CN106613210B - High-yield interplanting cultivation method for Chinese yams and spring loofahs - Google Patents

High-yield interplanting cultivation method for Chinese yams and spring loofahs Download PDF

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CN106613210B
CN106613210B CN201611167442.0A CN201611167442A CN106613210B CN 106613210 B CN106613210 B CN 106613210B CN 201611167442 A CN201611167442 A CN 201611167442A CN 106613210 B CN106613210 B CN 106613210B
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chinese yam
planting
soil
months
mass concentration
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CN106613210A (en
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韦民政
唐秀桦
熊军
李韦柳
闫海锋
黄报应
黄开航
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Institute of Economic Crops of Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Institute of Economic Crops of Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention provides an interplanting high-yield cultivation method for Chinese yams and spring loofahs, which comprises the following steps: step B, uniformly mixing decomposed farmyard manure and excavated soil, backfilling the farmyard manure into the ditch, raising a high ridge right above the planting ditch, applying potassium sulfate compound fertilizer as base fertilizer in combination with soil preparation, uniformly stirring the ridge and the soil, and leveling the surface; step C, raising seedlings of the towel gourd and the Chinese yam; d, field planting towel gourd and Chinese yam seedlings; e, field management of the towel gourd and the Chinese yam; step F, pest control; and G, harvesting the towel gourd and the Chinese yam. According to the invention, the spring towel gourd is interplanted in the Chinese yam land, so that the land utilization rate is improved, the occurrence of diseases is reduced, and the yield and economic benefits of the unit area of crops are increased.

Description

High-yield interplanting cultivation method for Chinese yams and spring loofahs
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of agriculture, and particularly relates to an interplanting high-yield cultivation method for Chinese yams and spring loofahs.
Background
The yam, also named yam, belongs to annual or perennial herbaceous vine plants of yam family, is rich in nutrition, is suitable for people of all ages, and can tonify spleen and stomach, promote fluid production and benefit lung, tonify kidney and arrest seminal emission, and prolong life when being eaten frequently. The towel gourd is an annual climbing vine plant of the cucurbitaceae family, and is also a favorite summer vegetable. The Guangxi province has the advantages that the Chinese yam and the towel gourd are produced in abundance in Guangxi province, and the planting of the Chinese yam and the towel gourd becomes one of important means for increasing the income of farmers.
In Guangxi, Chinese yam is cultivated for one year, because the Chinese yam is wide in planting row spacing and slow in early growth, the stem and vine can be closed in about 8 months. Therefore, during the period from the beginning of the year to 7 months, the Chinese yam planting plots are in a half-exposed state, weeds are easy to generate, water and soil loss is easily caused by rain wash, and the period is just the field planting time of the spring towel gourd; in addition, at present, farmers mostly adopt deep ditching or vertical hole digging technology for planting, the Chinese yam can be taken out only by digging about 1.2 meters in depth during harvesting, and the labor intensity is high, so that in order to reduce the labor intensity, the farmers select a place where ditches are dug in the first year in the second year and even the third year so as to conveniently dig, which easily causes continuous cropping obstacles, increases soil-borne diseases and reduces the yield, the luffa vines and the wound fluid thereof contain various saponin and alkaloid components, and have good inhibition and prevention effects on some fungi and soil-borne diseases. Therefore, the spring towel gourd is interplanted in the Chinese yam land, so that the land utilization rate is improved, the occurrence of diseases is reduced, and the yield and the economic benefit of the unit area of crops are increased.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide an interplanting high-yield cultivation method for Chinese yams and spring loofahs, and solves the problems of a land preparation method, a planting specification, a fertilizing method, a field moisturizing and weed growth preventing method and the like for interplanting the Chinese yams and the spring loofahs.
An interplanting high-yield cultivation method of Chinese yam and spring towel gourd comprises the following steps:
a, selecting land, preparing soil and applying base fertilizer, namely selecting a land block with deep soil layer, loose soil quality, no accumulated water and good irrigation and drainage loam or sandy loam, ploughing the land and drying the soil in the sun before planting, raking the land and excavating planting ditches;
b, uniformly stirring the decomposed farmyard manure and the excavated soil, backfilling the mixture into the ditch, raising a high ridge right above the planting ditch, applying a potassium sulfate compound fertilizer as a base fertilizer in combination with soil preparation, uniformly stirring the base fertilizer and the soil, and leveling the ridge surface;
step C, raising seedlings of the towel gourd and the Chinese yam;
d, field planting towel gourd and Chinese yam seedlings;
e, field management of the towel gourd and the Chinese yam;
step F, pest control;
and G, harvesting the towel gourd and the Chinese yam.
In Guangxi, Chinese yam is cultivated for one year, because the Chinese yam is wide in planting row spacing and slow in early growth, the stem and vine can be closed in about 8 months. Therefore, during the period from the beginning of the year to 7 months, the Chinese yam planting plots are in a half-exposed state, weeds are easy to generate, water and soil loss is easily caused by rain wash, and the period is just the field planting time of the spring towel gourd; in addition, at present, farmers mostly adopt deep ditching or vertical hole digging technology for planting, the Chinese yam can be taken out only by digging about 1.2 meters in depth during harvesting, and the labor intensity is high, so that in order to reduce the labor intensity, the farmers select a place where ditches are dug in the first year in the second year and even the third year so as to conveniently dig, which easily causes continuous cropping obstacles, increases soil-borne diseases and reduces the yield, the luffa vines and the wound fluid thereof contain various saponin and alkaloid components, and have good inhibition and prevention effects on some fungi and soil-borne diseases. Therefore, the spring towel gourd is interplanted in the Chinese yam land, so that the land utilization rate is improved, the occurrence of diseases is reduced, and the yield and the economic benefit of the unit area of crops are increased.
Preferably, in the step B, in the potassium sulfate compound fertilizer of the base fertilizer, N: p: the mass ratio of K is 15:15:15, 2000 kg of decomposed farmyard manure and 50 kg of base fertilizer are adopted per mu.
Preferably, in the step C, the Chinese yam is Guihuai No. 2; the fructus Luffae is Imperial crown No. 1. Culturing the seedlings of the towel gourds in a protected area at the beginning of 2 months, planting the towel gourds at the beginning of 3 months, and harvesting the towel gourds from the last ten days of 4 months to the end of 5 months; and (3) seedling the Chinese yam in the first ten days of 4 months, sowing seeds in the middle ten days of 5 months, and harvesting from 12 months to 2 months in the next year.
Preferably, in the step C, the towel gourd seedling raising method comprises the following steps: the method comprises the following steps of (1) growing seedlings in a protected area by adopting a nutrition cup or a seedling tray, soaking and disinfecting the seeds with warm water during germination acceleration, continuously soaking the seeds after cooling to the normal temperature, then cleaning the seeds, draining water, wrapping the seeds with clean and wet cotton cloth, and accelerating germination at the constant temperature of 28-32 ℃; keeping the soil moist in the seedling stage after sowing, keeping the temperature at 22-28 ℃ in the daytime and 15-20 ℃ at night. In the seedling stage, damping-off and the like are prevented and treated. And (3) field planting the seedlings with two leaves and one heart, and hardening the seedlings 1 to 2 weeks before the field planting.
Preferably, the seedling raising time is 2 months, seeds are soaked and disinfected in warm water at 55 ℃ for 10 minutes during germination acceleration, the seeds are continuously soaked for 5 hours after being cooled to the normal temperature, and the seeds can be sown when 50 percent of the seeds are exposed to the white.
The expression "white exposed" is intended to mean that the seeds germinate and emerge from the mouth, i.e., the white tip is exposed.
Preferably, in the step C, the Chinese yam is used for raising seedlings:
selecting healthy upper end tubers with more terminal buds, cutting into potato blocks, and dipping the cut potato blocks into adhesive sections with plant ash mixed with a bactericide. Then sun-drying for 2-3 days to make the cut surface dry and slightly atrophy inwards. During germination accelerating, seed potatoes are uniformly paved on a seedbed or a flat ridge surface, a layer of fine soil with the thickness of 2-3 cm is covered, and seedling emergence can be realized after about 25-40 days; the Chinese yam seedling is grown in the last ten days of 4 months; the volume ratio of the bactericide to the plant ash in the plant ash mixed with the bactericide is 1: 100.
Preferably, the planting time of the cucurbita pepo in the step D is 3 months; planting 1 row in each ridge, planting at a planting distance of 40 cm, spraying root fixing water after planting, and covering a small arched shed for heat preservation; the planting time of the Chinese yam is 5 ten days in the middle of the month, and the planting can be carried out when a new bud is exposed for 0.5-1 cm; during planting, a small ditch with the depth of 15 cm is dug on the furrow surface between two loofah plants by a small hoe, new buds of the seeds are placed upwards, and then fine soil is used for covering.
Preferably, the step E includes:
and (3) towel gourd management: 1. keeping the soil moist after planting, closing the greenhouse to raise the temperature, and gradually ventilating after seedling revival. After seedling recovering, water and fertilizer dressing is started about one week, and the roots are irrigated with human and animal manure, and after the harvesting period, dressing is carried out for 1 time every 2-3 times of harvesting; 2, when the loofah seedlings grow to 40 cm, putting up a herringbone frame and tying vines, which is suitable; 3.5, after the last picking of the towel gourd at the bottom of the month, timely pulling out stems and tendrils, cutting the stems and tendrils into pieces with the length of 0.5 to 0.6 meter, and uniformly covering the stems and tendrils on the ridge surface; the herringbone frame is continuously reserved for climbing the Chinese yam;
managing Chinese yams: 1. keeping soil moist in the early stage of growth, watering, applying urea solution or diluted human and animal excrement, thinning when the seedlings grow to 30 cm, reserving 1-2 strong main vines for each plant, and drawing the stems to a herringbone frame to climb along the frame when the main vines grow to about 50 cm; and 2, topdressing compound fertilizer and urea per mu in the full growth period, properly adjusting the plants when the plants grow excessively, topping main vines and branches, cleaning dead leaves and diseased branches, and paying attention to disease control in a high-temperature rainy season at the current period. In the 3 tuber expansion period, potato fertilizer is required to be applied, compound fertilizer, calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and potassium sulfate are applied, and meanwhile, redundant bulbil is removed, so that the nutrient waste is avoided; in the middle and later expansion period of tubers, autumn drought is often encountered, irrigation needs to be paid attention to, soil is kept moist and loose, the tubers are promoted to elongate and expand, and the yield is improved.
Preferably, the step F includes:
disease and pest control of luffa
1. Disease of luffa
Common diseases of the luffa include downy mildew, powdery mildew and blight; the downy mildew is prevented and treated by 500 times of mancozeb wettable powder with the mass concentration of 70 percent or 500 times of metalaxyl mancozeb wettable powder with the mass concentration of 58 percent through spraying; the powdery mildew is prevented and treated by spraying 800 times of liquid of 50 percent of sulfur suspending agent by mass concentration or 1000 times of liquid of 15 percent of triadimefon wettable powder by mass concentration; the wilt can be prevented and treated by irrigating the roots with 1000 times of 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder and spraying 800 times of 50% promethazine wettable powder on the leaf surfaces;
2. insect damage of towel gourd
Common insect pests of the luffa include aphids, whiteflies, diaphania cucurbitae and the like, and can be controlled by alternately spraying 4500 times of imidacloprid wettable powder with the mass concentration of 10%, 1500 times of efficient cyhalothrin missible oil with the mass concentration of 2.5% and 3000 times of abamectin missible oil with the mass concentration of 1.8%;
chinese yam pest control
1. Disease of Chinese yam
Common diseases of Chinese yams in Guangxi include anthracnose and leaf spot. When the field diseases, 500 times of wettable powder of zineb with mass concentration of 80% and 1000 times of wettable powder of prochloraz with mass concentration of 45% can be alternately sprayed to prevent and control anthracnose; 800 times of chlorothalonil wettable powder with the mass concentration of 75% and 2000 times of propiconazole with the mass concentration of 50% are used for preventing and treating leaf spot;
2. insect pest of Chinese yam
Common insect pests of Chinese yam in Guangxi include leaf bees and prodenia litura. When pests are found, 1500 times of solution of phoxim missible oil with the mass concentration of 50%, 3000 times of solution of dichlord missible oil with the mass concentration of 2.5%, 2500 times of solution of methylamino abamectin benzoate with the mass concentration of 2% and the like can be alternately sprayed for prevention and control.
Preferably, the step G includes:
(1) harvesting of Luffa cylindrica
Picking loofah in batches when the maturity stages of the loofah are different, wherein the harvesting period is from 4 months to 5 months, pulling out the tendrils after the last picking, cutting the tendrils and covering the tendrils on the ridge surface;
(2) harvesting Chinese yam
Arranging between 12 months and 2 months in the coming year, selecting clear weather during collection, digging out the Chinese yam chips by using an iron shovel, and airing the chips on the ground until the outer skins are dry and comfortable, and then boxing and selling the chips on the market.
According to the invention, the spring towel gourd is interplanted in the Chinese yam land, so that the land utilization rate is improved, the occurrence of diseases is reduced, and the yield and economic benefits of the unit area of crops are increased.
Detailed Description
The following further details preferred embodiments of the invention:
example 1
1. Land selection, preparation and base fertilizer application
Selecting a land block with deep soil layer, loose soil, no accumulated water and good irrigation and drainage. Plowing and sunning the ground 1 month before field planting of the loofah, harrowing for 1-2 times after half a month, harrowing the ground, then excavating a planting ditch 1.2 meters deep and 0.2 meters wide by using a Chinese yam ditcher according to the row spacing of 1 meter, uniformly mixing 2000 kilograms of decomposed farmyard manure per mu with the excavated soil, backfilling the mixture into the ditch, and raising a high ridge right above the planting ditch, wherein the width of the ridge surface is 0.7 meters, and the width of the ditch is 0.3 meters. 50 kg of potassium sulfate compound fertilizer (N-P-K =15:15:15 (mass ratio) is applied in combination with soil preparation as a base fertilizer, and the base fertilizer and soil are stirred uniformly to level the ridge surface.
2. Variety selection
The rhizoma Dioscoreae is Guihuai No. 2;
the fructus Luffae is Imperial crown No. 1.
3. Arrangement of crops for rotation
Culturing the seedlings of the towel gourds in a protected area at the beginning of 2 months, planting the towel gourds at the beginning of 3 months, and harvesting the towel gourds from the last ten days of 4 months to the end of 5 months; and (3) seedling the Chinese yam in the first ten days of 4 months, sowing seeds in the middle ten days of 5 months, and harvesting from 12 months to 2 months in the next year.
4. Seedling raising
(1) Seedling raising of towel gourd
And (5) adopting a nutrition cup or a seedling tray to grow seedlings in a protected area in the beginning of 2 months. When accelerating germination, soaking seeds in warm water at 55 ℃ for disinfection for 10 minutes, cooling to normal temperature, continuing to soak for 5 hours, then cleaning the seeds, draining water, wrapping with clean and wet cotton cloth, and accelerating germination at the constant temperature of 28-32 ℃. When 50% of seeds are exposed to the white, the seeds can be sown. The soil is kept moist in the seedling stage, the temperature is kept between 22 and 28 ℃ in the daytime and between 15 and 20 ℃ at night. In the seedling stage, damping-off and the like are prevented and treated. And (5) field planting the seedlings with two leaves and one heart, and hardening the seedlings 1 week before the field planting.
(2) Seedling raising method for Chinese yams
Typically in late 4 months. Healthy upper-end tuber cut blocks (containing potato heads) with more terminal buds are selected as seeds, the potato cut blocks are cut into potato blocks with the length of 5 cm and the weight of about 100 g, and plant ash mixed with bactericides such as carbendazim and the like (the volume ratio of the bactericides to the plant ash is 1: 100) is dipped in the sticky cut surfaces. Then sun-drying for 2-3 days to make the cut surface dry and slightly atrophy inwards. During germination accelerating, the seed potatoes are uniformly spread on a seedbed or a flat ridge surface, a layer of fine soil with the thickness of 2-3 cm is covered, a layer of straw or mulching film can be covered at low temperature, and the seedlings can be continuously germinated generally for about 25-40 days.
5. Planting
(1) Planting towel gourd
Planting in 3 months. Planting 1 row in each ridge with a planting distance of 40 cm, spraying root fixing water after planting, and covering a small arched shed for heat preservation.
(2) Planting Chinese yam
The planting time of the Chinese yam is 5 ten days in the middle of the month, and the planting can be carried out when the new buds are exposed for 0.5-1 cm. During planting, a small ditch with the depth of 15 cm is dug on the furrow surface between two loofah plants by a small hoe, new buds of the seeds are placed upwards, and then fine soil is used for covering.
6. Management of field
(1) Luffa management
① seedling management
Keeping the soil moist after planting, closing the greenhouse to raise the temperature, and gradually ventilating after seedling revival.
② management of fertilizer and water
After about one week, applying water and fertilizer for 1-2 times, and irrigating root with 1000 times of urea solution or diluted human and animal excrement to promote rooting and seedling growth. For plants with weak growth vigor, watering and spraying compound fertilizer aqueous solution with mass concentration of 0.3-0.5% for 1-2 times. After the harvest period, topdressing is carried out for 2-3 times every harvest, and 20 kg of compound fertilizer and 10 kg of potassium sulfate are used for each mu each time. Topdressing can be performed simultaneously in combination with intertillage and hilling.
③ Framing and tying vine
And building and tying vines when the towel gourd seedlings grow to 40 cm. Generally, a herringbone frame is suitable.
④ cleaning garden and covering
After the last picking of the loofah in the bottom of 5 months, timely pulling out stems and tendrils and cutting the stems and tendrils into the length of about 0.5 meter so as to lead out bleeding sap and uniformly cover the stems and tendrils on the surface of the ridge. The herringbone frame is continuously reserved for the Chinese yam to climb.
(2) Management of Chinese yams
① early stage of growth
In this period, the soil should be kept moist, and 600 times of urea solution or diluted human and animal excreta can be applied for 1-2 times in combination with watering to promote the growth of seedlings. Thinning when the seedlings grow to about 30 cm, and only 1-2 strong main vines are left in each plant. When the main vines grow to about 50 cm, the stem vines are pulled to a 'herringbone frame' to climb along the frame.
② full growth period
In the period, the Chinese yams grow vigorously and have large fertilizer demand, and 20 kilograms of compound fertilizer and 10 kilograms of urea are applied to each mu. When the plant grows excessively, the plant is properly adjusted, the main vines and the branches are topped, and withered leaves and diseased branches are cleaned. At the moment, the season is positive, and the diseases such as anthracnose and the like are carefully controlled.
③ tuber expansion period
The tuber expansion period is a key period for determining the yield of the Chinese yams, and potato fertilizer needs to be applied, wherein 20 kg of compound fertilizer, 30 kg of calcium-magnesium-phosphate fertilizer and 15 kg of potassium sulfate are additionally applied to each mu. Meanwhile, redundant bulbil is removed, and nutrient waste is avoided. In the middle and later expansion period of tubers, autumn drought is often encountered, irrigation needs to be paid attention to, soil is kept moist and loose, the tubers are promoted to elongate and expand, and the yield is improved.
7. Pest control
(1) Disease and pest control of luffa
① diseases of towel gourd
Common diseases of the luffa include downy mildew, powdery mildew, blight and the like. The downy mildew can be prevented and treated by 500 times of mancozeb wettable powder with the mass concentration of 70% or 500 times of metalaxyl mancozeb wettable powder with the mass concentration of 58%; the powdery mildew is prevented and treated by spraying 800 times of liquid of 50 percent of sulfur suspending agent by mass concentration or 1000 times of liquid of 15 percent of triadimefon wettable powder by mass concentration; the wilt can be prevented and treated by irrigating the roots with 1000 times of 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder and spraying 800 times of 50% promethazine wettable powder on the leaf surfaces.
② insect pest of Luffa cylindrica
Common insect pests of the luffa include aphids, whiteflies, diaphania cucurbitae and the like, and can be controlled by alternately spraying 4500 times of imidacloprid wettable powder with the mass concentration of 10%, 1500 times of efficient cyhalothrin missible oil with the mass concentration of 2.5% and 3000 times of abamectin missible oil with the mass concentration of 1.8%.
(2) Chinese yam pest control
① diseases of Chinese yam
Common diseases of Chinese yams in Guangxi include anthracnose and leaf spot. When the field diseases, 500 times of 80% wettable zineb powder and 1000 times of prochloraz wettable powder with the mass concentration of 45% can be alternately sprayed to prevent and control anthracnose; 800 times of 75 percent chlorothalonil wettable powder and 2000 times of 50 percent propiconazole are used for preventing and treating leaf spot.
② insect pest of rhizoma Dioscoreae
Common insect pests of Chinese yam in Guangxi include leaf bees and prodenia litura. When pests are found, 1500 times of solution of phoxim missible oil with the mass concentration of 50%, 3000 times of solution of dichlord missible oil with the mass concentration of 2.5%, 2500 times of solution of methylamino abamectin benzoate with the mass concentration of 2% and the like can be alternately sprayed for prevention and control.
8. Harvesting
(1) Harvesting of Luffa cylindrica
The loofah is harvested in batches from 4 months to 5 months, and harvested as early as possible in the morning to keep fresh. After the last harvest, the melon vines are pulled out, cut into sections and covered on the ridge surface. About 2200 kg of fresh towel gourd can be collected per mu.
(2) Harvesting Chinese yam
The Chinese yam harvesting period is long, and the Chinese yam harvesting period can be arranged between 12 months and 2 months in the next year according to market conditions. When the potato chips are collected, the potato chips are dug out by an iron shovel, and the potato chips are packaged and sold on the market after being dried on the ground until the outer skins are dry. During collection, the user needs to pay attention to the light taking and the light placing to avoid mechanical damage. About 2000 kilograms of fresh yam can be harvested per mu.
Example 2
1. Land selection, preparation and base fertilizer application
Selecting a land block with deep soil layer, loose soil, no accumulated water and good irrigation and drainage. Plowing and sunning the ground 1 month before field planting of the loofah, harrowing for 1-2 times after half a month, harrowing the ground, then excavating a planting ditch 1.2 meters deep and 0.2 meters wide by using a Chinese yam ditcher according to the row spacing of 1 meter, uniformly mixing 2000 kilograms of decomposed farmyard manure per mu with the excavated soil, backfilling the mixture into the ditch, and raising a high ridge right above the planting ditch, wherein the width of the ridge surface is 0.7 meters, and the width of the ditch is 0.3 meters. 50 kg of potassium sulfate compound fertilizer (N-P-K =15:15:15 (mass ratio) is applied in combination with soil preparation as a base fertilizer, and the base fertilizer and soil are stirred uniformly to level the ridge surface.
2. Variety selection
The rhizoma Dioscoreae is No. 1;
the fructus Luffae is Imperial crown No. 3.
3. Arrangement of crops for rotation
Culturing the seedlings of the towel gourds in a protected area at the beginning of 2 months, planting the towel gourds at the beginning of 3 months, and harvesting the towel gourds from the last ten days of 4 months to the end of 5 months; and (3) seedling the Chinese yam in the first ten days of 4 months, sowing seeds in the middle ten days of 5 months, and harvesting from 12 months to 2 months in the next year.
4. Seedling raising
(1) Seedling raising of towel gourd
And (5) adopting a nutrition cup or a seedling tray to grow seedlings in a protected area in the beginning of 2 months. When accelerating germination, soaking seeds in warm water at 55 ℃ for disinfection for 10 minutes, cooling to normal temperature, continuing to soak for 5 hours, then cleaning the seeds, draining water, wrapping with clean and wet cotton cloth, and accelerating germination at the constant temperature of 28-32 ℃. When 50% of seeds are exposed to the white, the seeds can be sown. The soil is kept moist in the seedling stage, the temperature is kept between 22 and 28 ℃ in the daytime and between 15 and 20 ℃ at night. In the seedling stage, damping-off and the like are prevented and treated. And (5) field planting the seedlings with two leaves and one heart, and hardening the seedlings 1 week before the field planting.
(2) Seedling raising method for Chinese yams
Typically in late 4 months. Healthy upper-end tuber cut blocks (containing potato heads) with more terminal buds are selected to be planted, the potato cut blocks are cut into potato blocks with the length of 5 cm and the weight of about 100 g, and plant ash mixed with bactericides such as carbendazim (the bactericides: the plant ash =1:100 (volume ratio)) is dipped in sticky cut surfaces. Then sun-drying for 2-3 days to make the cut surface dry and slightly atrophy inwards. During germination accelerating, the seed potatoes are uniformly spread on a seedbed or a flat ridge surface, a layer of fine soil with the thickness of 2-3 cm is covered, a layer of straw or mulching film can be covered at low temperature, and the seedlings can be continuously germinated generally for about 25-40 days.
5. Planting
(1) Planting towel gourd
Planting in 3 months. Planting 1 row in each ridge with a planting distance of 40 cm, spraying root fixing water after planting, and covering a small arched shed for heat preservation.
(2) Planting Chinese yam
The planting time of the Chinese yam is 5 ten days in the middle of the month, and the planting can be carried out when the new buds are exposed for 0.5-1 cm. During planting, a small ditch with the depth of 15 cm is dug on the furrow surface between two loofah plants by a small hoe, new buds of the seeds are placed upwards, and then fine soil is used for covering.
6. Management of field
(1) Luffa management
① seedling management
Keeping the soil moist after planting, closing the greenhouse to raise the temperature, and gradually ventilating after seedling revival.
② management of fertilizer and water
After about one week, applying water and fertilizer for 1-2 times, and irrigating root with 1000 times of urea solution or diluted human and animal excrement to promote rooting and seedling growth. For plants with weak growth vigor, watering and spraying compound fertilizer aqueous solution with mass concentration of 0.3-0.5% for 1-2 times. After the harvest period, topdressing is carried out for 2-3 times every harvest, and 20 kg of compound fertilizer and 10 kg of potassium sulfate are used for each mu each time. Topdressing can be performed simultaneously in combination with intertillage and hilling.
③ Framing and tying vine
And building and tying vines when the towel gourd seedlings grow to 40 cm. Generally, a herringbone frame is suitable.
④ cleaning garden and covering
After the last picking of the loofah in the bottom of 5 months, timely pulling out stems and tendrils and cutting the stems and tendrils into the length of about 0.5 meter so as to lead out bleeding sap and uniformly cover the stems and tendrils on the surface of the ridge. The herringbone frame is continuously reserved for the Chinese yam to climb.
(2) Management of Chinese yams
① early stage of growth
In this period, the soil should be kept moist, and 600 times of urea solution or diluted human and animal excreta can be applied for 1-2 times in combination with watering to promote the growth of seedlings. Thinning when the seedlings grow to about 30 cm, and only 1-2 strong main vines are left in each plant. When the main vines grow to about 50 cm, the stem vines are pulled to a 'herringbone frame' to climb along the frame.
② full growth period
In the period, the Chinese yams grow vigorously and have large fertilizer demand, and 20 kilograms of compound fertilizer and 10 kilograms of urea are applied to each mu. When the plant grows excessively, the plant is properly adjusted, the main vines and the branches are topped, and withered leaves and diseased branches are cleaned. At the moment, the season is positive, and the diseases such as anthracnose and the like are carefully controlled.
③ tuber expansion period
The tuber expansion period is a key period for determining the yield of the Chinese yams, and potato fertilizer needs to be applied, wherein 20 kg of compound fertilizer, 30 kg of calcium-magnesium-phosphate fertilizer and 15 kg of potassium sulfate are additionally applied to each mu. Meanwhile, redundant bulbil is removed, and nutrient waste is avoided. In the middle and later expansion period of tubers, autumn drought is often encountered, irrigation needs to be paid attention to, soil is kept moist and loose, the tubers are promoted to elongate and expand, and the yield is improved.
7. Pest control
(1) Disease and pest control of luffa
① diseases of towel gourd
Common diseases of the luffa include downy mildew, powdery mildew, blight and the like. The downy mildew can be prevented and treated by 500 times of mancozeb wettable powder with the mass concentration of 70% or 500 times of metalaxyl mancozeb wettable powder with the mass concentration of 58%; the powdery mildew is prevented and treated by spraying 800 times of liquid of 50 percent of sulfur suspending agent by mass concentration or 1000 times of liquid of 15 percent of triadimefon wettable powder by mass concentration; the wilt can be prevented and treated by irrigating the roots with 1000 times of 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder and spraying 800 times of 50% promethazine wettable powder on the leaf surfaces.
② insect pest of Luffa cylindrica
Common insect pests of the luffa include aphids, whiteflies, diaphania cucurbitae and the like, and can be controlled by alternately spraying 4500 times of a 10% imidacloprid wettable powder, 1500 times of a 2.5% high-efficiency cyhalothrin missible oil and 3000 times of a 1.8% abamectin missible oil.
(2) Chinese yam pest control
① diseases of Chinese yam
Common diseases of Chinese yams in Guangxi include anthracnose and leaf spot. When the field diseases, 500 times of wettable powder of zineb with mass concentration of 80% and 1000 times of wettable powder of prochloraz with mass concentration of 45% can be alternately sprayed to prevent and control anthracnose; 800 times of chlorothalonil wettable powder with the mass concentration of 75% and 2000 times of propiconazole with the mass concentration of 50% are used for preventing and treating leaf spot.
② insect pest of rhizoma Dioscoreae
Common insect pests of Chinese yam in Guangxi include leaf bees and prodenia litura. When pests are found, 1500 times of solution of phoxim missible oil with the mass concentration of 50%, 3000 times of solution of dichlord missible oil with the mass concentration of 2.5% and 2500 times of solution of methylamino abamectin benzoate with the mass concentration of 2% can be alternately sprayed for prevention and control.
8. Harvesting
(1) Harvesting of Luffa cylindrica
The loofah is harvested in batches from 4 months to 5 months, and harvested as early as possible in the morning to keep fresh. After the last harvest, the melon vines are pulled out, cut into sections and covered on the ridge surface. About 2500 kilograms of fresh towel gourd can be collected per mu.
(2) Harvesting Chinese yam
The Chinese yam harvesting period is long, and the Chinese yam harvesting period can be arranged between 12 months and 2 months in the next year according to market conditions. When the potato chips are collected, the potato chips are dug out by an iron shovel, and the potato chips are packaged and sold on the market after being dried on the ground until the outer skins are dry. During collection, the user needs to pay attention to the light taking and the light placing to avoid mechanical damage. About 2200 kg of fresh yam can be harvested per mu.
According to the embodiment:
1. increase the land multiple cropping index, increase the crop yield per unit area and improve the economic benefit
The planting specification of the Chinese yam is the same as that of the conventional pure Chinese yam, the yield of the Chinese yam interplanted with the towel gourd is not obviously different from that of the pure Chinese yam, and the average yield per mu is about 2000 kilograms. The Chinese yam is interplanted with the spring towel gourd, the towel gourd yield is 2500 kg, the average market price in recent years is 1.8-2.0 yuan/kg, and the mu yield value reaches 4500-5000 yuan/mu. Therefore, the Chinese yam and the spring towel gourd are interplanted, the land replanting index is effectively improved, the crop yield per unit area is increased, and the economic benefit is improved.
2. Relieve continuous cropping obstacle and reduce disease occurrence
The Chinese yam planted by adopting the deep-ditching technology can be taken out only by excavating the Chinese yam to the depth of about 1.2 meters during harvesting, and the labor intensity is high, so that in order to reduce the labor intensity, farmers select a ditch-excavating place for planting in the first year in the second year and even the third year so as to facilitate excavation, which easily causes continuous cropping obstacles, increases soil-borne diseases and reduces the yield, and the luffa vines and the bleeding liquid thereof contain various saponin and alkaloid components, have good inhibition and prevention effects on some fungi and soil-borne diseases, and cover the cut sections of the harvested luffa vines on the planting bed surface of the Chinese yam, thereby being beneficial to relieving the continuous cropping obstacles and reducing the occurrence of the diseases.
2. Saving cost
(1) The pure Chinese yam is generally required to be sprayed for 4 times in one growth period due to continuous cropping, the Chinese yam is interplanted with the towel gourd and is only required to be sprayed for 2 times, the spraying for 2 times is reduced, the medicament and labor cost required by spraying each time per mu are 150 yuan, and the cost per mu can be saved by 300 yuan.
(2) The loofah grows fast, the loofah can be sealed after being planted for more than 20 days, field weed growth is effectively prevented, herbicide cost and labor cost are saved, and after the loofah is harvested, stem leaves can be used for covering the ridge surface of the Chinese yam, so that the soil is moisturized, weed growth is effectively prevented, and the herbicide cost and the labor cost are saved.
Compared with the pure-planting weeding cost of the Chinese yams, the planting mode of interplanting the Chinese yams and the spring loofahs saves 420 yuan per mu, and is shown in table 1.
TABLE 1 comparison of weeding costs for different planting patterns
The foregoing is a more detailed description of the invention in connection with specific preferred embodiments and it is not intended that the invention be limited to these specific details. For those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains, several simple deductions or substitutions can be made without departing from the spirit of the invention, and all shall be considered as belonging to the protection scope of the invention.

Claims (6)

1. An interplanting high-yield cultivation method for Chinese yams and spring loofahs is characterized by comprising the following steps:
a, selecting land, preparing soil and applying base fertilizer, namely selecting a land block with deep soil layer, loose soil quality, no accumulated water and good irrigation and drainage loam or sandy loam, ploughing the land and drying the soil in the sun before planting, raking the land and excavating planting ditches;
b, uniformly stirring the decomposed farmyard manure and the excavated soil, backfilling the mixture into the ditch, raising a high ridge right above the planting ditch, applying a potassium sulfate compound fertilizer as a base fertilizer in combination with soil preparation, uniformly stirring the base fertilizer and the soil, and leveling the ridge surface;
step C, raising seedlings of the towel gourd and the Chinese yam;
d, field planting towel gourd and Chinese yam seedlings;
e, field management of the towel gourd and the Chinese yam;
step F, pest control;
g, harvesting the towel gourd and the Chinese yam;
in the step C, the towel gourd seedling raising method comprises the following steps: the method comprises the following steps of (1) growing seedlings in a protected area by adopting a nutrition cup or a seedling tray, soaking and disinfecting the seeds with warm water during germination acceleration, continuously soaking the seeds after cooling to the normal temperature, then cleaning the seeds, draining water, wrapping the seeds with clean and wet cotton cloth, and accelerating germination at the constant temperature of 28-32 ℃; keeping soil moist in the seedling stage after sowing, keeping the temperature at 22-28 ℃ in the daytime and 15-20 ℃ at night; in the seedling stage, damping-off and damping-off are prevented and treated; planting the seedlings with two leaves and one heart, and hardening the seedlings 1 to 2 weeks before planting;
in the step C, the Chinese yam is used for raising seedlings: selecting healthy upper end tubers with more terminal buds, cutting into potato blocks, and dipping the cut potato blocks into sticky cut noodles with plant ash mixed with a bactericide; sun-drying for 2-3 days to make the cut surface dry and slightly atrophy inwards; during germination accelerating, seed potatoes are uniformly paved on a seedbed or a flat ridge surface, and then a layer of fine soil with the thickness of 2-3 cm is covered, so that seedlings emerge in 25-40 days; the Chinese yam seedling is grown in the last ten days of 4 months; the volume ratio of the bactericide to the plant ash in the plant ash mixed with the bactericide is 1: 100;
the step E comprises the following steps:
and (3) towel gourd management:
(1) keeping the soil moist after field planting, closing the greenhouse to raise the temperature, and gradually ventilating after seedling revival; after seedling recovering, water and fertilizer dressing is started about one week, and the roots are irrigated with human and animal manure, and after the harvesting period, dressing is carried out for 1 time every 2-3 times of harvesting;
(2) Building frames and tying vines by adopting a herringbone frame when the towel gourd seedlings grow to 40 cm;
(3) 5, after the last picking of the loofah at the bottom of the month, timely pulling out stems and tendrils and cutting the loofah into about 0.5 m long, and utilizing the induced bleeding sap to permeate into soil to inhibit and prevent fungi and soil-borne diseases, so that the continuous cropping obstacle can be relieved, the diseases can be reduced, the ecological environment of the Chinese yam land can be improved, and the soil moisture evaporation and weed harm can be reduced;
the herringbone frame is continuously reserved for climbing the Chinese yam;
managing Chinese yams:
(1) Keeping soil moist in the early growth stage, watering, applying urea solution or diluted human and animal excrement, thinning when the seedlings grow to 30 cm, reserving 1-2 strong main vines for each plant, and drawing the stems to a herringbone frame to climb along the frame when the main vines grow to about 50 cm;
(2) topdressing compound fertilizer and urea for each mu in the full growth period, properly adjusting plants when the plants grow excessively, topping main vines and branches, cleaning dead leaves and diseased branches, and paying attention to disease control in the positive high-temperature rainy season;
(3) in the stem tuber expansion period, potato fertilizer is needed to be applied, compound fertilizer, calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and potassium sulfate are applied, and meanwhile, redundant bulbil is removed, so that the nutrient waste is avoided; in the middle and later expansion period of tubers, autumn drought is often encountered, irrigation needs to be paid attention to, soil is kept moist and loose, the tubers are promoted to elongate and expand, and the yield is improved.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein in step C, the yam is cinnamomum japonicum 2; the towel gourd is selected from No. 1 Queen, the towel gourd is grown in a protected area at the beginning of 2 months, is planted at the beginning of 3 months, and is collected from the end of 4 ten days to 5 months; and (3) seedling the Chinese yam in the first ten days of 4 months, sowing seeds in the middle ten days of 5 months, and harvesting from 12 months to 2 months in the next year.
3. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the seedling raising time of the towel gourd is 2 months, the seed soaking and disinfection are carried out for 10 minutes in warm water at 55 ℃ during germination acceleration, the seed soaking is continued for 5 hours after the seed is cooled to normal temperature, and the sowing is carried out when 50% of the seeds are exposed to white.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the time for planting the cucurbita pepo in step D is 3 months; planting 1 row in each ridge, planting at a planting distance of 40 cm, spraying root fixing water after planting, and covering a small arched shed for heat preservation; the planting time of the Chinese yam is 5 ten days in the middle of the month, and the planting is carried out when a new bud is exposed by 0.5-1 cm; during planting, a small ditch with the depth of 15 cm is dug on the furrow surface between two loofah plants by a small hoe, new buds of the seeds are placed upwards, and then fine soil is used for covering.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein step F comprises:
and (3) loofah pest control:
(1) disease of loofah
Common diseases of the luffa include downy mildew, powdery mildew and blight; the downy mildew is prevented and treated by 500 times of mancozeb wettable powder with the mass concentration of 70 percent or 500 times of metalaxyl mancozeb wettable powder with the mass concentration of 58 percent through spraying; the powdery mildew is prevented and treated by spraying 800 times of liquid of 50 percent of sulfur suspending agent by mass concentration or 1000 times of liquid of 15 percent of triadimefon wettable powder by mass concentration; irrigating roots of the wilt disease by using 1000 times of 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder with mass concentration, and simultaneously spraying 800 times of 50% prophyamine wettable powder with mass concentration on leaf surfaces for preventing and treating;
(2) insect damage of towel gourd
Common insect pests of the luffa include aphids, whiteflies and diaphania cucurbitae, wherein 4500 times of imidacloprid wettable powder with the mass concentration of 10%, 1500 times of efficient cyhalothrin missible oil with the mass concentration of 2.5% and 3000 times of abamectin missible oil with the mass concentration of 1.8% are alternately sprayed for prevention and treatment;
and (3) Chinese yam pest control:
disease of Chinese yam
Common diseases of Chinese yams in Guangxi include anthracnose and leaf spot; when the field diseases, 500 times of wettable powder of zineb with the mass concentration of 80% and 1000 times of wettable powder of prochloraz with the mass concentration of 45% are alternately sprayed to prevent and control the anthracnose; 800 times of chlorothalonil wettable powder with the mass concentration of 75% and 2000 times of propiconazole with the mass concentration of 50% are used for preventing and treating leaf spot;
(2) chinese yam insect pest
Common insect pests of Chinese yam in Guangxi province include leaf bees and prodenia litura; when pests are found, 1500 times of solution of phoxim missible oil with the mass concentration of 50 percent, 3000 times of solution of dichlord missible oil with the mass concentration of 2.5 percent and 2500 times of solution of methylamino abamectin benzoate with the mass concentration of 2 percent are alternately sprayed for prevention and control.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein step G comprises:
(1) harvesting of Luffa cylindrica
Picking loofah in batches when the maturity stages of the loofah are different, wherein the harvesting period is from 4 months to 5 months, pulling out the tendrils after the last picking, cutting the tendrils and covering the tendrils on the ridge surface;
(2) harvesting Chinese yam
Arranging between 12 months and 2 months in the coming year, selecting clear weather during collection, digging out the Chinese yam chips by using an iron shovel, and airing the Chinese yam chips at the ground until the outer skins are dry and comfortable, and then boxing and selling the Chinese yam chips on the market.
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