SgIn coordinate system on honing wheel helicoid any point unit normal vector and gear The unit normal vector of any point on the flank of tooth;WhereinWhen engagement contact, two o'clock Normal vector is overlapped, therefore has equationThe equation also contains 3 equations, 6 variables;Simultaneous EquationsIt obtainsWithRelationship, by μ1122,All useIt indicates;
Step 1.3 passes through the corner of step 1.2 honing wheel, calculates the corner of the gear met the requirements, AB sections of process pair Answer oneWithArray:
WhereinRespectively indicate the corner of honing wheel and gear in i-th group of angle data when contact is engaged;By this A array is input in control system, is made gear honing machine according to rule control honing wheel and gear movement in array, is completed AB sections The preprocessing and tooth top tip relief to be completed or chamfered edge;
CD sections for processing, specific step is as follows:
Step 2.1 establishes coordinate system in the way of in AB sections of procedure of processings 1.1;CD sections are scraped for honing wheel tooth top in gear surface Row, standard honing wheel tooth top are a crest lines, and crest line scrapes that row is easy to wear, and honing wheel tooth top is designed to justify by this method on the flank of tooth The cydariforms curve such as arcuation or conic section;In S1In coordinate system, addendum circle arc equation isξ1For the parameter of circular arc;CD Section is that honing wheel carries out secondary operation to the machined flank of tooth, this process is the process of a skin processing;Gear teeth face is Ideal involute helicoid, thereon any point phasor coordinate be
Honing wheel surface any point phasor coordinate and gear surface any point phasor coordinate are given in step 2.2 step 1.1 Expression formula, according to space meshing principle, two surfaces meet at the time of contact
WhereinFor in SgThe unit normal vector of honing wheel flank of tooth any point in coordinate system,For in SgThe coordinate system middle gear flank of tooth The unit normal vector of any point after solve system of equation, obtainsWithRelationship, ξ122,All use It indicates;
Step 2.3 according to the corner of honing wheel, calculates the corner of the gear met the requirements by step 2.2, CD sections processed Journey corresponds to oneWithArray:
This array is input in control system, gear honing machine is made to control honing wheel and gear movement according to the rule in array, Complete the CD sections of gear surface finishings to be completed.
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CN107127404B (en) * 2017-06-09 2018-06-29 合肥工业大学 A kind of method for improving internal honing wheel strength gear honing machining accuracy
CN107186287B (en) * 2017-07-20 2018-10-02 合肥工业大学 A method of it reducing the internal tooth strength gear honing top gem of a girdle-pendant and cuts radial load size

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CN100391671C (en) * 2004-11-12 2008-06-04 太原理工大学 Completely cutting tool for shaving and honing gear and its usage
JP5751706B2 (en) * 2011-10-26 2015-07-22 ダイハツ工業株式会社 Gear type workpiece processing method
CN103231125B (en) * 2013-05-04 2015-03-04 北京工业大学 Novel gear honing processing method
CN104759702B (en) * 2015-03-31 2017-01-11 北京工业大学 Topology shape correcting method for cylindrical gear
CN105574249B (en) * 2015-12-14 2018-08-28 北京工业大学 The grinding force model of worm grinding wheel roll flute

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