CN106638540B - The static sounding probe containing determination of resistivity suitable for swelling ground soil - Google Patents

The static sounding probe containing determination of resistivity suitable for swelling ground soil Download PDF

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CN106638540B
CN106638540B CN201710047235.XA CN201710047235A CN106638540B CN 106638540 B CN106638540 B CN 106638540B CN 201710047235 A CN201710047235 A CN 201710047235A CN 106638540 B CN106638540 B CN 106638540B
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electrode
resistivity
soil
probe
static sounding
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CN106638540A (en
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张留俊
寇博
尹利华
刘军勇
张发如
谢诗元
张梅玲
刘松玉
储亚
徐磊
边汉亮
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CCCC First Highway Consultants Co Ltd
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D1/00Investigation of foundation soil in situ
    • E02D1/02Investigation of foundation soil in situ before construction work
    • E02D1/022Investigation of foundation soil in situ before construction work by investigating mechanical properties of the soil
    • E02D1/025Investigation of foundation soil in situ before construction work by investigating mechanical properties of the soil combined with sampling

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of static sounding probes containing determination of resistivity suitable for swelling ground soil, annular electrode there are four being wrapped in the periphery of the upper semisection body of rod of static sounding probe, pass through insulator separation between annular electrode, intermediate two annular electrodes are test electrode, upper and lower two annular electrodes are emission electrode, the emission electrode is used for soil body emission current, the test electrode is for measuring potential difference, in conjunction with the resistivity size that can calculate the surrounding them soil body according to Ohm's law.Strong identification facility is provided for the swelling ground soil evaluation in environmental geotechnical.

Description

The static sounding probe containing determination of resistivity suitable for swelling ground soil
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of static sounding probes containing determination of resistivity suitable for swelling ground soil, belong to ground A kind of static sounding device in engineering field.
Background technique
Static sounding technology is a kind of geotechnical engineering investigation measuring technology, and contact probe will be had using pressure apparatus by referring to Sounding rod indentation test soil layer passes through static point resistance, the side friction power etc. of measurement system test soil, it may be determined that native certain bases This physico mechanical characteristic, such as deformation modulus, the native allowable bearing of soil.But in resistivity, moisture content, special soil expansion Characteristic etc. cannot still be measured by static sounding mode.
Swelling weak rock is a kind of special cohesive soil, and a large amount of hydrophilic mineral is contained in the soil body, and humidity has more substantially when changing Product variation, generates the ground of larger internal stress when deforming constrained.Swelled ground self structure determine it again and have fissurity and Overconsolidation, a large amount of engineering constructions both domestic and external frequently encounter swelled ground breathing destruction, roadbed, house are caused to be ruined, and cause big The economic loss of amount, the U.S. every year due to swelled ground caused by economic loss it is annual 2300000000 dollars big.China is every year because of swelled ground Caused by the loss that destroys of all kinds of engineering works also more than several hundred million members.Swelled ground often has the harm of engineering construction multiple Property, repeatability and long-term potentiality.Early in last century the '30s, some scholars destroy from clay foundation deformation and slope instability In the analysis of accident, just there is understanding to the particularity of swelled ground, regrettably these problems do not cause the foot of researchers Enough to pay attention to, until the sixties in last century, with the development that economy of large scale is built, swelled ground problem is outstanding day by day, swelled ground Problem is in widespread attention and rapidly develops.Up to the present, held seven international swelled ground Research And Engineering meetings and Three international unsaturated soil Research And Engineering meetings, many countries (including American and Britain, Soviet Union, day, sieve, Portugal) have all formulated swelled ground The authority file of area construction.China formulated " swelled ground area Building technology regulation " in 1978, and promulgated in 1980 " railway bed splits native engineering technology temporary provisions " etc..Domestic and foreign scholars have carried out a large amount of research to swelled ground.Though however Through over half a century, but so far, the engineering problem caused by the engineering construction middle expansive soils of various countries is still extremely serious.
Therefore the expansion characteristics and its evolution, the rule of development in these places are evaluated, and corresponding engineering technology is taken to dispose Expansive soil foundation, reach redevelopment using and durable function, be that Modernized City Construction face one in China's is new Key subjects.The free swell test of swelled ground is typically more troublesome, can not quickly obtain the expansion rate of corresponding swelled ground, And variability is larger, same soil sample difference researcher often obtains different conclusions.The quantitative assessment of degrees of expansion needs to obtain The special parameter of certain soil layers and underground water, these are that ground geophysical prospecting method is difficult to accurately obtain.And have particular sensor Static sounding technology be unquestionably best selection.Early-stage study discovery, resistivity has the structure of inside soil body aobvious The susceptibility of work, and the variation of the clay mineral crystal layer structure in soil may influence electrochemical properties, the electric conductivity of cohesive soil Energy is equal.Research discloses, and the electric conductivity of soil can characterize its internal soil structures, engineering characteristic.Soil sample electric conductivity and viscous Property granule content, liquid limit moisture content good relationship, and clay content number and liquid limit size, can be anti-to a certain extent Answer the power of swelled ground expansion character.Therefore, the resistivity of soil sample can be used as the index of characterization soil sample expansion character.Meanwhile The expansion characteristics of the soil body are state parameter, related to soil body state itself (such as moisture content state).By having particular sensor The static sounding technology measurement soil body in resistivity and moisture content, and establish resistivity, moisture content and free swelling rate according to this Correlativity realizes the division to swelled ground inflation level.
Summary of the invention
Goal of the invention: for the above-mentioned deficiency of the prior art, propose it is a kind of suitable for swelling ground soil containing resistivity The static sounding probe of measurement can obtain the resistivity of swelled rock and soil sample at the construction field (site).
Technical solution: a kind of static sounding probe containing determination of resistivity suitable for swelling ground soil is touched in static(al) The periphery packet of the upper semisection body of rod of probe is two intermediate by insulator separation between annular electrode there are four annular electrode Annular electrode is test electrode, and upper and lower two annular electrodes are emission electrode, and the emission electrode is used for soil body emission current, The test electrode is for measuring potential difference.
Further, using the vertical body of rod and by the plane at midpoint between two test electrodes as the plane of symmetry, two The emission electrode about the plane of symmetry be symmetrical arranged, the emission electrode to the distance between plane of symmetry a with it is described The ratio for testing electrode to the plane of symmetry distance b is 1.5 ~ 3:1, and the width of four annular electrodes is respectively less than the test electrode To the plane of symmetry distance b.
Further, electro-hot regulator is additionally provided on the body of rod, the electro-hot regulator is located at below annular electrode.
Further, be additionally provided with preamplifier and analog-digital converter in the body of rod, the output of the test electrode according to It is secondary to be cascaded with the preamplifier and analog-digital converter.
Further, it is sequentially with sidewall friction cylinder, pore pressure filter ring, coniform spy from top to bottom in the probe lower semisection Head;It is equipped with pore water pressure sensor in the centre of friction cylinder, side friction power is laid on the medial surface of sidewall friction cylinder Pressure sensor is laid with static point resistance pressure sensor on cone cell probe, and the pore pressure filter ring is rubbed positioned at side wall Wipe the junction of cylinder and coniform probe.
Further, the cone angle of the circular cone probe is 60 °, and cone basal cross section product is 10cm2, sidewall friction cylinder surface area 150cm2, the pore pressure filtering ring thickness 5mm.
The utility model has the advantages that static sounding probe of the invention, according to two emission electrodes on probe to soil body emission current, Electric current generates equipotential lines distribution, by two test electrodes synchronizations, two interelectrode voltage changes is continuously measured, in conjunction with basis Ohm's law can calculate the resistivity size of the surrounding them soil body.Pass through the pass of resistivity and swelling weak rock free swelling rate System, according to obtained soil body resistivity size, can calculate the numerical value of the moisture content of the soil body, the influence for eliminating moisture content obtains The expansion characteristics of swelling weak rock.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the structural schematic diagram of static sounding probe of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is four annular electrode distribution schematic diagrams of the invention.
Specific embodiment
Further explanation is done to the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawing.
A kind of static sounding probe containing determination of resistivity suitable for swelling ground soil of this hair, can be used in scene The resistivity in test dilatancy place and aqueous rate score, on the current basis in relation to Expansive Soil Judgment classification method both at home and abroad On, the expansion characteristics in calibration analysis dilatancy place, to realize live Rapid identification.
The probe is integrated with the function of conventional hole pressure touching methods, can survey end resistance, frictional resistance, inclination and pore pressure, also has soil Resistivity measurement function.As shown in Figure 1, coaxial cable 1 is equipped in the center of static sounding probe, in the periphery of the upper semisection body of rod Packet is isolated there are four annular electrode by insulating layer 6 between annular electrode, and intermediate two annular electrodes are test electrode 5, up and down Two annular electrodes are emission electrode 4, and emission electrode 4 is used for soil body emission current, and electric current generates equipotential lines distribution, test electricity Pole 5 is for measuring potential difference.Using the vertical body of rod and by the plane at midpoint between two test electrodes 5 as the plane of symmetry, two hairs Radio pole 4 is symmetrical arranged about the plane of symmetry, and the distance between emission electrode 4 to plane of symmetry a and test electrode 5 arrive plane of symmetry distance The ratio of b is 1.5 ~ 3:1, and the width of four annular electrodes, which is respectively less than, tests electrode 5 to plane of symmetry distance b.Positioned at annular electrode The body of rod of lower section is equipped with electro-hot regulator 13.Preamplifier 3 and analog-digital converter 2 are additionally provided in the body of rod, test electrode 5 Output is successively cascaded with preamplifier 3 and analog-digital converter 2.
It is sequentially with sidewall friction cylinder 7, pore pressure filter ring 9, coniform probe 10 from top to bottom in the probe lower semisection.? The centre of friction cylinder 7 is equipped with pore water pressure sensor 8, is laid with side friction on the medial surface of sidewall friction cylinder 7 and forces Force snesor 11 is laid with static point resistance pressure sensor 12 on cone cell probe 10, and pore pressure filter ring 9 is located at sidewall friction cylinder 7 with it is coniform probe 10 junction.The cone angle of circular cone probe 10 is 60 °, and cone basal cross section product is 10cm2, 7 table of sidewall friction cylinder Area 150cm2, the 9 thickness 5mm of pore pressure filter ring.
The static sounding probe specification meets international standard: 60 ° of cone angle, cone diameter 35.7mm, boring basal cross section product is 10cm2, sidewall friction cylinder area 150cm2.Static point resistance pressure sensor range is 100kN, precision 0.2%.Side friction Pressure sensor range is 20kN, precision 0.2%.Pore water pressure sensor range is 3.5MPa;Precision is 0.5%.
The resistivity of soil is the basic parameter for characterizing soil body electric conductivity, is one of the intrinsic physical parameter of soil, depends on soil Porosity, pore shape, Pore Solution resistivity, saturation degree, solid particulate components, shape, directionality, cementing status etc..Soil The electric conductivity of earth can characterize its internal soil structures, engineering characteristic.Soil sample electric conductivity contains with cohesive sediment content, liquid limit Water rate dependence is preferable, and the number and liquid limit size of clay content, can react swelled ground expansion character to a certain extent Power.On the other hand, there is good correlation between resistivity and soil moisture content, studied according to the prior art, Ke Yitong The resistivity moisture content conversion formula that indoor standardization determines the target soil body is crossed, to measure the moisture content of soil in-situ state.Cause This, can be used for realizing the division to swelled ground inflation level based on resistivity and water cut test static sounding technology.
The core of expansive soil foundation static sounding probe equipment is resistivity sensor, this probe is arranged using four electrodes Column mode, to eliminate the error that gas generation, plating and polarity effect may cause.Resistivity measurement frequency is 1000Hz, Calibration range is 0-10000ohm-m.After this probe is pressed into soil predetermined depth by external force, the heat on the probe is controlled first Electric temperature control regulator work, the temperature control regulator can control 0-100 DEG C of temperature range, working power: AC90~242V 50Hz/60Hz, power consumption are less than 4W.Away from top ring electrode 10cm.After four annular electrodes form stable temperature field into Row emission electrode electric discharge, by the test of the rectification building-out and soil temperature of the temperature, to correct resistivity under different temperatures Variation, obtain true resistance rate score.
The method for measuring expansive soil foundation resistivity: due to around static sounding feeler lever in soil electric field complexity, and side Boundary's condition is difficult to control, so that very complicated by measured native electrical characteristic of popping one's head in.Cone penetration test has been obtained by Ohm's law Theoretical equation, native resistivity is by the two interelectrode voltage drop Δ V of test under test constant current, and according to Ohm's law Calculate the resistance that is unearthedSize and obtain.
As shown in Fig. 2, A indicates that the first emission electrode, B indicate that the second emission electrode, N indicate that the first test electrode, M indicate Second tests electrode, point centered on O.Emission electrode emits low-voltage AC with the frequency of 1000Hz, passes through the first emission electrode A With the second emission electrode B to soil body emission current, electric current generates equipotential lines distribution, with the first test electrode M and the second test electricity Pole N measures potential difference.
Its resistivityIs defined as:
(1)
Wherein geometrical factorKGeometry arrangement depending on four electrodes of probe.
When arranging probe measurement soil body resistivity with four geometric electrodes, the material base of electric prospecting is rock, ores Conductive difference is the difference using soil body resistivity for resistivity method, therefore will measure the soil body in actual operation Resistivity.When measurement, supply current is received by coaxial cable by the first emission electrode A and the second emission electrode B transmitting, on ground Under set up the consistent electric fields of two anisotropic point sources.
Any two points first among emission electrode, which are obtained, according to current potential principle of stacking tests the test of electrode M and second electrode N Current potential:
(2)
(3)
In formula,For expansive soil foundation resistivity to be measured,For measurement electric current, measured by test electrode M, N, AM, BM, AN, BN are respectively the distance between each electrode.According to current potentialObtain the test of the first test electrode M and second electrode N's Potential difference:
(4)
Formula according to the available measurement expansive soil foundation resistivity of above formula is as follows:
(5)
Wherein,(6)
(7)
(8)
A, b are substituted into (6) respectively, then had:
(9)
K is substituted into (5) respectively, has obtained the theoretical equation of cone penetration test:
(10)
According to obtaining expansive soil foundation resistivity, the method that obtains soil moisture content:
The indoor standardization test popped one's head in first, selects suitable operating voltage section, and by establish resistivity with Correlativity between target soil moisture content.Moisture content is one of the principal element for influencing soil body resistivity.Soil is rock wind The product of change, by the three-phase medium aggregate of soil particle, water and gas composition, the resistivity of three-phase medium is different.It is identical Under conditions of porosity, swelled ground resistivity reduces with the increase of moisture content, and exponentially functional relation reduces.When aqueous For rate more than after a certain range, swelled ground change in resistance is slow or tends to constant.The critical moisture content of natural swelled ground is 25%- Between 30%.With the increase of moisture content in soil, inside soil body pore water perforation path is increased, and conducting wire is essentially pore water The conductive capability enhancing of route, soil body entirety finally reaches pore water resistivity so that resistivity is in trend of dropping steadily.
The prior art is studies have shown that specific resistivity value is fitted to exponential Function Model, between resistivity moisture content Relational expression are as follows:
(11)
In formula,ρFor resistivity;wFor moisture content;kjFor with reference to coefficient.
It is determined by indoor standardization test and specifically refers to coefficientkjNumerical value, to carry out the test of live moisture content Work.Earth's surface load system is demarcated simultaneously passes through coaxial cable input ac voltage.The electric pulse that resistivity measurement generates, before menstruation It is transferred to analog-digital converter after setting amplifier amplification, the received analog signal of institute is converted to digital signal by analog-digital converter, then All signals are integrated on same root coaxial cable and are transmitted, are saved by the Microcomputer Collecting and storage system of earth's surface, and Draw real-time continuous sectional view.
Finally, according to resistivity and water cut test data, it is related to swelled ground expansion characteristics by resistivity, moisture content Relationship calculates swelled ground free swelling rate, and realizes the division to swelled ground inflation level according to this.
The above is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is noted that for the ordinary skill people of the art For member, various improvements and modifications may be made without departing from the principle of the present invention, these improvements and modifications are also answered It is considered as protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. being suitable for the static sounding probe containing determination of resistivity of swelling ground soil, it is characterised in that: visited in static sounding The periphery packet of the upper semisection body of rod of head is isolated there are four annular electrode by insulating layer (6) between annular electrode, intermediate two rings Shape electrode is test electrode (5), and upper and lower two annular electrodes are emission electrode (4), and the emission electrode (4) is used to send out to the soil body Radio stream, the test electrode (5) is for measuring potential difference;With the body of rod perpendicular to static sounding probe and by described in two The plane for testing midpoint between electrode (5) is the plane of symmetry, and two emission electrodes (4) are symmetrical arranged about the plane of symmetry, The emission electrode (4) arrives the ratio of the plane of symmetry distance b to the distance between plane of symmetry a and test electrode (5) Value is 1.5-3:1, and the width of four annular electrodes is respectively less than the test electrode (5) to the plane of symmetry distance b;By above-mentioned Influence of the emission electrode polarity effect to test result can effectively be reduced by being arranged.
2. the static sounding probe containing determination of resistivity according to claim 1 suitable for swelling ground soil, special Sign is: being additionally provided on the body of rod of static sounding probe electro-hot regulator (13), the electro-hot regulator (13) is located at annular electro Below pole.
3. the static sounding probe containing determination of resistivity according to claim 1 suitable for swelling ground soil, special Sign is: preamplifier (3) and analog-digital converter (2), the test electrode (5) are additionally provided in the body of rod of static sounding probe Output end successively connect with the preamplifier (3) and analog-digital converter (2).
4. the static sounding probe containing determination of resistivity according to claim 3 suitable for swelling ground soil, special Sign is: the lower semisection body of rod of static sounding probe be sequentially with from top to bottom sidewall friction cylinder (7), pore pressure filter ring (9), Coniform probe (10);Pore water pressure sensor (8) are equipped in the centre of sidewall friction cylinder (7), in sidewall friction cylinder (7) It is laid with side friction on medial surface and forces force snesor (11), is laid with static point resistance pressure on the coniform probe (10) Force snesor (12), the pore pressure filter ring (9) are located at the junction of sidewall friction cylinder (7) and coniform probe (10).
5. the static sounding probe containing determination of resistivity according to claim 4 suitable for swelling ground soil, special Sign is: the cone angle of the coniform probe (10) is 60 °, and cone basal cross section product is 10cm2, sidewall friction cylinder (7) surface area is 150cm2, the pore pressure filter ring (9) is with a thickness of 5mm.
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106680330B (en) * 2017-01-22 2019-03-19 东南大学 A method of swelled ground expansion character field evaluation is carried out with resistivity
CN108387713A (en) * 2018-02-27 2018-08-10 国家海洋局北海海洋工程勘察研究院 A kind of bottom sediment test device, injection system and injection method

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2010164536A (en) * 2009-01-19 2010-07-29 Japan Oil Gas & Metals National Corp Flow detection method of underground gas
CN101858075A (en) * 2010-04-27 2010-10-13 东南大学 Environmental static sounding probe for contaminated foundation soil
CN104090086A (en) * 2014-07-15 2014-10-08 东南大学 Device and method for testing soil structure characteristics under action of dynamic change of underground pressure water head
CN104166165A (en) * 2014-07-29 2014-11-26 山东大学 Horizontal borehole resistivity chromatography imaging detection device, detection system and detection method
CN206706723U (en) * 2017-01-22 2017-12-05 中交第一公路勘察设计研究院有限公司 A kind of static sounding probe containing determination of resistivity suitable for swelling ground soil

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2010164536A (en) * 2009-01-19 2010-07-29 Japan Oil Gas & Metals National Corp Flow detection method of underground gas
CN101858075A (en) * 2010-04-27 2010-10-13 东南大学 Environmental static sounding probe for contaminated foundation soil
CN104090086A (en) * 2014-07-15 2014-10-08 东南大学 Device and method for testing soil structure characteristics under action of dynamic change of underground pressure water head
CN104166165A (en) * 2014-07-29 2014-11-26 山东大学 Horizontal borehole resistivity chromatography imaging detection device, detection system and detection method
CN206706723U (en) * 2017-01-22 2017-12-05 中交第一公路勘察设计研究院有限公司 A kind of static sounding probe containing determination of resistivity suitable for swelling ground soil

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