CN106595524A - Method and apparatus for measuring the three-dimensional morphology of train wheel surface - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for measuring the three-dimensional morphology of train wheel surface Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106595524A
CN106595524A CN201611208026.0A CN201611208026A CN106595524A CN 106595524 A CN106595524 A CN 106595524A CN 201611208026 A CN201611208026 A CN 201611208026A CN 106595524 A CN106595524 A CN 106595524A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
wheel
image information
scaling board
dimensional
tested
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Pending
Application number
CN201611208026.0A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
张渝
谭优
杨凯
彭建平
陈瑞
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Beijing Lead Time Science & Technology Co Ltd
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Beijing Lead Time Science & Technology Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201611208026.0A priority Critical patent/CN106595524A/en
Publication of CN106595524A publication Critical patent/CN106595524A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/24Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring contours or curvatures
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using sub-millimetre waves, infrared, visible or ultraviolet light
    • G01N21/84Systems specially adapted for particular applications
    • G01N21/88Investigating the presence of flaws or contamination
    • G01N21/8806Specially adapted optical and illumination features
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using sub-millimetre waves, infrared, visible or ultraviolet light
    • G01N21/84Systems specially adapted for particular applications
    • G01N21/88Investigating the presence of flaws or contamination
    • G01N21/8806Specially adapted optical and illumination features
    • G01N2021/8829Shadow projection or structured background, e.g. for deflectometry

Abstract

The invention discloses a method and apparatus for measuring the three-dimensional morphology of train wheel surface. The method comprises the following steps: obtaining the image information of a calibration target surface; according to the image information of the calibration target surface, calculating the phase-height mapping relationship parameters; obtaining the image information of a measured train wheel surface; based on the image information of the measured train wheel surface, calculating the actual phase difference distribution of the various positions on the measured train wheel surface; according to the actual phase difference distribution of the measured train wheel and the obtained phase-height mapping relationship parameters, calculating the actual height distribution of the various positions on the measured train wheel surface; and based on the actual height distribution, obtaining the three-dimensional morphology of the measured train wheel surface. The invention also discloses an apparatus for measuring the three-dimensional morphology of a train wheel surface. The method and the apparatus of the invention are able to accurately measure the three-dimensional morphology of a train wheel; and through the three-dimensional morphology measurement of the train wheel, it is possible to measure the morphological parameters of the train wheel as well as the surface defects thereof.

Description

The method and device of measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape
Technical field
The present invention relates to rolling stock field, more particularly, it relates to a kind of measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape Method and device.
Background technology
At present, wheel three-dimensional appearance and surface defect measurement is exactly the three-dimension curved surface reconstruct for realizing wheel tread, main at present Following methods to be had:(1) contact measurement method in contact measuring method, such as manual methods, three coordinate measuring machine etc.;(2) Noncontact measuring method, such as laser scanning measurement method, the light in laser scanning measurement method cut method in actual measurement, by laser light Line is projected on wheel tread, obtains the image of wheel tread Line beam using CCD industrial cameras, and graphical analyses can be tried to achieve The data value of two-dimensional space plane, by choosing equiangularly spaced data, carries out data processing, you can obtain whole wheel Appearance profile.The measuring speed of contact measuring method is slow, and the Curvature varying span between wheel rim and tread is larger, contact Measurement method is only suitable for the object of measure geometry simple shape.It is being one equiangularly spaced to wheel tread measurement process that light cuts method The process of sampling, is no lack of among these and has loss, disappearance of data etc., and larger using the data volume of light section method measurement, place The speed of reason is slow;Light cuts method and can only detect wheel tread two-dimensional silhouette curve, needs continuous Overlap-scanning obtain three-dimensional information, And can not disposably complete the detection of wheel surface three-dimensional appearance and surface defect.
In sum, how to measure train wheel three-dimensional surface shape and surface defect is that those skilled in the art are badly in need of solution Problem certainly.
The content of the invention
To solve above-mentioned technical problem, the present invention provides a kind of method of measurement train wheel three-dimensional appearance, can be accurate Measurement train wheel three-dimensional appearance, and pass through its overall dimensions parameter of train wheel D surface contouring and surface defect.
For achieving the above object, the present invention provides following technical scheme:
A kind of method of measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape, including:
Obtain scaling board surface image information;
Phase height mapping Relation Parameters are calculated according to the scaling board surface image information;
Obtain tested wheel surface image information;
The actual phase difference of the tested wheel surface each position is calculated according to the tested wheel surface image information Cloth;
According to actual phase difference distribution and the phase height mapping relation ginseng of the tested wheel surface each position Number calculates the actual height distribution of the tested wheel surface each position;
The three-dimensional surface shape for obtaining the tested wheel is distributed according to the actual height.
Preferably, in the method for above-mentioned measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape, obtain scaling board surface image information Specifically include:
Height coordinate is set up, scaling board is placed on into the dead-center position of the height coordinate;
The surface of projection structure striations to the scaling board;
The scaling board structural light stripes that reception is reflected by the scaling board, and it is converted into scaling board surface image Information.
Preferably, in the method for above-mentioned measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape, according to the scaling board surface image Information calculates phase height mapping Relation Parameters, specifically includes:
Calculated according to the scaling board surface image information phase contrast that Board position difference causes is demarcated due to described;
According to the phase difference calculating phase height mapping Relation Parameters.
Preferably, in the method for above-mentioned measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape, obtain tested wheel surface image letter Breath, specifically includes:
Project the target local location of the structural light stripes to the tested wheel;
The wheel surface structural light stripes that reflected by the target local location of the tested wheel of reception, and by its turn It is changed to wheel surface image information.
Preferably, in the method for above-mentioned measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape, obtain the three-dimensional appearance of the wheel Afterwards, also include:
The wheel surface overall dimensions parameter and surface defect are detected according to the three-dimensional appearance of the wheel.
Present invention also offers a kind of device of measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape, including:
Scaling board;
Image information acquisition device, for obtaining scaling board surface image information, obtains tested wheel surface image information;
Data processor, for calculating phase height mapping Relation Parameters, root according to the scaling board surface image information The actual phase difference distribution of the tested wheel surface each position is calculated according to the tested wheel surface image information, according to described The actual phase difference distribution of tested wheel and the phase height mapping Relation Parameters calculate the tested wheel surface everybody The actual height distribution put, is distributed the three-dimensional surface shape for obtaining the tested wheel according to the actual height.
Preferably, in the device of above-mentioned measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape, described image information acquisition device bag Include:
Fringe projector apparatus, for the surface of projection structure striations to the scaling board, project the structural light stripes To the target local location of the tested wheel.
Imageing sensor, for receiving the scaling board surface texture striations reflected by the surface of the scaling board, And scaling board surface image information is converted into, for receiving what is reflected by the target local location of the tested wheel Wheel surface structural light stripes, and it is converted into wheel surface image information.
Preferably, in the device of above-mentioned measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape, the fringe projector apparatus with it is described There is between imageing sensor default angle, and the scaling board is perpendicular to the optical axis or described image of the fringe projector apparatus The optical axis of sensor.
From above-mentioned technical proposal as can be seen that a kind of side of measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape provided by the present invention Method, obtains scaling board surface image information;Phase height mapping relation ginseng is calculated according to the scaling board surface image information Number;Obtain tested wheel surface image information;The tested wheel surface is calculated according to the tested wheel surface image information The actual phase difference distribution of each position;According to actual phase difference distribution and the phase of the tested wheel surface each position Position-height mapping Relation Parameters calculate the actual height distribution of the tested wheel surface each position;According to the actual height Distribution obtains the three-dimensional surface shape of the tested wheel.Wheel tread two-dimensional silhouette can only be measured in being compared to prior art Curve, the present invention pass through scaling board surface image information and phase height mapping Relation Parameters, calculate the reality of wheel surface Highly it is distributed, so as to obtain the three-dimensional appearance of wheel surface, the data message with regard to wheel surface of acquisition more enriches comprehensive, Wheel pattern is more accurate.
In another preferred embodiment, according to the three-dimensional appearance of the wheel to the wheel profile size and table Planar defect detected, improves wheel surface defects detection precision and Detection accuracy.
Description of the drawings
In order to be illustrated more clearly that the embodiment of the present invention or technical scheme of the prior art, below will be to embodiment or existing Accompanying drawing to be used needed for having technology description is briefly described, it should be apparent that, drawings in the following description are only this Inventive embodiment, for those of ordinary skill in the art, on the premise of not paying creative work, can be with basis The accompanying drawing of offer obtains other accompanying drawings.
A kind of method schematic diagram of measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape that Fig. 1 is provided for the present invention;
A kind of schematic device of measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape that Fig. 2 is provided for the present invention;
A kind of index path of measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape that Fig. 3 is provided for the present invention.
Specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawing in the embodiment of the present invention, the technical scheme in the embodiment of the present invention is carried out clear, complete Site preparation is described, it is clear that described embodiment is only a part of embodiment of the invention, rather than the embodiment of whole.It is based on Embodiment in the present invention, it is every other that those of ordinary skill in the art are obtained under the premise of creative work is not made Embodiment, belongs to the scope of protection of the invention.
Refer to Fig. 1, a kind of method schematic diagram of measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape that Fig. 1 is provided for the present invention.
In a kind of specific embodiment, there is provided a kind of method of measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape, including:
Step S01:Obtain scaling board surface image information;
Step S02:Phase height mapping Relation Parameters are calculated according to the scaling board surface image information;
Step S03:Obtain tested wheel surface image information;
Step S04:The reality of the tested wheel surface each position is calculated according to the tested wheel surface image information Phase contrast;
Step S05:Reflect according to the actual phase difference distribution and the phase height of the tested wheel surface each position Penetrate the actual height distribution that Relation Parameters calculate the tested wheel surface each position;
Step S06:The three-dimensional surface shape for obtaining the tested wheel is distributed according to the actual height.
Further, as the placement location of scaling board can affect the phase value of projected fringe on scaling board, that is, exist high Degree-phase-modulation, therefore, obtain scaling board surface image information and specifically include:Height coordinate is set up, scaling board is placed on into institute State the dead-center position of height coordinate;The surface of projection structure striations to the scaling board;Reception is reflected back by the scaling board The scaling board structural light stripes for coming, and it is converted into scaling board surface image information.
Further, calculate phase height mapping Relation Parameters according to the scaling board surface image information to specifically include: Calculated according to the scaling board surface image information phase contrast that Board position difference causes is demarcated due to described;According to the phase place Difference calculates phase height mapping Relation Parameters.
Further, tested wheel surface image information is obtained, is specifically included:The structural light stripes are projected to the quilt The target local location of measuring car wheel;The wheel surface structure light that reception is reflected by the target local location of the tested wheel Striped, and it is converted into wheel surface image information.
Specifically, structural light stripes are by the projection projected to luminous point, light slit, grating, grid or speckle on testee Equipment is generated, and structural light stripes is projected to the surface of scaling board, as wheel belongs to large scale inspection object, the scope of detection It is the surface of wheel, measurement each time can only measure a part for wheel, therefore whole wheel can not be demarcated, can only The local of wheel is demarcated.When projector equipment is projected to scaling board, by one group of periodic structural light stripes projection Encoded on scaling board, the method for the equiangularly spaced sampling in hinge structure, successive projection structure light of the present invention Striped is to scaling board and the target local location of the tested wheel, it is to avoid the loss and disappearance of data occur.Structure light Include specific coding strategy or information in striped, the every bit on scaling board has corresponding encoded radio, wrap in encoded radio Contain two dimensional surface encoded radio and height value, when structural light stripes are projected in scaling board and after scaling board reflection, will knot Structure striations are carried out Fourier transformation, filtering, inverse Fourier transform or the deformation of several outs of phase are gathered by phase shift Scaling board structure striped is converted to scaling board surface image information, scaling board table by structural light stripes and scaling board structure striped Scaling board two dimensional surface information is contained in the image information of face, height value is 0 image information.According to the scaling board exterior view The Board position difference phase contrast that cause is demarcated due to described as information is calculated, will scaling board can draw when being placed on diverse location Phase contrast is played, and according to the phase difference calculating with regard to the mapping relations of phase height, in the same manner, the structural light stripes is projected to quilt The target local location of measuring car wheel, receives the car wheel structure striations reflected by the target local location of tested wheel, and It is converted into wheel surface image information.
It is pointed out that the present embodiment calculates the phase contrast for demarcating plate surface each position, foundation using phase outline art The phase difference calculating phase height mapping Relation Parameters, calculate the actual phase difference of wheel surface each position, and calculate car The actual height distribution of wheel surface.Above-mentioned parameter can also be calculated using other methods, within protection domain.
Further, in the method for above-mentioned measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape, obtain the three-dimensional shaped of the wheel After looks, also include:The overall dimensions and surface defect of the wheel are detected according to the three-dimensional appearance of the wheel.
In another kind of specific embodiment, as shown in Fig. 2 the present invention also provides a kind of measurement train wheel surface three dimension The device of pattern, it is corresponding with said method, including:
Scaling board 101;
Image information acquisition device, for obtaining scaling board surface image information, obtains tested wheel surface image information;
Data processor, for calculating phase height mapping Relation Parameters, root according to the scaling board surface image information The actual phase difference distribution of the tested wheel surface each position is calculated according to the tested wheel surface image information, according to described The actual phase difference distribution of tested wheel and the phase height mapping Relation Parameters calculate the tested wheel surface everybody The actual height distribution put, is distributed the three-dimensional surface shape for obtaining the tested wheel according to the actual height.
Further, described image information acquisition device includes:
Fringe projector apparatus 102, for the surface of projection structure striations to the scaling board, project the structure Rhizoma Dioscoreae (peeled) The target local location of stricture of vagina to the tested wheel.
Imageing sensor 103, for receiving the scaling board surface texture Rhizoma Dioscoreae (peeled) reflected by the surface of the scaling board Stricture of vagina, and scaling board surface image information is converted into, it is reflected back by the target local location of the tested wheel for receiving The wheel surface structural light stripes for coming, and it is converted into wheel surface image information.
Further, there is default angle between the fringe projector apparatus and described image sensor, and the demarcation Optical axis of the plate perpendicular to the optical axis or described image sensor of the fringe projector apparatus.Specifically, when height coordinate is set up, The dead-center position of height coordinate determines according to the concrete structure of the device of measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape, for example, demarcates Plate 101 can be arranged on the optional position at the top of wheel or below top, can be used as the dead-center position of scaling board.Striped Projection arrangement 102 includes but is not limited to optical grating projection instrument, and imageing sensor 103 is closed with the relative position of fringe projector apparatus 102 System includes but is not limited to above-mentioned position relationship, and it is tested to be that fringe projector apparatus 102 and imageing sensor 103 are all disposed within Wheel 104 be located perpendicular in, fringe projector apparatus 102 and imageing sensor 103 along 104 rotating direction of tested wheel into Certain angle, fringe projector apparatus 102 and imageing sensor 103 are in lower section or obliquely downward of tested wheel 104 etc..Using When, it is to tested wheel 104 and vertical with 103 optical axis of imageing sensor to move scaling board 101 first, scaling board 101 and quilt 104 top local location of measuring car wheel is adjacent, 102 projection structure striations of fringe projector apparatus to 101 surface of scaling board, by image Sensor 103 receives the scaling board surface image information of 101 surface of scaling board reflection, is calculated according to scaling board surface image information The phase contrast of plate surface each position is demarcated, phase height mapping Relation Parameters is then calculated, afterwards two pieces of scaling boards 101 is moved Walk so as to leave 104 surface of tested wheel, and ensure that fringe projector apparatus 102 are motionless with the position of imageing sensor 103, throw The target local location of shadow structural light stripes to 104 surface of tested wheel, receives 104 surface mesh of tested wheel by imageing sensor The stripe information of mark local location, calculates the actual phase difference of wheel surface each position according to the stripe information of wheel surface, according to Calculate described tested according to the actual phase difference and the phase height mapping Relation Parameters of the tested wheel surface each position The actual height distribution of 104 surface each position of wheel, controls tested 104 low speed of wheel and uniform rotation, is distinguished according to its rotating speed 104 surface diverse location of tested wheel is shot, the wheel surface obtained under tested 104 Current surface position of wheel is highly distributed, Actual height Distribution value until obtaining whole 104 surface of tested wheel, and shooting has certain repeat region with the last time every time, According to the height value of the diverse location of each wheel surface for obtaining, the three-dimensional data of different target position is carried out into data successively Process and data splicing, obtain the three-dimensional appearance of whole wheel.
As shown in figure 3, Op, Op in figure ' be respectively 102 camera lens of fringe projector apparatus emergent pupil center and entrance pupil center, Optical axises of the OpOp ' for 102 camera lens of fringe projector apparatus;Oc, Oc ' it is the emergent pupil center of 103 camera lens of imageing sensor and to enter respectively Pupil center, optical axises of the OcOc ' for 103 camera lens of CCD camera, OcOc ' is perpendicular to reference plane.Two optical axis OpOp ', OcOc ' are in ginseng Examine and cross on datum level one point of O, d is the distance between Op and Oc, and L is the length between Oc to reference datum R.B、C It is two differences on reference datum, A is the point on tested wheel surface.Grating fringe direction is vertical with paper.By The structural light stripes that projector 102 casts out are modulated in tested wheel surface, therefore imageing sensor 103 will be obtained The structural light stripes that must deform.
The method and device of the measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape that the present invention is provided, can accurately measure train wheel Three-dimensional surface shape, detects its overall dimensions parameter and surface defect by train wheel three-dimensional surface shape, compares existing skill Measuring method in art, data processing amount are reduced, and improve data processing speed, and more comprehensively, device is simple for the information of the wheel of acquisition Single, low cost is easy to operate.
In this specification, each embodiment is described by the way of progressive, and what each embodiment was stressed is and other The difference of embodiment, between each embodiment identical similar portion mutually referring to.
The foregoing description of the disclosed embodiments, enables professional and technical personnel in the field to realize or using the present invention. Various modifications to these embodiments will be apparent for those skilled in the art, as defined herein General Principle can be realized without departing from the spirit or scope of the present invention in other embodiments.Therefore, the present invention The embodiments shown herein is not intended to be limited to, and is to fit to and principles disclosed herein and features of novelty phase one The most wide scope for causing.

Claims (8)

1. it is a kind of measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape method, it is characterised in that include:
Obtain scaling board surface image information;
Phase height mapping Relation Parameters are calculated according to the scaling board surface image information;
Obtain tested wheel surface image information;
The actual phase difference distribution of the tested wheel surface each position is calculated according to the tested wheel surface image information;
According to actual phase difference distribution and the phase height mapping Relation Parameters meter of the tested wheel surface each position Calculate the actual height distribution of the tested wheel surface each position;
The three-dimensional surface shape for obtaining the tested wheel is distributed according to the actual height.
2. the method for measuring train wheel three-dimensional surface shape as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that obtain scaling board table Face image information, specifically includes:
Height coordinate is set up, scaling board is placed on into the dead-center position of the height coordinate;
The surface of projection structure striations to the scaling board;
The scaling board surface texture striations that reception is reflected by the surface of the scaling board, and it is converted into scaling board table Face image information.
3. the method for measuring train wheel three-dimensional surface shape as claimed in claim 2, it is characterised in that according to the demarcation Plate surface image information calculates phase height mapping Relation Parameters, specifically includes:
Calculated according to the scaling board surface image information phase contrast that Board position difference causes is demarcated due to described;
According to the phase difference calculating phase height mapping Relation Parameters.
4. the method for measuring train wheel three-dimensional surface shape as claimed in claim 3, it is characterised in that obtain tested wheel Surface image information, specifically includes:
Project the target local location of the structural light stripes to the tested wheel;
The wheel surface structural light stripes that reception is reflected by the target local location of the tested wheel, and be converted into Wheel surface image information.
5. as described in any one of Claims 1-4 measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape method, it is characterised in that obtain After obtaining the three-dimensional appearance of the wheel, also include:
The wheel profile dimensional parameters and surface defect are detected according to the three-dimensional appearance of the wheel.
6. it is a kind of measurement train wheel three-dimensional surface shape device, it is characterised in that include:
Scaling board;
Image information acquisition device, for obtaining scaling board surface image information, obtains tested wheel surface image information;
Data processor, for calculating phase height mapping Relation Parameters according to the scaling board surface image information, according to institute The actual phase difference distribution that tested wheel surface image information calculates the tested wheel surface each position is stated, according to described tested The actual phase difference distribution of wheel and the phase height mapping Relation Parameters calculate the tested wheel surface each position Actual height is distributed, and the three-dimensional surface shape for obtaining the tested wheel is distributed according to the actual height.
7. the device of train wheel three-dimensional surface shape is measured as claimed in claim 6, it is characterised in that described image information Acquisition device includes:
Fringe projector apparatus, for the surface of projection structure striations to the scaling board, project the structural light stripes to institute State the target local location of tested wheel;
Imageing sensor, for receiving the scaling board surface texture striations reflected by the surface of the scaling board, and will Which is converted to scaling board surface image information, for receiving the wheel reflected by the target local location of the tested wheel Surface texture striations, and it is converted into wheel surface image information.
8. the device of train wheel three-dimensional surface shape is measured as claimed in claim 7, it is characterised in that the fringe projection There is between device and described image sensor default angle, and the scaling board is perpendicular to the optical axis of the fringe projector apparatus Or the optical axis of described image sensor.
CN201611208026.0A 2016-12-23 2016-12-23 Method and apparatus for measuring the three-dimensional morphology of train wheel surface Pending CN106595524A (en)

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CN110567966A (en) * 2019-07-31 2019-12-13 众宏(上海)自动化股份有限公司 Gear detection method based on line laser scanner

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
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CN110567966A (en) * 2019-07-31 2019-12-13 众宏(上海)自动化股份有限公司 Gear detection method based on line laser scanner

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Application publication date: 20170426