CN106702980B - Prevent the agricultural ecological drainage ditch construction method of furrow bank soil losses - Google Patents

Prevent the agricultural ecological drainage ditch construction method of furrow bank soil losses Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106702980B
CN106702980B CN201611048079.0A CN201611048079A CN106702980B CN 106702980 B CN106702980 B CN 106702980B CN 201611048079 A CN201611048079 A CN 201611048079A CN 106702980 B CN106702980 B CN 106702980B
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China
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ditches
irrigation canals
demonstration
ecological
ecological sanitation
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CN106702980A (en
Inventor
唐浩
王振旗
唐维
周翾
袁永坤
张怀春
熊丽君
鄢忠纯
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Shanghai Exposed Environment Technology Co Ltd
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Shanghai Exposed Environment Technology Co Ltd
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B11/00Drainage of soil, e.g. for agricultural purposes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/02Receptacles, e.g. flower-pots or boxes; Glasses for cultivating flowers
    • A01G9/022Pots for vertical horticulture
    • A01G9/023Multi-tiered planters
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B13/00Irrigation ditches, i.e. gravity flow, open channel water distribution systems

Abstract

A kind of agricultural ecological drainage ditch construction method preventing furrow bank soil losses, by carrying out edit to former drainage ditch, then sump is set in agricultural drain mouth and Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches junction, agricultural run-off after preliminary sedimentation, enters Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches through effluent weir in sump;On the basis of the bottom of trench to Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches boxes out solidification and the processing of furrow bank slope, consolidation process is carried out with furrow bank of the porosity Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches side plate to Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches again, and plants purifying plant in reserved plant in agricultural climate condition for corn hole of the side slope of Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches and bottom;Waterwall finally is set in eco-drainage ditch discharge outlet, farmland rainfall runoff is made to enter river after the purification of Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches.The present invention have the characteristics that it is simple and practical, avoid furrow bank soil losses, stable structure, good purification and have good landscape effect.

Description

Prevent the agricultural ecological drainage ditch construction method of furrow bank soil losses
Technical field
It is specifically a kind of to be prevented and treated for agricultural non-point source pollution the present invention relates to a kind of technology of field of environment protection , the agricultural ecological drainage ditch construction method that furrow bank soil losses can be prevented.
Background technique
Agriculture drainage ditch is the water channel that agricultural drain (flood discharge) is used for positioned at road both sides or field, and forming process is just It is the water passage that the mankind are the needs such as satisfaction production, living safety guarantee and hand digging.Drainage ditch is that a kind of mankind are living The wetlands ecosystems of semi-naturalization under the influence of dynamic have important influence to agricultural production and ecological environment, are farming regions Common landscape feature.The irrigation and drainage function of irrigation canals and ditches is the important leverage of agricultural production and ecological safety, with water environmental problems Get worse, irrigation canals and ditches water environment pollution prevention and treatment and in terms of effect start to cause to pay close attention to, become Mitigate one of effective ways of farmland non-point pollutions such as nitrogen, phosphorus and pesticide.
Research relevant to agriculture drainage ditch is in developing stage both at home and abroad, has obtained some research achievements.It is related Studies have shown that irrigation canals and ditches are to agricultural production, and it is especially extremely important to the agricultural production in impeded drainage area, it is to improve agricultural production One of effective measures of power;As water passage, sewerage affects the precipitation allocation and discharge series process in basin, and controls Make the WATER LEVEL CHANGES of Farmland;Irrigation canals and ditches have the landscape feature of river and wetland characteristics simultaneously, can be aquatic and wet Lively plant provides habitat, greatly affects the bio-diversity in region;In addition, as a kind of artificial swamp, irrigation canals and ditches can Effectively to be retained and be converted caused by agricultural production by processes such as plant absorption, sedimentation, chemical conversion and microorganism conversions Pollution of area source is to reduce one of pollution of water and the effective way of eutrophication.Correlative study shows Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches Have a good Farmland Flow Pollution object interception effect, the agricultural ecological drainage ditch system of reasonable construction to paddy field runoff TN, TP pollutant interception amount is respectively up to 1.6kg/ mus of years, 0.04kg/ mus of years, to nonirrigated farmland runoff TN, TP pollutant interception amount Respectively up to 0.9kg/ mus of years, 0.06kg/ mus of years, pollution of river burden is greatly alleviated, eutrophication wind is reduced Danger.
It sees on the whole, traditional cement backplate drainage ditch is unable to effectively catching, removes the pollutant in the rainfall runoff of farmland Matter does not have biological habitat function, and landscape quality is single, cannot form good ecological effect;The ecology row constructed at present The bright ditch tool of the relatively traditional cement of Box Drain system is greatly improved, and has not only restored irrigation canals and ditches habitat, and to agricultural run-off Pollutant has good clean-up effect.But knot is monitored to existing conventional circular hole irrigation canals and ditches side plate ecological canal long-term follow Fruit discovery, after it experienced use in several years, the effects of due to draining and flushing and immersion, irrigation canals and ditches side soil by circular hole gradually It is lost, soil is emptied after eventually leading to backplate, a large amount of soil siltation trench bottoms, while side water plant loses attachment Face, gradually withered death, loses the vitality and detergent power at irrigation canals and ditches building initial stage.
Summary of the invention
The present invention for prior art construction is unstable, service life is short, furrow bank soil is easy to run off, irrigation canals and ditches be easy siltation, The defects of maintenance management is inconvenient proposes a kind of agricultural ecological drainage ditch construction method for preventing furrow bank soil losses, has Simple and practical, stable structure avoids furrow bank soil losses, to Farmland Flow Pollution object good purification and has good scape The features such as seeing effect.
The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
Then the present invention is joined by carrying out edit to former drainage ditch in agricultural drain mouth and Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches Place's setting sump, agricultural run-off after preliminary sedimentation, enter Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches through effluent weir in sump;It is arranged to ecology The bottom of trench of Box Drain is boxed out on the basis of solidification and the processing of furrow bank slope, then with porosity Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches side plate to Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation Irrigation canals and ditches side slope carries out consolidation process, and plantation purification is planted in the reserved plant agricultural climate condition for corn hole of the side slope of Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches and bottom Object;Waterwall finally is set in Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches end, farmland rainfall runoff is made to enter river after the purification of Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches.
Technical effect
Compared with prior art, present invention selection discharge capacity is strong, nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants are amputated with high-efficient aquatic, humidogene Plant and reasonable collocation mode, construct the families of plant of ecological canal, and effectively catching can be effectively reduced, remove in agricultural run-off The polluters such as nitrogen, phosphorus restore bio-diversity, build the good ditch wetland ecosystem.Meanwhile it is relatively existing general Circular hole Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches, pellet type, combined type and venetian blind type ecological canal side plate proposed by the present invention can be solved effectively Emptied after certainly general circular hole drainage ditch side plate, soil erosion the problems such as, improve ecological canal water and soil conservation ability, preferably Plant habitat is built, irrigation canals and ditches service life is extended, provides better Farmland Flow Pollution clean-up effect, while establishing more perfect Farming landscape keeps having even more important meaning for Farmland Flow Pollution prevention and treatment and farmland ecosystem.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is pellet type (A: bowl formula pallet) Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches guard board structure figure;
In figure: a is three-view diagram;B is cross-sectional view;C is installation sectional schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 is pellet type (B: sawtooth pallet) Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches guard board structure figure;
In figure: a is three-view diagram;B is cross-sectional view;C is installation sectional schematic diagram;
Fig. 3 is venetian blind type Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches guard board structure figure;
In figure: a is three-view diagram;B is cross-sectional view;C is installation sectional schematic diagram;
Fig. 4 is combined biological drainage ditch guard board structure figure;
In figure: a is three-view diagram;B is cross-sectional view;C is installation sectional schematic diagram;D is waffle slab structural schematic diagram;
In figure: 1 side plate planter units, 2 drop stain holes, 3 ecological canal bottom implantation holes, 4PVC plant raw grid, 5PVC grid Implantation hole, 6 bottom of trench plants (hygrophyte), 7 furrow bank plants (herbaceous plant).
Specific embodiment
The present embodiment is located in the Modern Agricultural Park of Shanghai City, specifically includes the following steps:
Step 1) carries out edit, removes the former concrete revetment and bottom plate of agriculture drainage ditch.
The edit refers to: removing the bright ditch backplate and bottom plate of conventional discharge irrigation canals and ditches, it is natural to restore drainage ditch State restores plant, zootope to get through the Exchange of material and energy channel of water body and bottom of trench, furrow bank in drainage ditch;
Step 2) is arranged 1.5 meters × 1.0 meters × 0.8 meter (long × wide in agricultural drain mouth and Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches junction × it is deep) sump, sump water outlet sets the effluent weir of 0.3 × 0.1 meter (wide × deep).
The sump is sunk type rectangular parallelepiped structure, and length is 1.5-2 meters, and width is 1.0-1.2 meters, and depth is 0.8-1.0 meters, brick rear inner wall painting is smooth, so that a large amount of sand grains (SS) that agricultural drain carries are in sump It is able to precipitating removal, alleviates the processing load of ecological canal;
The effluent weir is arranged to height-adjustable, and water outlet absolute altitude and Soil surface water ordinary water level maintain an equal level, to adjust height The water outlet crest of weir of degree is conducive to adjust Soil surface water depth, is wanted with meeting field-crop in difference of the various seasons to water level It asks;
Step 3) carries out bottom of trench to trench bottom and boxes out solidification, and to the progress slope processing of irrigation canals and ditches side slope, then in side slope Carry out consolidation process.
Bottom of trench solidification of boxing out refers to: to trench bottom using eco-concrete along water (flow) direction every 0.5 meter point Solidification of boxing out Zuo You not replaced, reserve 15 centimetres of circular holes of diameter as ecological canal bottom implantation hole 3.
The slope processing refers to: slope carried out according to 60-70 ° of the gradient to irrigation canals and ditches side slope, and tamps soil, thus Good basis is provided for the processing of subsequent slope reinforcement.
As shown in Figure 1 to 4, the consolidation process refers to: the bottom of trench of Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches box out curing process and On the basis of slope tamping, porosity Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches side plate drop stain hole corresponding position place metalling, then side slope according to Order places porosity Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches side plate, and bottom of trench seam crossing is fixed using bottom beam, has time after hack is then imposed on plate At gap and in implantation hole, allow after plate soil settlement is uniform in soil and implantation hole by the way of water rammer, using rubble after 1-2 days Bear down on one, eco-concrete is reinforced, and on the basis of having the function of traditional bright ditch backplate domain slope protection, passes through bottom implantation hole and side Slope implantation hole opens up, and has restored the Exchange of material and energy channel of agricultural run-off water and irrigation canals and ditches;
The porosity Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches side plate, specific size is 1 × 0.5 meter, and (length × wide including but not limited to should Size), which includes: the plantation portion being located above and underlying drop stain portion, in which: plantation Portion is made of the side plate planter units of its setting of implantation hole and face.
Hair pulling treatment is done on the side plate lower area surface, so that microorganism adheres to biofilm, improves system purification effect Fruit.
The drop stain portion is several drop stain holes 2 composition.
The side plate planter units 1, comprising: tray-like structure as shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, shutter as shown in Figure 3 Formula structure or fabricated structure as shown in Figure 4, to be provided more on the basis of ensuring that trench architectures are stablized for irrigation canals and ditches plant More growing spaces provides habitat for aquatic animal, plants etc., and then constructs and restore the agriculture drainage ditch ecosystem, restores Bio-diversity.
The tray-like structure, comprising: bowl formula structure as shown in Figure 1 or serration type structure as shown in Figure 2, In: 8-10 centimetres of the upper opening of tray-like structure, it is 10 centimetres deep;10 centimetres of open back diameter.
The venetian blind type structure, comprising: at least two rows of venetian blind type inclined hole compositions as shown in Figure 3, the shutter 10 centimetres of the upper opening of formula structure, it is 5 centimetres high, 45 ° of gradient.
The fabricated structure, comprising: combined type backplate outline border, PVC as shown in fig. 4 a plants raw grid 4 and such as Fig. 4 d Shown in PVC grid implantation hole 5, the size that PVC plants raw grid 4 is 50 centimetres of 40 cm x (wide × high), PVC grid implantation hole It 5 assumes diamond in shape, other arbitrary structures arrangements such as hexagonal hole or flap type implantation hole, it is 3 centimetres of side length, 5 centimetres, 45 ° of gradient deep.
10 centimetres of the diameter of the metalling, it is 3-5 centimetres of partial size that rubble therein, which is located at middle section, is located at periphery Part is followed successively by 2-4 and 1-2 centimetres of partial size, so that the soil after backplate be prevented to be lost by drop stain hole 2, furrow bank is kept to stablize;
Step 4) is planted only in ecological canal bottom implantation hole 3, side plate planter units 1 and/or PVC grid implantation hole 5 Change plant, and waterwall is set in Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches discharge outlet, to keep certain water level in ditch, so that farmland rainfall runoff passes through Enter river after the purification of Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches.
The plantation purifying plant, in particular to: in the porosity Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches side plate of Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches Herbaceous plant is planted in implantation hole, it is S-type in flow direction of the bottom of Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches along runoff water in Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches Successively mixing is alternately planted all kinds of through screening hygrophyte, to construct and restore the ditch wetland ecosystem, improves farmland row The pollutant of Box Drain intercepts and detergent power, reduces pollution of area source discharge.
The herbaceous plant refers to: one of Radix Ophiopogonis, Festuca Arundinacea, rye grass or combinations thereof.
The hygrophyte refers to: one of canna, reed, Scirpus tabernaemontani, yellow flag, fishscale bamboo or Lythrum salicaria or its group It closes, every 0.5 meter of group planting object spacing.
The waterwall refers to: in high 20 centimetres of small-sized dam of Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches end setting, soil is on the spot Building maintains irrigation canals and ditches plant normal growth to keep water level in ditch.
By the monitoring for having carried out 2 years by a definite date to above-described embodiment, the results showed that the Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation constructed using the present invention Sewerage reaches 90% or more to the place to go runoff water SS rate, reaches 35% or more to the place to go rate of nitrogen, phosphorus nutrient.Meanwhile 2 years Operation result finds that soil does not outflow in bowl formula side plate planter units, and the sludge quantity of canal bottom sedimentation is protected than existing circular hole ecology Plate reduces 45% or more.As a result prove that the Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches of bowl formula side plate planter units proposed by the present invention can effectively avoid protecting Slope soil erosion, reduce Runoff contaminants enters river amount, mitigates surface water environment pollutional load.
Above-mentioned specific implementation can by those skilled in the art under the premise of without departing substantially from the principle of the invention and objective with difference Mode carry out local directed complete set to it, protection scope of the present invention is subject to claims and not by above-mentioned specific implementation institute Limit, each implementation within its scope is by the constraint of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of agricultural ecological drainage ditch construction method for preventing furrow bank soil losses, which is characterized in that by being drained to original Irrigation canals and ditches carry out edit, sump then are arranged in agricultural drain mouth and Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches junction, agricultural run-off is collecting In well after preliminary sedimentation, enter Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches through effluent weir;It boxes out solidification and ditch in the bottom of trench to Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches Wall slope processing on the basis of, then with can prevent the porosity Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches side plate of furrow bank soil losses to Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches Furrow bank carry out consolidation process, and plant purifying plant in reserved plant in agricultural climate condition for corn hole in the side slope of Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches and bottom; Water level control unit finally is set in Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches end, enters farmland rainfall runoff after the purification of Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches River;
The slope processing refers to: carrying out slope according to 60-70 ° of the gradient to irrigation canals and ditches side slope, and tamps soil;
The consolidation process refers to: on the basis of the bottom of trench of Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches boxes out curing process and slope tamping, more Drop stain portion's corresponding position of permeability Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches side plate places metalling, and furrow bank can be prevented by then sequentially placing in side slope The porosity Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches side plate of soil losses, bottom of trench seam crossing is fixed using bottom beam, after irrigation canals and ditches side plate and in implantation hole Soil rams mode using water and allows its Equalsettlement after earthing;Finally beared down on one reinforcing using rubble;
The drop stain portion is several drop stain holes composition.
2. construction method according to claim 1, characterized in that the sump is sunk type rectangular parallelepiped structure, long Degree is 1.5-2 meters, and width is 1.0-1.2 meters, and depth is 0.8-1.0 meters, and brick rear inner wall painting is smooth;Sump water outlet is set 0.3 0.1 meters of effluent weir.
3. construction method according to claim 1, characterized in that the porosity for preventing furrow bank soil losses is raw State drainage ditch side plate includes: the plantation portion being located above and underlying drop stain portion, in which: plantation portion is by implantation hole and just The side plate planter units composition for preventing furrow bank soil losses that it is arranged.
4. construction method according to claim 3, characterized in that the side plate plantation for preventing furrow bank soil losses Unit, comprising: tray-like structure, venetian blind type structure or fabricated structure.
5. construction method according to claim 4, characterized in that the tray-like structure, comprising: bowl formula structure or saw Venetian blind type structure: tooth-like structure is made of, fabricated structure includes: outside combined type backplate at least two rows of venetian blind type inclined holes Frame and PVC plant raw grid.
6. construction method according to claim 4, characterized in that the porosity Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches side plate lower region Field surface does hair pulling treatment, so that microorganism adheres to biofilm, improves system purification effect.
7. construction method according to claim 1, characterized in that 10 centimetres of the diameter of the metalling, it is therein broken It is 3-5 centimetres of partial size that stone, which is located at middle section, is followed successively by 2-4 and 1-2 centimetres of partial size positioned at peripheral part.
8. construction method according to claim 1, characterized in that the plantation purifying plant, in particular to: porosity Herbaceous plant is planted in the implantation hole of Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches side plate, in the bottom of Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches along runoff in eco-drainage ditch Flow direction in canal, it is S-type successively mix alternately plant it is all kinds of through screening hygrophyte, to construct and to restore ditch wetland ecological System, the pollutant for improving agriculture drainage ditch intercepts and detergent power, reduces pollution of area source discharge.
9. construction method according to claim 8, characterized in that the herbaceous plant refers to: Radix Ophiopogonis, Festuca Arundinacea, black One of wheat straw or combinations thereof;The hygrophyte refers to: canna, reed, Scirpus tabernaemontani, yellow flag, fishscale bamboo or Lythrum salicaria One of or combinations thereof, every 0.5 meter of group planting object spacing.
10. construction method according to claim 1, characterized in that described that water level is arranged in Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches end Control unit, the water level control unit refer to: in high 20-30 centimetres of small-sized dam of Demonstration for Ecological Sanitation irrigation canals and ditches end setting, soil Earth building on the spot maintains irrigation canals and ditches plant normal growth to keep water level in ditch.
CN201611048079.0A 2016-11-21 2016-11-21 Prevent the agricultural ecological drainage ditch construction method of furrow bank soil losses Active CN106702980B (en)

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CN109699369A (en) * 2019-01-04 2019-05-03 农业部环境保护科研监测所 A kind of construction method of ecology corridor

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JPH08280277A (en) * 1995-04-14 1996-10-29 Yoshio Saito Irrigator
CN2823326Y (en) * 2005-07-20 2006-10-04 上海科兰洁西商标代理有限公司 Shutter type environment protection slope protecting plate
CN103321195B (en) * 2012-08-23 2016-05-18 上海市环境科学研究院 A kind of agricultural ecological interception irrigation canals and ditches and construction method thereof that adopts bulkhead tech
CN104782447B (en) * 2015-04-17 2017-05-24 浙江大学 Agricultural land initial stage runoff collection irrigation system and method thereof
CN104790346B (en) * 2015-05-08 2016-08-24 陈洪凯 Raw retaining wall is planted in reservoir drawdown band bank slope protection deal pile-gabion box combination
CN205475090U (en) * 2015-12-31 2016-08-17 福建省乐鑫新型建材有限公司 Shore protection brick

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