CN106723272A - A kind of baking process of disease tobacco leaf - Google Patents

A kind of baking process of disease tobacco leaf Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106723272A
CN106723272A CN201611195891.6A CN201611195891A CN106723272A CN 106723272 A CN106723272 A CN 106723272A CN 201611195891 A CN201611195891 A CN 201611195891A CN 106723272 A CN106723272 A CN 106723272A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
tobacco leaf
disease
temperature
baking
leaf
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CN201611195891.6A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
何余勇
周本国
蒋胜
罗定棋
谢良文
夏春
顾勇
莫玲
许大凤
王芳
姜超强
费正俯
Original Assignee
安徽省农业科学院烟草研究所
四川省烟草公司泸州市公司
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Priority to CN201611195891.6A priority Critical patent/CN106723272A/en
Publication of CN106723272A publication Critical patent/CN106723272A/en

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A24TOBACCO; CIGARS; CIGARETTES; SIMULATED SMOKING DEVICES; SMOKERS' REQUISITES
    • A24BMANUFACTURE OR PREPARATION OF TOBACCO FOR SMOKING OR CHEWING; TOBACCO; SNUFF
    • A24B3/00Preparing tobacco in the factory
    • A24B3/10Roasting or cooling tobacco

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of baking process of disease tobacco leaf, including harvesting disease leaf of classifying in advance, disease leaf volume pole spray, the baking preparation of disease tobacco leaf:Pre- heatable brick bed room, layering dress cigarette, subsequently into baking process:Xanthochromia demands high-temperature ignition, is rapidly heated first, and reach a high temperature the fast purpose for turning yellow, and subsequently into the fixation stage, in the dry muscle stage, finally completes the baking of disease leaf.Present invention process can efficiently control disease tobacco leaf germ reproduction and scab in baking process and expand, and reduce the loss of disease tobacco leaf, be had very important significance for improving tobacco leaf degree quality.

Description

A kind of baking process of disease tobacco leaf
Technical field
The present invention relates to tobacco flue-curing field, and in particular to a kind of baking process of leaf diseases tobacco leaf.
Background technology
Generally, normal tobacco flue-curing uses " three-stage " method for flue-curing tobacco leaves, can normally realize turning yellow, determine The yellow target for baking perfume is examined tobacco leaf in color, dry muscle stage, realization.But, after it there are leaf diseases in tobacco leaf, such as wildfire, red After the burst disease such as star disease, the measure of " robbing roasting " is often taken to reduce loss.Disease after baking is not yet concerned about at present Spot expands causes harm, and is pre-processed for postharvest disease tobacco leaf, causes tobacco leaf scab in (the particularly change of low temperature of baking stage The yellow stage) continue to expand, this is having the pertinent literature such phenomenon of report before.
Research shows, after wildfire and rust not only cause harm fresh tobacco leaf in field, and tobacco leaf is plucked to before drying still Continuing to cause harm.The lesion area of wildfire and rust there occurs significant change on dry tobacco leaf after baking, and the trend of change is The lesion area of withered spot area on dry tobacco leaf than it on fresh tobacco leaf is significantly increased, and the former increases 89.7%, the latter's increase 90.6%.This explanation, lesion area increase mainly finds out that scab expands since flavescence mid-term after baking, to fixation mid-term Stop.The mesophyll cell of changing yellow stage tobacco leaf 24 also has and possesses exuberant vitality, and colonizes in the wildfire and rust in mesophyll tissue Bacterium also also has vital activity certainly.Usually, the flavescence early stage of tobacco flue-curing is to the mid-term that turns yellow, its temperature from igniting when nature Temperature gradually rises to 33~35 DEG C, and relative humidity is controlled 95~75%.Such temperature and humidity conditions be conducive to wildfire and Rust develops.Flavescence latter temperature rises to 41~42 DEG C, yet not enough to kill the disease colonized in mesophyll tissue The original (lethal temperature of rust and prairie fire germ is all more than 50 DEG C).From this, baking after lesion area expansion, Perhaps it is exactly that germ is plucked from tobacco leaf extension is further bred to changing yellow stage, or the group around scab has been invaded during fresh tobacco leaf Knit, until changing yellow stage just shows the result of symptom.
So, the baking process of disease tobacco leaf particularly leaf diseases tobacco leaf is explored, for the baking of disease tobacco leaf, and then Reduce disease tobacco leaf loss etc. significant.
The content of the invention
The invention provides a kind of baking process of disease tobacco leaf.
The following technical scheme that the present invention is used:
A kind of baking process of disease tobacco leaf, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
(1) field is plucked, it is desirable to contral ripening degree, lesion area, scientific and reasonable harvesting disease tobacco leaf:
A, contral ripening degree:Appropriate during harvesting to reduce the maturity that disease tobacco leaf is plucked, blade reaches the journey being mature on the whole Degree can be plucked,
B, by disease severity classification pluck tobacco leaf:Control lesion area, it is desirable to which the lesion area of inferior leads is no more than 35%, middle leaf is no more than 30%, and upper leaf is no more than 35%;
(2) pole spray is compiled in classification:According to Maturity of Tobacco Leaf class and lesion area size, pole is compiled in classification, to disease tobacco leaf After compiling pole, corresponding biological agent is sprayed according to specific disease, hang after spray and in the cool the 12-24h that dries in the air;
(3) baking of disease tobacco leaf prepares:
A, cigarette-filling house's preheating:Before cigarette is filled, first cigarette-filling house is preheated in advance, temperature in barn is reached 30-33 DEG C, it is ensured that Heatable brick bed fills cigarette, breaks the environmental optima temperature of 25-30 DEG C of leaf diseases;
B, volume pole dress a heatable brick bed:Disease tobacco leaves property is poor, blade is partially thin, water content is small, using dilute thick dress a heatable brick bed strategy of volume pole;Into The tobacco leaf dress heat zone that ripe degree is high, lesion area is big, the tobacco leaf that maturity is moderate, lesion area is moderate fills middle temperature layer, undercure cigarette Leaf, lesion area tobacco leaf dress cryosphere less than normal;
(4) strategy is toasted:
A, yellowing stage:After tobacco leaf fills a heatable brick bed, skylight hole in the ground of obturaging, then high-temperature ignition, is rapidly heated, reaches a high temperature soon The purpose of flavescence, 38-39 DEG C is warmed up to after igniting by barn temperature with 1.5-2 DEG C/h of speed, and wet-bulb temperature is maintained at 38-39 DEG C, promote disease heat zone tobacco leaf flavescence 6-7 into, then be warmed up to 41-42 DEG C with 0.8-1.2 DEG C/h of speed, protect 38 DEG C of wet-bulb temperature is held, Di Peng and two canopy tobacco leaves is reached 8-9 into Huang, master pulse feels like jelly, and blade falls down, and reaches pornographic movie blue veins;
B, fixation stage:Big skylight, hole in the ground are gradually opened, hydrofuge amount is continued to increase, first with average 1.5-2 hours intensification Dry-bulb temperature is raised to 47-48 DEG C by 1 DEG C of programming rate, and wet-bulb temperature is controlled at 38 DEG C, is incubated more than 20 hours, makes cigarette muscle complete Complete to turn yellow, tobacco leaf morbidity and the bigger programming rate of the extent of injury are faster, but this stage heating-up time need to ensure 8 hours with On, prevent tobacco leaf offshoot and the roasting green grass or young crops of base portion;Dry-bulb temperature was raised to by 54-55 DEG C, wet bulb with 1-2 hours 1 DEG C of programming rate again At 38-39 DEG C, insulation 16h completes dry plate fixation to temperature control with the blade of up to full a heatable brick bed tobacco leaf;
C, dry muscle stage:Tobacco leaf change is required:Whole tobacco leaf master pulses are fully dried,
Wet and dry bulb temperature is controlled:Dry-bulb temperature is warmed up to 60 DEG C with 1 DEG C per hour, appropriate insulation fire, when tobacco leaf master pulse After purpling, then 67-68 DEG C of holding stabilization is warmed up to 1 DEG C per hour, wet-bulb temperature stabilization is at 41 DEG C -43 DEG C until baking knot Beam, dry-bulb temperature reach 68 DEG C stablize 12 hours after, check the dry muscle situation of full a heatable brick bed tobacco leaf, and the partially slow cigarette of local desiccation Leaf situation, when this part tobacco leaf reach base portion 3-4cm it is not dry when, can stop coal, maintain to remaining coal after-flame in burner hearth to stop Fire.
The actual temp of the high-temperature ignition described in step (4) is 30-33 DEG C.
The baking process of described disease tobacco leaf, it is characterised in that:The biological agent that step (2) is sprayed is selected from more than 3% and resists One or more mixing in 400 times of liquid of mycin aqua, 4% kasugarnycin wettable powder, 600 times of liquid is sprayed.
Tobacco leaf is plucked by disease severity classification during harvesting, the appropriate maturity for reducing disease leaf effectively controls scab Area increases, and can to greatest extent grasp standard of plucking, it is ensured that the tobacco leaf that can be baked is tried one's best and enters barn, reduces disease loss,
Classification compile pole, degree of disease is close, the close tobacco leaf of maturity on same pole,
Biological agent is sprayed to compiling the tobacco leaf concentration after pole, is suppressed scab and is expanded harm, reduce residues of pesticides risk, biology Medicament is in baking by high temperature degradation or volatilization;Meanwhile, hang the 12-24h that dries in the air and allow tobacco leaf under the protection of medicament, realize to a certain degree On low temperature dehydration, wilting flavescence, reduce disease tobacco leaf water content, experiment shows, in the dry tobacco leaf in do not detect it is many Antimycin or micro kasugarnycin.
Pre- heatable brick bed room, before tobacco leaf dress a heatable brick bed, makes temperature in barn reach 30-33 DEG C, and pre- thermosetting heatable brick bed is suitably improved Barn internal temperature, breaks the environmental optima temperature of 25-30 DEG C of the leaf diseases such as rust, wildfire, and suppress scab enters one Step expands.
Disease tobacco leaves property is poor, blade is partially thin, water content is small, and tobacco leaf is dilute to compile the thick dress a heatable brick bed of pole;Maturity is high, lesion area Big tobacco leaf dress heat zone, the tobacco leaf that maturity is moderate, lesion area is moderate fills middle temperature layer, and undercure tobacco leaf, lesion area are less than normal Tobacco leaf dress cryosphere.
Baking:The maturity of disease tobacco leaf is poor, and moisture is big, includes that goods and materials conversion is insufficient, and fresh tobacco leaf quality is poor, baking spy Property is poor.Take and first take water, take color, the baking strategy of high temperature flavescence afterwards, shorten the baking time of " yellowing stage ", prevent tobacco leaf disease The continuation of spot expands.Suitably reduced for disease tobacco leaf yellowing degree, two grades of offshoots of fraction tobacco leaf may be baked containing green grass or young crops, but Entirety can reduce loss.
Yellowing stage:By by traditional flavescence " before, during and after " phase boil down to turns yellow " forward and backward " phase, makes the main transformer Huang time High temperature is placed on, germ activity is reduced.Tobacco leaf change is required:Cryosphere lower tobacco leaf yellowing degree is yellow up to seven to eighty per cant;Middle and upper part Tobacco leaf yellowing degree eight to ninety percent is yellow;Full room tobacco leaf is wilting to fall down, and master pulse softens.Wet and dry bulb temperature is controlled.Take high-temperature ignition, Be rapidly heated, the strategy that high temperature turns yellow soon, barn temperature is warmed up to 38-39 DEG C with 1.5 DEG C/h of speed after igniting, it is wet Ball temperature is maintained at 37-38 DEG C, promotes disease heat zone tobacco leaf flavescence 6-7 into then being warmed up to 41-42 with 1 DEG C/h of speed DEG C, 38 DEG C of wet bulb humidity is kept, Di Peng and two canopy tobacco leaves is reached 8-9 into Huang, master pulse feels like jelly, and blade falls down, and reaches pornographic movie blue or green Muscle.
The programming rate of traditional handicraft yellowing stage is 0.5-1 DEG C/h to 36-37 degree, promotes tobacco leaf to turn yellow slowly.This work The programming rate of skill is 1.5 DEG C/h, suitably accelerates programming rate;Tobacco leaf dries in the air 12-24h in extension, has been completed part dehydration Turn yellow, temperature can be improved quickly to more than 35 DEG C at a temperature of 30-33 DEG C of dress a heatable brick bed in cigarette-filling house, effectively inhibit scab to expand Big speed, it is possible to achieve while heating up, while turns yellow, prevent disease tobacco leaf because of the too fast and roasting green grass or young crops of intensification.
Traditional handicraft dry-bulb temperature is 35 DEG C -36 DEG C, and dry-bulb temperature is properly increased 2-4 DEG C to 38-39 DEG C by this technique, is made Cigarette-filling house's temperature reaches more than 35 DEG C, and yellowing temperature is improved to 38-39 DEG C, has both met disease tobacco leaf high temperature flavescence baking property, Break preference temperature of the germ less than 35 DEG C again, further effectively suppress scab and expand.Traditional handicraft requires flavescence 7-8 into disease Tobacco leaves property is poor for evil, water content is big, intolerant to roasting, appropriate reduction yellowing degree meets disease tobacco flue-curing characteristic, can improve disease Evil baking quality of tobacco.
Tradition intensification is 0.5 DEG C/h of fast speed, and the programming rate of this technique is suitably accelerated, and can suitably shorten liter Warm process, hydrofuge speed is accelerated, and reduces consuming excessively for tobacco leaf internal substance.
The tobacco leaf of the different extents of injury, the flavescence time of 38 DEG C -39 DEG C of dry-bulb temperature and yellowing degree can be adjusted suitably, hair The serious tobacco leaf of disease can shorten the time, reduce yellowing degree;The relatively light tobacco leaf of morbidity can proper extension time, raising flavescence Degree.
The fixation stage.Tobacco leaf change is required:The blade of cryosphere tobacco leaf is absolutely dry, completes blade fixation.Wet and dry bulb temperature control System:Dry-bulb temperature is raised to 48 DEG C with 1.5-2 hours 1 DEG C of programming rate, wet-bulb temperature is controlled at 38 DEG C, insulation 20 hours with On, full room tobacco leaf reaches and dries 2/3, cigarette muscle is turned yellow completely.According to tobacco leaf morbidity and the extent of injury, 42 DEG C are raised to 48 DEG C of speed per hours Degree can suitably be accelerated, but the heating-up time at least ensures more than 8 hours, prevent tobacco leaf offshoot and the roasting green grass or young crops of base portion.With 1-2 hours 1 DEG C Programming rate dry-bulb temperature is raised to 54-55 DEG C, wet-bulb temperature is controlled at 38-39 DEG C, and steady 16h is with the leaf of up to full a heatable brick bed tobacco leaf Piece completes dry plate fixation.Extension soaking time, it is ensured that blade is absolutely dry, tobacco leaf positive and negative aberration reduces.
Dry muscle stage, tobacco leaf change is required:Whole tobacco leaf master pulses are fully dried.Wet and dry bulb temperature is controlled:Dry-bulb temperature with 1 DEG C is warmed up to 60 DEG C, 40 DEG C -41 DEG C of wet-bulb temperature, appropriate insulation fire, after tobacco leaf master pulse purpling, with 1 DEG C per hour per hour It is warmed up to 67-68 DEG C and keeps stabilization, wet-bulb temperature stabilization is at 41 DEG C -43 DEG C until baking terminates.Dry-bulb temperature reaches 68 DEG C surely After fixed 12 hours, the dry muscle situation of full a heatable brick bed tobacco leaf, and the partially slow tobacco leaf situation of local desiccation are checked.When this part tobacco leaf reaches To base portion 3cm or so it is not dry when, can stop coal, maintain to remaining coal after-flame in burner hearth to cease fire.
Beneficial effect
The present invention is being compiled by reducing maturity, control lesion area, scientific and reasonable harvesting disease tobacco leaf to disease tobacco leaf The measures such as certain density medicament scientific disposal are carried out before entering a heatable brick bed room after pole, can effectively mitigate breeding and the control disease of germ The expansion of spot.Meanwhile, certain optimization, heatable brick bed dress cigarette, to yellowing stage firing temperature are carried out to tobacco flue-curing modulation process Adjustment, creation is unsuitable for the humiture environment of germ reproduction, for reducing disease tobacco leaf germ reproduction and disease in baking process Spot expands has certain effect, has very important effect for improving tobacco leaf degree quality.
The baking process of leaf diseases tobacco leaf of the invention, has efficiently controlled disease tobacco leaf germ in baking process numerous Grow and expand with scab, reduce the loss of disease tobacco leaf, had very important significance for improving tobacco leaf degree quality.
Disease method for flue-curing tobacco leaves of the present invention and conventional tobacco workmanship baking Comparative result such as following table:
Disease tobacco leaf causes the reduction of tobacco leaf degree quality, is inevitable.By this baking process, can be to a certain extent Reduce loss ratio.
1st, on hierarchical organization.By this baking process, first-class cigarette ratio improves 4.23 percentage points, and upper medium grade cigarette ratio is carried It is high 3.08 percentage points, under 3.11 percentage points of low cigarette ratio reduction.
2nd, on scab suppresses.By this baking process, area extends 4.66mm to the scab of formed objects less after baking2, 18.74 percentage points of Spot expansion rate reduction, Spot expansion inhibiting rate reaches 18.74%.

Claims (3)

1. a kind of baking process of disease tobacco leaf, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
(1)Pluck in field, it is desirable to contral ripening degree, lesion area, scientific and reasonable harvesting disease tobacco leaf:
A, contral ripening degree:Appropriate during harvesting to reduce the maturity that disease tobacco leaf is plucked, blade reaches the degree being mature on the whole i.e. Can pluck,
B, by disease severity classification pluck tobacco leaf:Control lesion area, it is desirable to which the lesion area of inferior leads is no more than 35%, Middle leaf is no more than 30%, and upper leaf is no more than 35%;
(2)The volume pole spray of disease tobacco leaf:According to Maturity of Tobacco Leaf class and lesion area size, pole is compiled in classification, after compiling pole Disease tobacco leaf, corresponding biological agent is sprayed according to specific disease, the 12-24h that dries in the air is hung after spray and in the cool;
(3)The baking of disease tobacco leaf prepares:
A, cigarette-filling house's preheating:Before cigarette is filled, first cigarette-filling house is preheated in advance, temperature in barn is reached 30-33 DEG C, break leaf portion The environmental optima temperature of 25-30 DEG C of disease;
B, volume pole dress a heatable brick bed:Disease tobacco leaves property is poor, blade is partially thin, water content is small, using dilute thick dress a heatable brick bed strategy of volume pole;Maturity The big tobacco leaf dress heat zone of high, lesion area, the tobacco leaf that maturity is moderate, lesion area is moderate fills middle temperature layer, undercure tobacco leaf, disease Spot area tobacco leaf dress cryosphere less than normal;
(4)Baking strategy:
A, yellowing stage:After tobacco leaf fills a heatable brick bed, skylight hole in the ground of obturaging, then high-temperature ignition is rapidly heated, reach a high temperature fast flavescence Purpose, barn temperature is warmed up to 38-39 DEG C with 1.5-2 DEG C/h of speed after igniting, wet-bulb temperature is maintained at 38-39 DEG C, promote disease heat zone tobacco leaf flavescence 6-7 into, then be warmed up to 41-42 DEG C with 0.8-1.2 DEG C/h of speed, keep wet bulb 38 DEG C of temperature, makes Di Peng and two canopy tobacco leaves reach 8-9 into Huang, and master pulse feels like jelly, and blade falls down, and reaches pornographic movie blue veins;
B, fixation stage:Big skylight, hole in the ground are gradually opened, hydrofuge amount is continued to increase, is heated up 1 DEG C with average 1.5-2 hours first Programming rate dry-bulb temperature is raised to 47-48 DEG C, wet-bulb temperature is controlled at 38 DEG C, is incubated more than 20 hours, makes cigarette muscle complete Turn yellow, tobacco leaf morbidity and the bigger programming rate of the extent of injury are faster, but the heating-up time in this stage needs to ensure more than 8 hours, Prevent tobacco leaf offshoot and the roasting green grass or young crops of base portion;Dry-bulb temperature was raised to by 54-55 DEG C, wet-bulb temperature with 1-2 hours 1 DEG C of programming rate again At 38-39 DEG C, insulation 16h completes dry plate fixation with the blade of up to full a heatable brick bed tobacco leaf for control;C, dry muscle stage:Tobacco leaf change will Ask:Whole tobacco leaf master pulses are fully dried,
Wet and dry bulb temperature is controlled:Dry-bulb temperature is warmed up to 60 DEG C with 1 DEG C per hour, appropriate insulation fire, when tobacco leaf master pulse purpling Afterwards, then being warmed up to 67-68 DEG C with 1 DEG C per hour keeps stabilization, wet-bulb temperature stabilization to terminate until toasting at 41 DEG C -43 DEG C, do Ball temperature reach 68 DEG C stablize 12 hours after, check the dry muscle situation of full a heatable brick bed tobacco leaf, and the partially slow tobacco leaf feelings of local desiccation Condition, when this part tobacco leaf reach base portion 3-4cm it is not dry when, can stop coal, maintain to remaining coal after-flame in burner hearth to cease fire.
2. the baking process of disease tobacco leaf according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Step(4)Described high-temperature ignition Actual temp be 30-33 DEG C.
3. the baking process of disease tobacco leaf according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Step(2)The biological agent for being sprayed Sprayed selected from one or more mixing in 3% polyoxin aqueous solution, 400 times of liquid, 4% kasugarnycin wettable powder, 600 times of liquid.
CN201611195891.6A 2016-12-22 2016-12-22 A kind of baking process of disease tobacco leaf CN106723272A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110122913A (en) * 2019-03-27 2019-08-16 河南中烟工业有限责任公司 A kind of baking process of flue-cured tobacco cultivars Henan cigarette 6

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH11209274A (en) * 1998-01-22 1999-08-03 Bae O-Sung Smoking material for treating disease
CN104161298A (en) * 2014-09-05 2014-11-26 江西省烟草公司吉安市公司 Tobacco leaf classification curing process
CN104489892A (en) * 2014-11-21 2015-04-08 云南省烟草农业科学研究院 Method for improving baking quality of old black tobacco leaves
CN105286067A (en) * 2015-11-04 2016-02-03 云南省烟草农业科学研究院 Method for improving curing quality of tender mature-delay tobacco leaves
CN105341986A (en) * 2015-11-04 2016-02-24 云南省烟草农业科学研究院 Method for improving curing quality of tobacco leaves affected by Cold Dew
CN105686049A (en) * 2016-03-31 2016-06-22 贵州省烟草公司贵阳市公司 Method for baking tobacco leaves with mucor disease

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH11209274A (en) * 1998-01-22 1999-08-03 Bae O-Sung Smoking material for treating disease
CN104161298A (en) * 2014-09-05 2014-11-26 江西省烟草公司吉安市公司 Tobacco leaf classification curing process
CN104489892A (en) * 2014-11-21 2015-04-08 云南省烟草农业科学研究院 Method for improving baking quality of old black tobacco leaves
CN105286067A (en) * 2015-11-04 2016-02-03 云南省烟草农业科学研究院 Method for improving curing quality of tender mature-delay tobacco leaves
CN105341986A (en) * 2015-11-04 2016-02-24 云南省烟草农业科学研究院 Method for improving curing quality of tobacco leaves affected by Cold Dew
CN105686049A (en) * 2016-03-31 2016-06-22 贵州省烟草公司贵阳市公司 Method for baking tobacco leaves with mucor disease

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110122913A (en) * 2019-03-27 2019-08-16 河南中烟工业有限责任公司 A kind of baking process of flue-cured tobacco cultivars Henan cigarette 6

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