CN106597291A  Online battery parameter estimation method  Google Patents
Online battery parameter estimation method Download PDFInfo
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 CN106597291A CN106597291A CN201610886233.5A CN201610886233A CN106597291A CN 106597291 A CN106597291 A CN 106597291A CN 201610886233 A CN201610886233 A CN 201610886233A CN 106597291 A CN106597291 A CN 106597291A
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Classifications

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01R—MEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
 G01R31/00—Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
 G01R31/36—Arrangements for testing, measuring or monitoring the electrical condition of accumulators or electric batteries, e.g. capacity or state of charge [SoC]
 G01R31/367—Software therefor, e.g. for battery testing using modelling or lookup tables

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01R—MEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
 G01R31/00—Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
 G01R31/36—Arrangements for testing, measuring or monitoring the electrical condition of accumulators or electric batteries, e.g. capacity or state of charge [SoC]
 G01R31/382—Arrangements for monitoring battery or accumulator variables, e.g. SoC
Abstract
The invention provides an online battery parameter estimation method, which comprises the following steps: establishing a battery equivalent circuit model; constructing a battery state equation according to the battery equivalent circuit model; collecting battery information online; identifying coefficients of the battery state equation according to the battery information and by utilizing a forgetting factor recursive least squares method; and calculating the values of parameters in the battery equivalent circuit model according to the coefficients of the battery state equation. The online battery parameter estimation method can accurately estimate the values of the battery parameters online.
Description
【Technical field】
The present invention relates to technical field of battery management, more particularly to a kind of method of estimation on line battery parameter.
【Background technology】
Set of cells provides part as the power of electric automobile, and its state will determine electric automobile performance, therefore set of cells
State monitoring and estimate it is most important.At this stage battery status estimating algorithm major part all relies on the equivalent circuit of battery
Model, therefore the accuracy of the relevant parameter of battery model just determines the precision that battery status is estimated.Battery model parameter is led to
It is often by being fixed value that laboratory is measured offline, but in actual applications, with the aging and external environment of battery
Change, these parameters also can change, inaccurate so as to cause battery status to be estimated.
In consideration of it, real be necessary to provide a kind of method of estimation on line battery parameter to overcome disadvantages described above.
【The content of the invention】
It is an object of the invention to provide it is a kind of can estimation on line battery parameter numerical value exactly estimation on line battery parameter
Method.
To achieve these goals, the present invention provides a kind of method of estimation on line battery parameter, the estimation on line electricity
The method of pond parameter, including：
Set up battery equivalent circuit model；
Battery status equation is built according to the battery equivalent circuit model；
Online acquisition battery information；
The coefficient of the battery status equation is recognized using forgetting factor least square method of recursion according to the battery information；
And
The numerical value of parameter in the battery equivalent circuit model is calculated according to the coefficient of the battery status equation.
Further, the battery equivalent circuit model be battery single order RC equivalentcircuit models, the battery equivalent electric
The parameter of road model includes opencircuit voltage, ohmic internal resistance, polarization resistance and polarization capacity.
Further, " building battery status equation according to the battery equivalent circuit model " includes：
The battery status at k moment is built using the parameter of the battery equivalent circuit model according to Kirchhoff's second law
Equation
U_{T}(k)=U_{oc}(k)+U_{p}(k)+I(k)*R_{0}(expression formula one)
U_{p}(k)=a*U_{p}(k1)+I (k1) * b (expression formula two)
Wherein, U_{T}K () represents the battery terminal voltage at k moment, U_{OC}K () represents the opencircuit voltage at k moment, U_{P}When () represents k k
The polarizing voltage at quarter, I (k) represents the electric current at k moment, R_{o}Represent ohmic internal resistance, U_{P}(k1) polarizing voltage at k1 moment, I are represented
(k1) electric current at k1 moment is represented, Δt
Represent sampling duration, R_{P}Represent polarization resistance, C_{P}Represent polarization capacity；
The battery shape at k1 moment is built using the parameter of the battery equivalent circuit model according to Kirchhoff's second law
State equation
U_{T}(k1)=U_{oc}(k1)+U_{p}(k1)+I(k1)*R_{0}(expression formula three), wherein, U_{T}(k1) the k1 moment is represented
Battery terminal voltage, U_{OC}(k1) opencircuit voltage at k1 moment is represented；And
Expression formula two and expression formula three are substituted into the battery status equation is obtained in expression formula one
U_{T}(k)=a*U_{T}(k1)+U_{oc}(k)*(1a)+(baR_{o})*I(k1)+R_{o}*I(k)。
Further, the battery information includes the battery terminal voltage at k moment, the battery terminal voltage at k1 moment, k moment
Electric current, the electric current at k1 moment.
Further, " battery status is recognized using forgetting factor least square method of recursion according to the battery information
The coefficient of equation " includes：
The battery status equation is solved using the forgetting factor least square method of recursion according to the battery information, is obtained
To following expression：
Wherein, θ (k)=[α_{1},α_{2},α_{3},α_{4}]^{T}(expression formula five),(table
Up to formula six), θ (k) represents the coefficient estimation matrix of the battery status equation at k moment, α_{1}、α_{2}、α_{3}、α_{4}Represent the battery
The coefficient of state equation,The observed quantity vector at k moment is represented, G (k) represents the adjust gain at k moment, when P (k) represents k
Carve and calculateProcedure parameter, the magnitude of voltage of battery terminal voltage when y (k) is k；And
The coefficient of the battery status equation is picked out according to expression formula four, expression formula five and expression formula six
α_{1}=ɑ, α_{2}=R_{P}ɑ*(R_{P}+R_{o}), α_{3}=R_{o}, α_{4}=(1 ɑ) * U_{OC}(k)。
Further, " parameter in the battery equivalent circuit model is calculated according to the coefficient of the battery status equation
Numerical value " includes：
The expression formula of parameter in the battery equivalent circuit model is derived according to the coefficient of the battery status equation
R_{o}=α_{3},Wherein, U_{OC}Representative is opened
Road voltage；And
Calculated in the battery equivalent circuit model according to the expression formula of parameter in the battery equivalent circuit model and joined
Several numerical value.
Further, the first end phase that the first end of the opencircuit voltage passes through the polarization resistance and the ohmic internal resistance
Even, also it is connected with the first end of the ohmic internal resistance by the polarization capacity, second end first of the ohmic internal resistance exports
End be connected, the second end of the opencircuit voltage is connected with the second outfan, first outfan and second outfan it
Between voltage be battery terminal voltage.
Further, " online acquisition battery information " is performed by battery management system.
Compared to prior art, the present invention by being modeled to battery and builds battery according to Kirchhoff's second law
State equation, and using battery management system online real time collecting battery signal, also using forgetting factor least square method of recursion
The numerical value of realtime estimation battery parameter, it is achieved thereby that the function of the multiple parameters numerical value of estimation on line battery exactly.In addition,
Because forgetting factor least square method of recursion only needs to the data of previous moment (such as the K1 moment) and current time (during such as K
Carve) data, therefore substantial amounts of historical data need not be preserved and processed, so as to saving memory space, reducing
The complexity of computing and improve operation efficiency.
【Description of the drawings】
The flow chart of the method for the estimation on line battery parameter that Fig. 1 is provided for embodiments of the invention.
The schematic diagram of the battery equivalent circuit model that Fig. 2 is provided for embodiments of the invention.
【Specific embodiment】
In order that the purpose of the present invention, technical scheme and Advantageous Effects become apparent from understanding, below in conjunction with this
Accompanying drawing in bright embodiment, is clearly and completely described, it is clear that described to the technical scheme in the embodiment of the present invention
Embodiment is only a part of embodiment of the invention, rather than the embodiment of whole.Based on the embodiment in the present invention, this area
The every other embodiment that those of ordinary skill is obtained under the premise of creative work is not made, belongs to protection of the present invention
Scope.
When an element was considered as with another element " being connected ", it can be directly to another element or
May be simultaneously present centering elements.Unless otherwise defined, all of technology used herein and scientific terminology with belong to this
The implication that bright those skilled in the art are generally understood that is identical.The term for being used in the description of the invention herein
It is intended merely to describe the purpose of specific embodiment, it is not intended that of the invention in limiting.Term as used herein " and/or " bag
Include the arbitrary and all of combination of one or more related Listed Items.
It should be noted that " online " that be mentioned herein refers to the state that electrokinetic cell is used in real work, for example
The state run in electric automobile, presence is the dynamic operation condition of a complexity, and electric current and/or voltage are uncertain, with
Time change.Presence is different from electrokinetic cell and is carried out the state of discharge and recharge using charging/discharging apparatus in the lab, also known as
" offline " state.The charging and discharging currents and/or voltage of battery control to form regular by charging/discharging apparatus under offline state
Change keeps constant.
Refer to Fig. 1, the flow chart of the method for the estimation on line battery parameter that Fig. 1 is provided for embodiments of the invention.Root
According to different demands, the execution sequence of the step in flow chart shown in Fig. 1 can change, and some steps can be split as several
Step, some steps can be omitted.
Step S1, sets up battery equivalent circuit model.
Step S2, according to the battery equivalent circuit model battery status equation is built.
Step S3, online acquisition battery information.
Step S4, the battery status side is recognized according to the battery information using forgetting factor least square method of recursion
The coefficient of journey.
Step S5, according to the coefficient of the battery status equation number of parameter in the battery equivalent circuit model is calculated
Value.
Refer to Fig. 2, the schematic diagram of the battery equivalent circuit model that Fig. 2 is provided for embodiments of the invention.In this enforcement
In mode, the battery equivalent circuit model be battery single order RC equivalentcircuit models, the ginseng of the battery equivalent circuit model
Number includes opencircuit voltage U_{OC}, ohmic internal resistance R_{o}, polarization resistance R_{P}And polarization capacity C_{P}.The opencircuit voltage U_{OC}First end pass through
Polarization resistance R_{P}With the ohmic internal resistance R_{o}First end be connected, also by the polarization capacity C_{P}With the ohmic internal resistance
R_{o}First end be connected, the ohmic internal resistance R_{o}Second end the first outfan O1 be connected, the opencircuit voltage U_{OC}The second end
It is connected with the second outfan O2.Voltage between the first outfan O1 and the second outfan O2 is battery terminal voltage
U_{T}, polarization resistance R_{P}And the polarization capacity C_{P}Voltage be polarizing voltage U_{P}, the electricity in the battery equivalent circuit model
Flow for I.In other embodiments, the battery equivalent circuit model can be other equivalentcircuit models, for example, battery two
Rank RC equivalentcircuit models etc..
In the present embodiment, " building battery status equation according to the battery equivalent circuit model " includes：
The battery status at k moment is built using the parameter of the battery equivalent circuit model according to Kirchhoff's second law
Equation
U_{T}(k)=U_{oc}(k)+U_{p}(k)+I(k)*R_{0}(expression formula one)
U_{p}(k)=a*U_{p}(k1)+I (k1) * b (expression formula two)
Wherein, U_{T}K () represents the battery terminal voltage at k moment, U_{OC}K () represents the opencircuit voltage at k moment, U_{P}When () represents k k
The polarizing voltage at quarter, I (k) represents the electric current at k moment, R_{o}Represent ohmic internal resistance, U_{P}(k1) polarizing voltage at k1 moment, I are represented
(k1) electric current at k1 moment is represented, Δt
Represent sampling duration, R_{P}Represent polarization resistance, C_{P}Represent polarization capacity；
The battery shape at k1 moment is built using the parameter of the battery equivalent circuit model according to Kirchhoff's second law
State equation
U_{T}(k1)=U_{oc}(k1)+U_{p}(k1)+I(k1)*R_{0}(expression formula three), wherein, U_{T}(k1) the k1 moment is represented
Battery terminal voltage, U_{OC}(k1) opencircuit voltage at k1 moment is represented；And
Expression formula two and expression formula three are substituted into the battery status equation is obtained in expression formula one
U_{T}(k)=a*U_{T}(k1)+U_{oc}(k)*(1a)+(baR_{o})*I(k1)+R_{o}*I(k)。
In the present embodiment, " online acquisition battery information " is performed by battery management system.The battery information
Including：The battery terminal voltage at k moment, the battery terminal voltage at k1 moment, the electric current at k moment, the electric current at k1 moment.
In the present embodiment, " electricity is recognized using forgetting factor least square method of recursion according to the battery information
The coefficient of pond state equation " includes：
The battery status equation is solved using the forgetting factor least square method of recursion according to the battery information, is obtained
To following expression：
Wherein, θ (k)=[α_{1},α_{2},α_{3},α_{4}]^{T}(expression formula five),(table
Up to formula six), θ (k) represents the coefficient estimation matrix of the battery status equation at k moment, α_{1}、α_{2}、α_{3}、α_{4}Represent the battery
The coefficient of state equation,The observed quantity vector at k moment is represented, G (k) represents the adjust gain at k moment, when P (k) represents k
Carve and calculateProcedure parameter, the magnitude of voltage of battery terminal voltage when y (k) is k；And
The coefficient of the battery status equation is picked out according to expression formula four, expression formula five and expression formula six
α_{1}=ɑ, α_{2}=R_{P}ɑ*(R_{P}+R_{o}), α_{3}=R_{o}, α_{4}=(1 ɑ) * U_{OC}(k)。
In the present embodiment, " calculated in the battery equivalent circuit model according to the coefficient of the battery status equation
The numerical value of parameter " includes：
The expression formula of parameter in the battery equivalent circuit model is derived according to the coefficient of the battery status equation
R_{o}=α_{3},Wherein, U_{OC}Representative is opened
Road voltage；And
Calculated in the battery equivalent circuit model according to the expression formula of parameter in the battery equivalent circuit model and joined
Several numerical value.
The present invention by being modeled to battery and builds battery status equation according to Kirchhoff's second law, and utilizes
Battery management system online real time collecting battery signal, also using forgetting factor least square method of recursion realtime estimation battery parameter
Numerical value, it is achieved thereby that the function of the multiple parameters numerical value of estimation on line battery exactly.Further, since forgetting factor recursion
Method of least square only needs to the data at the data of previous moment (such as the K1 moment) and current time (such as the K moment), therefore is not required to
Substantial amounts of historical data is preserved and processed, so as to the complexity that saves memory space, reduce computing and raising
Operation efficiency.
The present invention is not restricted to described in description and embodiments, therefore can for the personnel of familiar field
Additional advantage and modification are easily realized, therefore in the spirit of the general concept limited without departing substantially from claim and equivalency range
In the case of scope, the present invention be not limited to specific details, representational equipment and shown here as with description diagram show
Example.
Claims (8)
1. a kind of method of estimation on line battery parameter, it is characterised in that：The method of the estimation on line battery parameter includes：
Set up battery equivalent circuit model；
Battery status equation is built according to the battery equivalent circuit model；
Online acquisition battery information；
The coefficient of the battery status equation is recognized using forgetting factor least square method of recursion according to the battery information；And
The numerical value of parameter in the battery equivalent circuit model is calculated according to the coefficient of the battery status equation.
2. the method for estimation on line battery parameter as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that：The battery equivalent circuit model
For battery single order RC equivalentcircuit models, the parameter of the battery equivalent circuit model is including opencircuit voltage, ohmic internal resistance, polarization
Resistance and polarization capacity.
3. the method for estimation on line battery parameter as claimed in claim 2, it is characterised in that：" according to the battery equivalent electric
Road model construction battery status equation " includes：
The battery status equation at k moment is built using the parameter of the battery equivalent circuit model according to Kirchhoff's second law
U_{T}(k)=U_{oc}(k)+U_{p}(k)+I(k)*R_{0}(expression formula one)
U_{p}(k)=a*U_{p}(k1)+I (k1) * b (expression formula two)
Wherein, U_{T}K () represents the battery terminal voltage at k moment, U_{OC}K () represents the opencircuit voltage at k moment, U_{P}K () represents the k moment
Polarizing voltage, I (k) represents the electric current at k moment, R_{o}Represent ohmic internal resistance, U_{P}(k1) polarizing voltage at k1 moment, I (k are represented
1) electric current at k1 moment is represented, Δ t is represented
Sampling duration, R_{P}Represent polarization resistance, C_{P}Represent polarization capacity；
The battery status side at k1 moment is built using the parameter of the battery equivalent circuit model according to Kirchhoff's second law
Journey
U_{T}(k1)=U_{oc}(k1)+U_{p}(k1)+I(k1)*R_{0}(expression formula three), wherein, U_{T}(k1) battery at k1 moment is represented
Terminal voltage, U_{OC}(k1) opencircuit voltage at k1 moment is represented；And
Expression formula two and expression formula three are substituted into the battery status equation is obtained in expression formula one
U_{T}(k)=a*U_{T}(k1)+U_{oc}(k)*(1a)+(baR_{o})*I(k1)+R_{o}*I(k)。
4. the method for estimation on line battery parameter as claimed in claim 3, it is characterised in that：When the battery information includes k
The battery terminal voltage at quarter, the battery terminal voltage at k1 moment, the electric current at k moment, the electric current at k1 moment.
5. the method for estimation on line battery parameter as claimed in claim 4, it is characterised in that：" according to battery information profit
The coefficient of the battery status equation is recognized with forgetting factor least square method of recursion " include：
The battery status equation is solved using the forgetting factor least square method of recursion according to the battery information, obtain as
Lower expression formula：
Wherein, θ (k)=[α_{1},α_{2},α_{3},α_{4}]^{T}(expression formula five),(expression formula
Six), θ (k) represents the coefficient estimation matrix of the battery status equation at k moment, α_{1}、α_{2}、α_{3}、α_{4}Represent the battery status
The coefficient of equation,The observed quantity vector at k moment is represented, G (k) represents the adjust gain at k moment, P (k) represents the k moment and counts
CalculateProcedure parameter, the magnitude of voltage of battery terminal voltage when y (k) is k；And
The coefficient of the battery status equation is picked out according to expression formula four, expression formula five and expression formula six
α_{1}=ɑ, α_{2}=R_{P}ɑ*(R_{P}+R_{o}), α_{3}=R_{o}, α_{4}=(1 ɑ) * U_{OC}(k)。
6. the method for estimation on line battery parameter as claimed in claim 5, it is characterised in that：" according to the battery status side
The coefficient of journey calculates the numerical value of parameter in the battery equivalent circuit model " include：
The expression formula of parameter in the battery equivalent circuit model is derived according to the coefficient of the battery status equation
R_{o}=α_{3},Wherein, U_{OC}Represent open circuit electricity
Pressure；And
Parameter in the battery equivalent circuit model is calculated according to the expression formula of parameter in the battery equivalent circuit model
Numerical value.
7. the method for estimation on line battery parameter as claimed in claim 2, it is characterised in that：The first end of the opencircuit voltage
It is connected with the first end of the ohmic internal resistance by the polarization resistance, also by the polarization capacity and the ohmic internal resistance
First end is connected, and second the first outfan of end of the ohmic internal resistance is connected, and the second end of the opencircuit voltage exports with second
End is connected, and the voltage between first outfan and second outfan is battery terminal voltage.
8. the method for estimation on line battery parameter as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that：" online acquisition battery information " is
Performed by battery management system.
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CN109633456A (en) *  20190122  20190416  武汉大学  A kind of dynamic lithium battery group SOC estimation method based on segmentation voltage identification method 
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