CN106536963A - Friction disk of metal/continuous-structure phase ceramic composite material and method for manufacturing same - Google Patents

Friction disk of metal/continuous-structure phase ceramic composite material and method for manufacturing same Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106536963A
CN106536963A CN201480049998.2A CN201480049998A CN106536963A CN 106536963 A CN106536963 A CN 106536963A CN 201480049998 A CN201480049998 A CN 201480049998A CN 106536963 A CN106536963 A CN 106536963A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
metal
continuous
skeleton
disk
frictional
Prior art date
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CN201480049998.2A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
房殊
Original Assignee
房殊
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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Publication date
Priority to CN201410195034.0A priority Critical patent/CN104235237B/en
Application filed by 房殊 filed Critical 房殊
Priority to PCT/CN2014/086942 priority patent/WO2015169024A1/en
Publication of CN106536963A publication Critical patent/CN106536963A/en

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D18/00Pressure casting; Vacuum casting
    • B22D18/04Low pressure casting, i.e. making use of pressures up to a few bars to fill the mould
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B38/00Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware; Preparation thereof
    • C04B38/02Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware; Preparation thereof by adding chemical blowing agents
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D65/00Parts or details
    • F16D65/02Braking members; Mounting thereof
    • F16D65/04Bands, shoes or pads; Pivots or supporting members therefor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D69/00Friction linings; Attachment thereof; Selection of coacting friction substances or surfaces
    • F16D69/02Compositions of linings; Methods of manufacturing

Abstract

A friction disc of metal/continuous-structure phase ceramic composite material and a method for manufacturing same are provided. The friction disc comprises a metal disc body (1) and a friction layer of metal/continuous-structure phase ceramic composite material arranged on one side or symmetrically arranged on both sides of the disc body. The metal disc body (1) is a metal backboard mechanically connected with the friction layer (3); or the metal disc body can be made of the same material as the composite material in the friction layer (3), and integrally cast with the friction layer; or the metal disc body can be made of the same material as the metal material in the friction layer (3) and integrally cast with the friction layer; or the metal disc body can be made of the same material as the metal material in the friction layer (3) and integrally cast with the friction layer, the disc body having reinforcing ribs. The friction disc of composite material can significantly reduce the weight of clutch plates and friction braking plates, and also has excellent friction and wear performance. It can not only carry out safe and effective friction clutch and brake operation for various kinds of rotating machinery, but also achieve the purpose of reducing cost, light weight and energy saving.

Description

A kind of metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk and preparation method thereof Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk and preparation method thereof, described frictional disk is the clutch disc and brake disc of road traffic vehicle, rail traffic vehicles, aircraft, ship and other rotary motions machinery.
Background technology
With increasing energy scarcity in world wide, by energy-conservation, loss of weight, reduce cost for the purpose of Lightweight Technology start to receive much concern.Current most of road traffic vehicle, rail traffic vehicles, aircraft, ship, rotary motion mechanical clutch piece, friction brake disk still use metal material, and its major defect is that density is big, is unfavorable for mitigating weight;Poor thermal conductivity so that friction surface temperature rise is too high when friction, braking;Thermograde is big, easily causes stress concentration, forms hot spot, produces fire check;Carbon/carbon brake disks are again expensive;All this kind is the unfavorable factor for influenceing it to use.
Inexpensive lightweight be both to road traffic vehicle, rail traffic vehicles, aircraft, ship, rotary motion machinery clutch disc, friction brake disk requirement, even more road traffic vehicle, rail traffic vehicles, aircraft, ship, the mechanical clutch disc of rotary motion, friction brake disk be badly in need of one of the key technology solved.With ceramic reinforced metal, particularly it is combined with silicon carbide ceramics with metal material, it is prepared into road traffic vehicle, rail traffic vehicles, aircraft, ship, rotary motion machinery metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite clutch disc, friction brake disk, it not only can significantly mitigate clutch disc, the weight of friction brake disk, realize inexpensive lightweight, clutch disc, the noise of friction brake disk and temperature rise when friction, braking can also be greatly decreased, the fire check that thermal stress is caused is reduced, clutch disc, the wearability of friction brake disk and life-span is improved.With road traffic vehicle, rail traffic vehicles, aircraft, ship, rotary motion machinery etc. constantly at a high speed, heavily loaded direction develop, the factors that the uniformity of the shape, ceramic phase reinforcement of bond strength, ceramic phase reinforcement to ceramic reinforced metal composite material interface in enhanced metal etc. directly affects metal/ceramic composite performance it is also proposed higher requirement.
Constantly develop the requirements at the higher level to clutch disc, the proposition of friction brake disk performance to high speed, heavily loaded direction to meet road traffic vehicle, rail traffic vehicles, aircraft, ship, rotary motion machinery etc., substantial amounts of work has been done in countries in the world in terms of traditional clutch disc, friction brake disk is substituted with carbon/carbon, carbon/pottery, metal/ceramic composite.Ceramic reinforced metal composite is because cost is low and turns into one of emphasis studied.Ceramic enhancement phase mainly includes particle, fiber, whisker and continuous structure phase ceramics precast body etc..Wherein ceramic particle, fiber and whisker reinforcement are the enhancement methods of most study, but what it was formed when with metal composite is discontinuous structure phase, easily causes ceramic particle, fiber and whisker reinforcedmetal/ceramic composite and occur being bonded in use and come off and reduce the performance of composite.Continuous structure phase ceramics enhancing metal/ceramic composite is study hotspot in recent years, easily there is each structure when being also the ceramic reinforced metal/ceramic composites such as solution particle, fiber, whisker and mix irregular, composition segregation, it is difficult to prepare the important means of large scale, profiled metal/ceramic composite parts.
Compared with traditional ferrous materials, metal/ceramic composite, especially aluminium alloy/ceramic composite causes the great interest that various countries' friction material field carries out aluminium alloy/ceramic composite research and development in a deep going way because of light weight and with higher specific strength, specific stiffness and good heat endurance and wearability.But these researchs are concentrated mainly on invention mutually to be strengthened on Al alloy composite using things such as particle, whisker, fibers.In recent years, by ceramic particle, whisker, fiber and discontinuous structure it is equal be used as aluminum matrix composite enhancing mutually production brake disc report it is a lot, such as patent US6536564, patent US5765667, patent US6585089, patent CN03127145, patent CN 200610137913, patent CN 201220269503, patent CN201310593025.2, patent CN 201310008726.5, patent CN201310008715.7 etc..But the method described in these patents is having following shortcoming in various degree:Particle and whisker are easily reunited in composite material is prepared;Continuously or discontinuously the physics such as fibre reinforcement and the proportion of base alloy material, wetting, chemical property difference are larger, it is difficult to be uniformly combined with each other with parent metal material;Using laser melting coating, the technique such as plasma spray is difficult to prepare thickness up to 5~10mm frictional layer in aluminium base brake disc surface, has had a strong impact on the mechanical property of brake disc and has used.
In order to overcome the shortcoming in above-mentioned ceramic particle, fiber and whisker reinforcedmetal/ceramic composite clutch disc, brake disc patent, people begin attempt to strengthen metal with continuous structure phase ceramics.The highest attention of industry is wherein caused with a kind of (three dimensional network structure reinforced metal matrix composites) foamed ceramics enhancing metallic composite (3DNSRMMCs) of three-dimensional network continuous structure especially.This composite has special topological geometrical property, and enhancing is mutually mutually tangled, coiled with matrix, mutually runs through, is combined, and forms not only complete unified but also relatively independent new material, and in ceramics and metal interface formation transition zone.3DNSRMMCs has light weight, specific modulus height, specific strength height, endurance, good thermal shock, the low advantage of thermal coefficient of expansion, in fields such as Aero-Space, traffic, machine-building, and good application prospect is particularly presented in friction material field.
At present, the preparation method of foaming structure ceramic skeleton reinforcement is a lot, there is foaming, sol-gel process, self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and organic precursor ablation-sintering process etc..Wherein organic precursor ablation-sintering process is to prepare foaming structure ceramic phase reinforcement most simple and effective method.Simultaneously, the method for preparing 3DNSRMMCs composites is also a lot, there is powder metallurgic method (PM), stirring casting method (SC), in-situ reaction (In situ), self-propagating high-temperature method (SHS), exothermic dispersion synthesis (XDTM) and molten liquid forming (MITM) etc..And melt impregnation technology is to prepare one of main method of 3DNSRMMCs composites.The difference of power is infiltrated according to melt, melt impregnation technology is divided into 3 classes again:That is pressure-free impregnation technology (PRIMEXTM), Pressure Infiltration technology (PIM) and vacuum infiltration technique (VDI).
Generally speaking, 3DNSRMMCs composites are prepared at present, are especially combined with ferrous materials with ceramic skeleton, are prepared 3DNSRMMCs composites and are primarily present three below problem:
1. this two-phase neither should be each completely independent and reduce active force each other reinforcement with metal, and complete chemical reaction can not occur again, deteriorate enhancing effect, it is therefore desirable to foaming structure reinforcement surface is modified and shown with obtaining optimal compound interface Micro-structural, and existing research generally lacks the research pre-processed to its surface.
2. vacuum infiltration, Pressure Infiltration technology production cost are too high, and technique, equipment are complicated, it is difficult to prepare the heat treatable large scale casting of high-quality, realize that low-cost industrial is produced.
3. pressure-free impregnation technology can not prepare the large scale casting of high-quality because of the surface tension that insufficient pressure is difficult to overcome foamed ceramics skeleton, or contain the casting flaws such as substantial amounts of shrinkage porosite, shrinkage cavity, loose, cold shut and misrun in product.
The content of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention be the characteristics of being directed to different road traffic vehicles, rail traffic vehicles, aircraft, ship, rotary motion machinery frictional disk there is provided a kind of quality is small, with short production cycle, rapid heat dissipation, good heat endurance, service life length, deform small metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk.
Furthermore, the invention provides a kind of preparation method of metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk, the frictional disk prepared by it has the advantages that friction catch is steady, noise is low, service life length and convenient disassembly.
To reach above-mentioned purpose, frictional disk of the present invention is achieved using following technical scheme:
Frictional disk of the present invention includes metal disk body and located at metal disk body side or is symmetrically set in metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional layer of its both sides;The metal disk body is the metal backing mechanically connected with frictional layer;Either by identical with frictional layer composite material quality and formed with the composite of frictional layer integrally casting;Either by identical with the metal material material in frictional layer and formed with the metal material of frictional layer integrally casting;Either by identical with the metal material material in frictional layer and formed with frictional layer integrally casting and with the metal material of reinforcement.
Further, the mechanical connection of metal backing and frictional layer of the present invention refers to:Riveting, welding or bolt-connection.
Further, reinforcement of the present invention along frictional disk non-rubbing surface be radially arranged and with frictional layer integrally casting shaping, the reinforcement be straight line or curve shape.
Further, reinforcement of the present invention be shaped as lath-shaped, cylindric, elliptic cylindrical shape, it is T-shaped, I-shaped in one or more of combinations.
Further, frictional disk of the present invention is provided with air vent, and the air vent includes the radial air openings that are radially arranged along disk body and/or along the axially arranged axial ventilation hole of disk body;The axial ventilation hole is that, by running through or not through the hole formation of frictional disk disk body, its contour line is circular, ellipse, rectangle or hexagon;When frictional disk has symmetrical frictional layer, the radial air openings are the hole formations between straight line or curve reinforcement on frictional disk non-rubbing surface circumferencial direction;Or, when frictional disk has a frictional layer, the radial air openings are the hole formations between straight line or curve reinforcement on the non-rubbing surface circumferencial direction of two frictional disks;Or, when frictional disk has a frictional layer, the radial air openings are that the hole formed by straight line of the frictional disk on non-rubbing surface circumferencial direction or curve reinforcement with other metal dish bodies is formed.The air vent can integrally casting on frictional disk.
Further, frictional layer radial direction of the present invention can integrally be cast with ventilation slot;The ventilation slot is straight line or curve in radial direction.
Further, the mounting hole or fixture block being connected for the rotating disk or rotary shaft with moving component are integrally cast with frictional disk of the present invention;The contour line of the mounting hole or fixture block can be circular, oval, rectangle or hexagon.
Further, continuous structure phase ceramics of the present invention are continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton;The percent by volume that continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton in the frictional layer accounts for frictional layer is 5~60%;Thickness is 2~35mm.
Further, continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton of the present invention is different according to material, is divided into:Silicon carbide ceramics skeleton, silicon nitride ceramics skeleton, aluminium oxide ceramics skeleton, zirconia ceramics skeleton, mullite ceramic skeleton;Or the complex phase ceramic skeleton of carborundum, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide;
Corresponding carborundum, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, mullite in above-mentioned continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton;Or carborundum, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide complex phase ceramic account for the percentage of ceramic skeleton gross mass for 60~99wt%.
Further, the structure of continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton of the present invention is cycle stepped construction, flat grid structure, continuous column structure or three-dimensional network continuous structure;Wherein, the cycle stepped construction ceramic skeleton is the stacking of octahedron, hexahedron, tetrahedron, rectangular pyramid, fullerene or other structures, and the skeleton section is circle, ellipse, rectangle, six sides or other geometries;Hole in the flat grid structure ceramic skeleton is circle, ellipse, rectangle, six sides, triangle or other geometries, lattice number 1~15 every square centimeter;The cross section of pillar is circle, ellipse, rhombus, rectangle, six sides, triangle or other geometries in the continuous column structure ceramic skeleton;The three-dimensional network continuous structure ceramic skeleton interconnects on three-dimensional, and the porosity is 40~90%, and mesh diameter is 0.5~8mm.
Further, the material of the metal disk body of frictional disk of the present invention and the metal material in metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite is:Aluminium alloy, magnesium alloy, titanium alloy, high temperature alloy, copper alloy, iron or steel.
Further, aluminium alloy of the present invention is ZLXXX, 7XXX, 6XXX, 5XXX, 4XXX, 2XXX or 1XXX series alloys.
Further, aluminium alloy of the present invention, magnesium alloy, titanium alloy, high temperature alloy, copper alloy, iron or steel can use 20~100nm of average grain diameter, account for the percent by volume of metal is strengthened and toughening for 0.1~5% one-dimensional or two-dimentional carbon material, and described one-dimensional or two-dimentional carbon material is CNT or graphene;Or, 20~500nm of average grain diameter can be also used, the percent by volume of metal is accounted for and be strengthened and toughening for 0.1~5% nano-ceramic particle, the nano-ceramic particle is carborundum, titanium carbide, titanium carbonitride, aluminum oxide, cupric oxide or silica.
Further, the casting method used when frictional disk of the present invention makes casts for normal pressure casting, low pressure casting, compression casting, negative pressure casting, counter-pressure casting or vacuum-pressure;Above-mentioned casting method combine with electromagnetic field or with it is ultrasonic combined;During making, the metal of melting is cast into and is fixed with the die cavity of continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton, be integrally cast with metal/company The frictional disk of continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional layer;Or the metal of integrally casting/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional layer and metal backing mechanical bond are obtained into frictional disk;Then frictional disk finished product is obtained after Precision Machining or heat treatment+Precision Machining again.
Further, the preparation method of ceramic skeleton is in frictional disk of the present invention:Template slip casting method, presoma infusion process, gel injection-moulding method, foaming, addition pore creating material method, sol-gal process, freeze-drying, dry pressing, hydrostatic pressing method or 3 D-printing method;During making, ceramic skeleton base substrate is first prepared, then using reaction-sintered, pressureless sintering or hot-pressing sintering method, sintering obtains long 10~300mm, and wide 10~300mm, thickness is 2~35mm ceramic skeleton;Carborundum, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, mullite, or carborundum, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide complex phase ceramic account for the percentage of ceramic skeleton gross mass for 60~99wt%, remaining is sintering aid or sintering addition phase, and the sintering aid or sintering addition are mutually selected from boron carbide, carbon, silica, aluminum oxide, yittrium oxide, silicon nitride, titanium diboride, zirconium diboride or molybdenum disilicide.
Further, the surface of continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton of the present invention can be pre-processed, if preprocess method is as follows:Continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton is placed in 800~950 DEG C of atmosphere furnace, 0.5~12h is incubated, one layer 20~500 μm of sull is obtained;Or starched with CNT, petroleum coke, carbon black, conductive charcoal in one layer of continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton surface spraying, the slurry that the carbon containing or graphite such as printing ink or graphite is made, drying obtains the carbon or graphite linings of 20~500 μm of thickness;Or continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton is surface-treated with the method for chemistry or electrochemistry, its surface is covered chromium oxide, yittrium oxide, titanium oxide, rare earth oxide, alkaline-earth oxide or the W metal of 20~500 μm of last layer thickness, Cu, Ti, Cr film.
Further, the casting mould used in the preparation method of metal of the present invention/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk is discoid, including upper die and lower die and the cast gate on mould;Provided with the detent and positioning wedged block for preventing ceramic skeleton movement, drifting about in the lower mould die cavity;The upper mould, which is provided with, prevents ceramic skeleton movement, the push rod of drift;During for having the frictional disk of air vent between the symmetrical frictional layer of integrally casting, the casting mould also includes core, and the top half of the core, which is provided with, can prevent ceramic skeleton movement, the positioning wedged block of drift;The latter half of the core, which is provided with, can prevent ceramic skeleton movement, the push rod of drift;The shape of the detent of the casting mould is identical with the shape of continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton;The cross section of the positioning wedged block and push rod can be circular, oval, rectangle or hexagon.
The frictional disk is road traffic vehicle, rail traffic vehicles, aircraft, ship, rotary motion machinery clutch disc or friction brake disk.
Reinforcement of the present invention has the function of reinforcing disk body and increase radiating concurrently.
The frictional disk of the present invention passes through mechanical connection or mould integrally casting.During integrally casting, the position for placing continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton, and the default module for forming reinforcement, ventilation slot, air vent, mounting hole or fixture block are preset in a mold, is placed after continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton, casting metal material.
Frictional disk non-rubbing surface of the present invention is the surface layer that frictional layer is not provided with frictional disk, both corresponding to the another side of frictional layer.
Metal disk body of the present invention is the metal backing that mechanically connects by identical with the composite in frictional layer or by identical with the metal material material in frictional layer and formed with frictional layer integrally casting and with the metal material of reinforcement.When specifically referring to the metal dish system and making, using or presetting reinforcement position in casting mould, or core is placed in a mold, the metal disk body with reinforcement is then integrally cast as again.
Using having the beneficial effect that produced by above-mentioned technical proposal:
1. the composite frictional disk prepared using the present invention can significantly mitigate clutch disc, the weight of friction brake disk, and compared with traditional clutch disc, friction brake disk, loss of weight is up to 20~60%.In addition excellent friction and wear behavior is had concurrently, can not only safe and effective friction clutch and braking be carried out to all kinds of high speeds, the road traffic vehicle of heavy duty, rail traffic vehicles, aircraft, rotating machinery, also reach inexpensive lightweight and energy-conservation, the purpose of loss of weight and requirement.
2. large aluminum alloy/continuous structure phase ceramics composite clutch disc, continuous, the industrialized production of friction brake disk can be achieved using low pressure casting, compression casting, vacuum-pressure casting technique in the present invention.It is with short production cycle, greatly reduce production cost.Compression solidification process in low pressure casting, compression casting being capable of feeding capacity of the reinforced aluminium alloy during crystallizing, greatly improve casting compactness, it is ensured that the intensity and macrostructure of aluminium alloy/continuous structure phase ceramics composite and microcosmic microstructural uniformity.
3. the metal in frictional disk/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional layer, the good heat conductivity, good toughness and the ceramic material elevated temperature strength that take full advantage of metal be high, it is wear-resistant the advantages of, obtain more preferable heat resistanceheat resistant decline ability.Ceramic skeleton forms hard micro-protuberance and plays carrying effect in braking procedure, it is suppressed that the plastic deformation and hot mastication of metal, particularly aluminium alloy, improves thermal fatigue resistance.
4. the carbon-coating of ceramic skeleton surface covering can play adjustment coefficient of friction as lubricant component, reduce brake noise effect.Friction surface during long service in brake disc can form firm and stable friction mechanism layer, significantly improve high temperature friction, the polishing machine of composite.The surface active layer covered on ceramic skeleton surface can improve the wettability of ceramic skeleton and metallic matrix, improve the boundary strength of ceramic/metal.
5. the present invention is surface-treated to ceramic skeleton, solve ceramics and metal be particularly and aluminium alloy wetting out problems, so that reinforcement has good wetability with metallic matrix, there is slight chemical reaction at interface, there is the moderate interface transition layer of good, thickness, so as to realize preferably reinforcing effect.
6. metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite the frictional disk produced using the inventive method, optimize structure and performance, the temperature of friction surface when reducing the thermal stress, fire damage and braking of brake disc, can be prevented effectively from and occur the cracking in the discontinuous structure such as traditional metal material frictional disk and particle, whisker, fiber ceramic phase strengthens aluminium alloy frictional disk and Crack Extension.
7. metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite the frictional disk produced using the inventive method, it is applied widely, can with all materials, type brake shoe, such as powder metallurgy, semimetal, synthetic resin, without asbestos organic fiber ceramic brake (NAO) friction, brake shoe pairing use.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1-1 is the structural representation of the embodiment of the present invention 1;
Fig. 1-2 is the schematic side view of the embodiment of the present invention 1;
Fig. 1-3 is Fig. 1-2 A-A sectional views;
Fig. 2 is to cut into need the foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton schematic diagram of shape;
Fig. 3 is the microstructure of ceramic skeleton under different pretreatments;
Wherein:3A is the microstructure of the pretreated ceramic skeleton of oxidizing atmosphere plated film in embodiment 4;
3B is to electroplate the microstructure of pretreated ceramic skeleton in embodiment 3;
3C is to spray the microstructure of pretreated ceramic skeleton in embodiment 1;
3D is the microstructure for not doing the ceramic skeleton pre-processed;
Fig. 4 is foam silicon carbide ceramics and the macrostructure photo at aluminium alloy interface after T6 heat treatments;
Fig. 5 is the microstructure of brake disc disk body ZL111 aluminum alloy materials;
Fig. 6-1 is the temperature at different conditions of frictional disk obtained by embodiment 1, friction coefficient curve figure;
Fig. 6-2 is the temperature at different conditions of frictional disk obtained by embodiment 1, friction coefficient curve figure;
Fig. 7-1 is the structural representation of the embodiment of the present invention 2;
Fig. 7-2 is the left view schematic diagram of the embodiment of the present invention 2;
Fig. 7-3 regards schematic diagram for the right side of the embodiment of the present invention 2;
Fig. 7-4 is the dimensional structure diagram of the embodiment of the present invention 2;
Fig. 8 is the detection data of the subway frictional disk of the embodiment of the present invention 2;
Fig. 9-1 is the experimental result of coefficient of friction under the subway frictional disk friction speed of the embodiment of the present invention 2, pressure condition;
The experimental result of temperature rise when Fig. 9-2 is the subway frictional disk of the embodiment of the present invention 2 big energy continuous braking;
The result of the test of coefficient of friction when Fig. 9-3 is the subway frictional disk of the embodiment of the present invention 2 big energy continuous braking;
Figure 10-1 is the structural representation of the embodiment of the present invention 3;
Figure 10-2 is the schematic rear view of the embodiment of the present invention 3;
Figure 10-3 is Figure 10-2 B-B schematic cross-sectional views;
Figure 10-4 is the dimensional structure diagram of the embodiment of the present invention 3;
Figure 11-1 is the detection data of the high ferro frictional disk of the embodiment of the present invention 3;
Figure 11-2 is the detection data of the high ferro frictional disk of the embodiment of the present invention 3;;
Figure 12-1 is the experimental result of coefficient of friction under the friction speed of the high ferro frictional disk of the embodiment of the present invention 3, pressure condition;
Figure 12-2 is the friction speed of the high ferro frictional disk of the embodiment of the present invention 3, in the case of pressure and water spray coefficient of friction experimental result;
Figure 13-1 is the structural representation of the aircraft Moving plate of the embodiment of the present invention 4;
Figure 13-2 is the schematic cross-sectional view of the aircraft Moving plate of the embodiment of the present invention 4;
Figure 13-3 is the structural representation of the quiet disk of the aircraft of the embodiment of the present invention 4;
Figure 13-4 is the schematic cross-sectional view of the quiet disk of the aircraft of the embodiment of the present invention 4;
Figure 14-1 is the test data figure of frictional disk made from the embodiment of the present invention 4;
Figure 14-2 is the test data figure of frictional disk made from the embodiment of the present invention 4;
Figure 15-1 is the structural representation of the clutch disc of the embodiment of the present invention 5;
Figure 15-2 is the schematic cross-sectional view of the clutch disc of the embodiment of the present invention 5;
Figure 16 is the structural representation of 6 cycle of embodiment of the present invention stepped construction ceramic skeleton;
Figure 17 is the structural representation of the flat grid structure ceramic skeleton of the embodiment of the present invention 7;
Figure 18 is the structural representation of the continuous column structure ceramic skeleton of the embodiment of the present invention 8;
Figure 19-1 is the structural representation of lower mould described in the embodiment of the present invention 10;
Figure 19-2 is the structural representation of mold described in the embodiment of the present invention 10;
Figure 20-1 is the structural representation of core described in the embodiment of the present invention 10;
Figure 20-2 is the schematic side view of core described in the embodiment of the present invention 10.
In the accompanying drawings, 1 metal disk body, 2 continuous structure phase ceramics skeletons, 3 frictional layers, 4 ventilation slots, 5-1 radial air openings, 5-2 axial ventilation holes, 6 reinforcements, 7 mounting holes, 8 cross pin nail, 9 fixture blocks, 10 positioning wedged blocks, 11 detents, 12 push rods, 13 cores, the groove on 14 ceramic skeletons.
Embodiment
The material for the metal material that the present invention is used for road traffic vehicle composite frictional disk and the composite metro braking disk of track traffic, high ferro brake disc is ZLXXX, 7XXX, 6XXX, 5XXX, 4XXX, 2XXX or 1XXX series alloys.The metal material that the Moving plate that the present invention is used for the composite brake disk of aircraft is used is steel, and the quiet disk of brake disc uses copper alloy.
Above-mentioned frictional disk or brake disc are integrally cast with foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton, and the percent by volume that ceramic skeleton accounts for composite frictional layer is 10~50vol.%;The thickness for the ceramic skeleton being cast into brake disc is 5~15mm.Frictional layer can integrally be cast with ventilation slot and axial ventilation hole and radial air openings.
Mounting hole, disk body non-model control are evenly distributed with the frictional disk of automobile, subway and high ferro or the disk body of brake disc The reinforcement of a variety of geometry combinations is cast with the circumferencial direction in face, radial air openings are formed between muscle and muscle or muscle and other faces.
Fixed Moving plate, quiet disk are evenly distributed with the brake disc disk body of aircraft, its fixture block rotated is prevented.
Embodiment 1
The structure of the foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton enhancing ZL111 composite brake disks of the present embodiment casting is as shown in accompanying drawing 1-1,1-2,1-3, and the frictional disk includes metal disk body 1 and is symmetrically set in metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional layer 3 of the both sides of metal disk body 1.The frictional layer 3 is formed by continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton 2 of the integrally casting in metal.The structure of described continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton 2 is as shown in Figure 2.The metal disk body 1 be with the metal material in frictional layer 3 it is identical and with the metal material of the integrally casting of frictional layer 3, and be also integrally cast with reinforcement 6 and ventilation slot 4 on the frictional disk, the reinforcement 6 be it is identical with the metal material material in frictional layer 3 and with the metal material of the integrally casting of frictional layer 3.The reinforcement 6 is the curve shape being radially arranged along frictional disk non-rubbing surface.There is the frictional disk of the present embodiment the space on symmetrical frictional layer 3, the frictional disk between reinforcement 6 to form radial air openings 5-1.The metal disk body 1 is evenly distributed with mounting hole 7.
The manufacture craft of foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton enhancing ZL111 composite brake disks is as follows:
Preparation method:
Step 1:The preparation of three-dimensional grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton:Use presoma infusion process by according to the mass percent of carborundum in foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton for 90~99%, remaining silicon carbide slurry prepared for the ratio of boron carbide and carbon, polyurethane foam presoma using 8~15ppi is prepared ceramics biscuits of carbonized bricks and dried as template.In the sintering furnace that ceramics biscuits of carbonized bricks is put into 1950~2280 DEG C, 0.5~3h is incubated, pressureless sintering obtains length for 400mm, and width is 400mm, thickness is 5~15mm foam silicon carbide ceramics block, is cut to the reinforcement for needing shape (see accompanying drawing 2) as frictional layer.The porosity 40~60% of foam silicon carbide ceramics, 1.5~4mm of mesh diameter.2.6~3.2/cm of bulk density of ceramic skeleton3, Vickers hardness (Hv) 30GPa, 0.5~15MPa of rupture strength, 1.5~20MPa of compression strength, 80~100W/ of pyroconductivity (mK).
As prioritization scheme, a certain amount of titanium diboride (TiB can be added in silicon carbide slurry2), or Ti3SiC2, or zirconium diboride (ZrB2), or molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) etc. one or more in ceramics increase the sintering and lubricating ability of carborundum skeleton, the mass percent that wherein carborundum accounts for foamed ceramics skeleton is 85~95%.
Step 2:The pretreatment of foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton:Foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton after sintering is cleaned.The CNT aqueous solution that the multiple-wall carbon nanotube for being purchased from Shenzhen nanometer port company is raw material preparation is covered to the surface of skeleton with spraying coating process, is placed in after drying naturally in batch-type furnace, 30~60min is incubated at 100~150 DEG C, obtain dry nano-sized carbon tube layer.Carbon layers having thicknesses are that the multiple-wall carbon nanotube microstructure on 50~300 μm, foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton is shown in accompanying drawing 3C.
Step 3:The design of brake disc and its casting mould:Required according to user and provided drawing, first carry out computer and build Mould and simulation are calculated.Data and practical condition are calculated according to microcomputer modelling, simulation, designs, be produced on Al/SiCfoamComposite brake disk can integrally be cast with the thick foam silicon carbide ceramics skeletal composite frictional layers of 5~10mm, and the non-rubbing surface of disk body is integrally cast with the steel casting mould of multiple tabular radiating ribs.Long 20~the 120mm of edge lengths, 3~20mm of bond length of tabular radiating ribs.18 ° of circumferencial direction interval, totally 20 reinforcements are uniformly distributed on the non-rubbing surface of disk body.Frictional layer is integrally cast with that 3~4mm is wide, ventilation slot deep 5~8mm, and ventilation slot side has is evenly distributed with mounting hole on 4 ° of pattern draft, disk body.Arc surface transition is used between tabular radiating ribs and the non-rubbing surface of disk body, radius of corner is 2~40mm.The positioning wedged block and push rod for being designed with the detent for preventing ceramic skeleton from being drifted about in casting process, core and preventing network ceramic skeleton from being drifted about in casting process are designed with mould.
Step 4:The low pressure casting of brake disc:Foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton and core are placed in the die cavity of steel mold according to design requirement, in 300~500 DEG C of mold temperature, aluminium alloy (ZL111, that is ZAlSi9Cu2Mg, alloying component percentage by weight Si 8.0~10.0%, Cu 1.3~1.8%, Mg 0.4~0.6%, Mn 0.10~0.35%, Ti 0.10~0.35%, surplus is Al) 700~750 DEG C of melt temperature when start low pressure casting.In a liter liquid stage, 0.5~5s of pressing time;Filling the type stage, metal bath surface rate of climb 20mm/s, filling velocity 3kg/s, 0.5~4s of filling time fill type pumping rate 0.030MPa/s;In pressurization stages, 0.035MPa, 2~20s of dwell time are pressurized again on the basis of type supercharging value is filled;In pressurize solidification stages, the time is 150~300s.Foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton and aluminium alloy compound are integrated acquisition brake disc, core is removed after demoulding cooling.The percent by volume that foam silicon carbide ceramics account for Al alloy composite compound friction layer is 10~50%, and the percentage for accounting for brake disc cumulative volume is 5~25%.As optimization one of microstructural technique of brake disc, can be added in molten aluminium alloy mass percent for 0.1%~5% transition element, rare earth element improve the yield strength and carborundum of aluminium alloy and the boundary strength of aluminium alloy., can also be one-dimensional with 20~100nm of average grain diameter CNT and graphene etc. as the two of the optimize technique for improving brake disc elongation percentage and tensile strength, two-dimentional carbon material is strengthened.Using low-pressure casting method by foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton together with ZL111 aluminium alloy compounds, it is to avoid performance difference and casting technique between metal and ceramic material caused by the sedimentations of the different generations of density, composition are uneven such as are difficult to control at the defect.Specific strength and thermal diffusivity are substantially better than cast steel, cast iron brake disk, and easily generate the defects such as crackle, hot spot when overcoming cast steel, cast iron plate braking.40~70% are up to compared to cast steel, cast iron brake disk loss of weight, temperature reduction is obvious when high speed and grade braking, it is ensured that the security of automobile and the validity of braking.
Step 5;The heat treatment of brake disc:Described brake disc uses T6 Technologies for Heating Processing, and after heat treatment, aluminum substrate tensile strength reaches more than 300MPa, and tensile strength is still greater than 200MPa at 200 DEG C.
Accompanying drawing 4 is foam silicon carbide ceramics and ZL111 Al alloy composite macrostructure photos after T6 heat treatments.Accompanying drawing 5 is the microstructure photograph of brake disc disk body aluminum alloy materials.
Step 6:The Precision Machining of brake disc:The rubbing surface and disk ring surface roughness of the brake disc to reach Ra3.2 with On, the plane of brake disc and connecting seat is vertical with its centre of gyration, and perpendicularity is less than 0.05mm, through the defect such as carrying out flaw detection flawless, loose, shrinkage cavity, cold shut, misrun, and meets requirement for dynamic balance.
Step 7:Finished product is put in storage:By described brake disc one by one inspection, pack, be put in storage respectively.
The finished product of making 1: 1 brake force bench test has been subjected to according to the relevant standards of AK MARST, such as Fig. 6-1, shown in 6-2 frictional disk temperature at different conditions and friction coefficient curve, result of the test is shown, three-dimensional network silicon carbide ceramics enhancing ZL111 composite brakes disk leads to the friction pair of the shoe piece produced composition when speed per hour 180km/h implements to brake with Liaoning nine, brake disc rubbing surface maximum temperature is less than 300 DEG C, and thermograde is small, average friction coefficient about 0.36, friction surface soap-free emulsion polymeization, also produced without fire check and hot spot, braking is steady, noise is low, wear rate is also low, show good friction, polishing machine.
Embodiment 2
The foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton of the present embodiment casting strengthens the structure of 7075 aluminum matrix composite metro braking disks as shown in accompanying drawing 7-1,7-2,7-3 and 7-4, and the frictional disk includes metal disk body 1 and metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional layer 3 located at the side of metal disk body 1.The frictional layer 3 is formed by continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton of the integrally casting in metal.The metal disk body 1 be with the metal material in frictional layer 3 it is identical and with the metal material of the integrally casting of frictional layer 3, and integrally casting is gone back on the frictional disk a reinforcement 6 and ventilation slot 4, the reinforcement 6 be it is identical with the metal material in frictional layer 3 and with the metal material of the integrally casting of frictional layer 3.The reinforcement 6 is the linear being radially arranged along frictional disk.Rectangle axial ventilation hole 5-2 is further set on the ventilation slot 4 of the frictional disk.It is evenly distributed with the metal disk body 1 on positioning cross pin nail 8, the frictional disk and is evenly distributed with mounting hole 7.
The manufacture craft that foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton strengthens 7075 aluminum matrix composite brake discs is as follows:
Step 1:The preparation of three-dimensional grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton:Using with the step 1 identical experimental method of embodiment 1, setting experiment condition is 2000~2250 DEG C of sintering temperature, is incubated 0.5~3h, carries out pressureless sintering, the porosity 40~80% of gained foam silicon carbide ceramics block, 2~6mm of mesh diameter, 2.6~3.2g/cm3 of density, Vickers hardness (Hv) 10~25GPa, 2~35MPa of rupture strength, 5~60MPa of compression strength, 80~100W/ of pyroconductivity (mK), wherein mass percent shared by carborundum are 96~99wt%.
Step 2:The pretreatment of network ceramic skeleton:Silicon carbide ceramics skeleton after sintering is cleaned.A small amount of carbon black and petroleum coke are added into the Mei Diman silk-screens company of Shenzhen that is purchased from, the solid content about 50wt% of carbon silk-screen printing is ground after being mixed in being starched with conductive charcoal, after the solid content of carbon in charcoal slurry reaches about 60wt%, the surface of silicon carbide ceramics skeleton is covered in spray process, it is placed in after drying naturally in batch-type furnace, 30~60min is incubated at 100~150 DEG C, dried carbon and graphite linings that thickness is 100~500 μm is obtained.As optimize technique, network ceramic skeleton first can be incubated 1~5h in 800 DEG C in atmosphere furnace, be taken after after Surface Creation oxide thin layer silicon, then after soaking 30~60min in charcoal slurry described in step 2 Go out drying.
Step 3:The design of brake disc and casting mould:Using with the step 3 identical method of embodiment 1, the steel casting mould of the thick foam silicon carbide ceramics skeletal composite frictional layers of 5~15mm can be integrally cast with by designing and producing one side.As optimization design, 60 ° of the brake disc frictional layer circumferencial direction interval of the present embodiment is evenly distributed with the wide ventilation slots of 5~12mm, and ventilation slot, which is axially provided with rectangular ventilation holes, disk body, is evenly distributed with 12 mounting holes.Brake disc is integrally cast with the thick foam silicon carbide ceramics composite frictional layers of 8mm.Reinforcement be shaped as lath-shaped, cylindric, elliptic cylindrical shape, it is T-shaped, I-shaped in one or more of combinations.Detent and positioning wedged block and push rod are devised in order to prevent network ceramic skeleton from being drifted about in casting process, in mould.
Step 4:The low pressure casting of brake disc:Foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton and precoated sand core are placed in the die cavity of steel mold according to design requirement, in 300 DEG C of mold temperature, aluminium alloy (7075, alloying component percentage by weight Si0.4%, Cu1.2~2.0%, Mg 2.1~2.9%, Mn 0.35%, Ti 0.1~0.5%, Zn 5.1~6.1%, Cr 0.18~0.28%, surplus is Al) 700~750 DEG C of melt temperature when start low pressure casting.In a liter liquid stage, 2~8s of pressing time;Filling the type stage, metal bath surface 1~9mm/s of the rate of climb, filling type for 2~8kg/s, 3~15s of filling time, filling type pumping rate for 0.005~0.006MPa/s;In pressurization stages, 0.010MPa is pressurized again on the basis of type supercharging value is filled, the dwell time is 5~20s;In pressurize solidification stages, the time is 50~300s, and foamed ceramics skeleton and aluminium alloy compound are integrated into acquisition brake disc.The percent by volume that foam silicon carbide ceramics account for Al alloy composite is 10~50%.It is used as one of technique for improving brake disc elongation percentage and tensile strength, strengthened using 20~300nm of average grain diameter nano-ceramic particle and toughening, ceramic particle is carborundum (SiC), titanium carbide (TiC), titanium carbonitride (TiCN), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), cupric oxide (CuO), silica (SiO2) etc. one or more.As the two of the microstructural optimize technique of casting are improved, using the composite casting technique crystal grain thinning joined together with the outfield such as electromagnetic field, ultrasonic wave, the segregation that casting is produced is reduced.
Step 5:The heat treatment of brake disc:Described brake disc uses T6 Technologies for Heating Processing, after heat treatment, aluminium base tensile strength reaches 415MPa, tensile strength 300MPa at 300 DEG C, reduction by 30% using the thermal coefficient of expansion of the enhanced aluminium alloy of nano-ceramic particle than not using enhancing phase, elongation percentage improves 3%.
Step 6:The Precision Machining of brake disc:The rubbing surface and disk ring surface roughness of the brake disc will reach more than Ra3.2, brake disc and the plane of connecting seat are vertical with its centre of gyration, perpendicularity is less than 0.05mm, through the defect such as carrying out flaw detection flawless, loose, shrinkage cavity, cold shut, misrun, and meets requirement for dynamic balance.
Step 7:Finished product is put in storage:By described brake disc one by one inspection, pack, be put in storage respectively.
Strengthen Al alloy composite metro braking disk with the external diameter 640mm foam silicon carbide ceramics that the method for the invention makes, 1: 1 brake force engine bench test has been carried out according to UIC541-3 standards.Test data shows:The brake disc is in speed per hour 80km/h, big energy 55kW brakings in ten minutes, 406 DEG C of brake disc friction surface maximum temperature, compared to cast iron, cast steel, forging Steel Moving plate farthest reduces temperature rise and the thermograde of brake disc.After experiment, friction surface soap-free emulsion polymeization, hot spot are produced, and visible fire check is not produced yet, and average friction coefficient 0.37, braking is steady, and noise is low, several without abrasion, shows good friction, polishing machine.Compared to cast iron, cast steel, Forging Steel Brake Disc loss of weight up to 40~65%, test data is shown in accompanying drawing 8,9-1~9-3.Wherein Fig. 8 is the detection data of subway frictional disk;9-1 is the experimental result picture of coefficient of friction under subway frictional disk friction speed, pressure condition, the experimental result picture of temperature rise when 9-2 is subway frictional disk big energy continuous braking, the result of the test figure of coefficient of friction when 9-3 is subway frictional disk big energy continuous braking.
Embodiment 3
The foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton of the present embodiment casting strengthens the structure of 5083 aluminum matrix composite brake discs as shown in accompanying drawing 10-1 to 10-5, and the frictional disk includes metal disk body 1 and metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional layer 3 located at the side of metal disk body 1.The frictional layer 3 is formed by continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton of the integrally casting in metal.The metal disk body 1 be with the metal material in frictional layer 3 it is identical and with the metal material of the integrally casting of frictional layer 3, and integrally casting is gone back on the frictional disk a reinforcement 6 and ventilation slot 4, the reinforcement 6 be it is identical with the metal material in frictional layer 3 and with the metal material of the integrally casting of frictional layer 3.The reinforcement 6 is the linear being radially arranged along frictional disk.Rectangle axial ventilation hole 5-2 is further set on the reinforcement 6 of the frictional disk.Mounting hole 7 is evenly distributed with the metal disk body 1.
The manufacture craft that foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton strengthens 5083 aluminum matrix composite brake discs is as follows:
Step 1:The preparation of three-dimensional grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton:Using three-dimensional printing-forming mode by the slurry prepared according to a certain percentage, it is prepared into biscuit of ceramics and is dried, recontour.Using pressureless sintering method, 1800~2200 DEG C of sintering temperature is incubated 3h, obtains length for 300mm, and width is 300mm, and thickness is 7~10mm foam silicon carbide ceramics block, through the enhancing shape for being laser-cut into needs.The porosity of foam silicon carbide ceramics is about 60~70%, 2~5mm of mesh diameter, mass percent 97% shared by carborundum in foam silicon carbide ceramics, the density 2.9g/cm3 of ceramic skeleton, Vickers hardness (Hv) 20GPa, 8~10MPa of rupture strength, 45~50MPa of compression strength, 120~130W/ of pyroconductivity (mK).
Step 2:The pretreatment of ceramic foam skeleton:After foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton after sintering is cleaned, dried, the metallic films such as Ni, Cu, Ti, Cr that thickness is 80~400 μm are plated on the surface of skeleton using electric plating method, then the ink borough chief's time for carbon black and petroleum coke being added into printing grinds, after the solid content of carbon in carbon pastes reaches about 60wt%, the surface of skeleton is covered with spray process, it is placed in after drying naturally in batch-type furnace, 30~60min is incubated at 100~150 DEG C, the dry, carbon of 100~500 μm of thickness and graphite linings are obtained, its microstructure is shown in Fig. 3 B.
Step 3:The design of brake disc and its casting mould:Required according to user and provided drawing, first carry out microcomputer modelling and simulation is calculated.Data and practical condition are calculated according to microcomputer modelling, simulation, is designed, being made into one is cast with the steel casting mould of the thick foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton/Al alloy composite frictional layers of 7~10mm.The frictional disk rubbing surface is evenly equipped with 24 trapezoidal ventilation slots, and divulge information 4~10mm of well width, ventilation slot using the rotary shaft of brake disc as center of rotational symmetry, Extend from the inner periphery of brake disc to excircle, ventilation slot axial direction middle part there are rectangular ventilation holes, and the size of air vent is (3~9) × (20~40) mm2;Circumferentially spaced 15 ° are evenly equipped with the first radially reinforcement on the non-rubbing surface of brake disc) muscle and the second radial reinforced rib.The air vent of ventilation slot axial direction middle part is through the first radial reinforced rib and the second radial reinforced rib and in bottom provided with collection air port.In addition brake disc can also set not through air vent, central part of the position at the rubbing surface back side.In order to prevent network ceramic skeleton from being drifted about in casting process, the pin-lift arrangement for compressing ceramic skeleton is devised in a mold.
Step 4:The low pressure casting of brake disc:Foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton is placed on according to design requirement in the steel die die cavity for being preheating to 350~500 DEG C, low pressure casting is started in 680~720 DEG C of aluminium alloy (5083 aluminium alloy) melt temperature.Rise liquid stage, 2~12s of pressing time;Fill the type stage, metal bath surface 1~10mm/s of the rate of climb, filling velocity is 1~10kg/s, 2~20s of filling time, fill type pumping rate for 0.004MPa/s;Pressurization stages, are pressurized 0.010~0.050MPa, 5~50s of dwell time again on the basis of type supercharging value is filled;Pressurize solidification stages, the time is 100~500s, and network ceramic skeleton and aluminium alloy compound are integrally obtained into brake disc.
As one of optimize technique, the transition group or rare earth element of mass percent 0.1~5% are added in molten aluminium alloy to improve the boundary strength of carborundum and aluminium alloy.
It is used as the two of optimize technique, the transition group or rare earth element of mass percent 0.1~5% are added in molten aluminium alloy to improve the boundary strength of carborundum and aluminium alloy, and add the intensity for accounting for the nano-ceramic particle of aluminium alloy percent by volume 0.1~5% raising aluminium alloy.Ceramic particle is carborundum (SiC), titanium carbide (TiC), titanium carbonitride (TiCN), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), cupric oxide (CuO), silica (SiO2) etc. one or more.
Step 5:The heat treatment of brake disc:Described brake disc uses T61 Technologies for Heating Processing, and after heat treatment, the tensile strength of aluminium dish reaches 420MPa, and yield strength reaches 340MPa, elongation 4%.
Step 6:The Precision Machining of brake disc:The rubbing surface and disk ring surface roughness Ra 0.8~1.6 of brake disc, the plane of disk ring, hub and connecting seat is vertical with its centre of gyration, perpendicularity is less than 0.01mm, by the defect such as carrying out flaw detection flawless, loose, shrinkage cavity, cold shut, misrun, and meets requirement for dynamic balance.
Step 7:Finished product is put in storage:By described brake disc one by one inspection, pack, be put in storage respectively.
The high ferro brake disc that we produce and the powder metallurgy brake pad composition antithesis of gram Knoll Inc.'s production, the test program formulated by the total TJ/CL310-2013 technical conditions of iron have carried out 1: 1 brake force bench test test.Brake disc is when 50~380km/h implements to brake, and brake disc maximum temperature is 515 DEG C, and visible fire check is not produced, good friction, polishing machine is shown, test data is shown in accompanying drawing 11-1,11-2,12-1,12-2.Wherein Figure 11-1 and 11-2 is the detection data of high ferro frictional disk, Figure 11-2 hookups 11-1;Figure 12-1 is the friction speed of high ferro frictional disk, under pressure condition coefficient of friction experimental result picture, 12-2 is the friction speed of high ferro frictional disk, in the case of pressure and water spray coefficient of friction experimental result picture.
Embodiment 4
The structure of the foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton enhancing steel Moving plate of the present embodiment casting is as shown in accompanying drawing 13-1 and 13-2, and the frictional disk includes metal disk body 1 and is symmetrically set in metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional layer 3 of the both sides of metal disk body 1.The frictional layer 3 is formed by continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton of the integrally casting in metal.The metal disk body 1 is metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite identical with the material of frictional layer 3 and with the integrally casting of frictional layer 3, and integrally casting is gone back on the frictional disk has ventilation slot 4.It is evenly distributed with the frictional disk on the outside of axial ventilation hole 5-2, the frictional disk and is evenly distributed with fixture block 9.
The structure of the foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton enhancing quiet disk of copper alloy of the present embodiment casting is as shown in accompanying drawing 13-3 and 13-4, and the frictional disk includes metal disk body 1 and is symmetrically set in metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional layer 3 of the both sides of metal disk body 1.The frictional layer 3 is formed by continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton of the integrally casting in metal.The metal disk body 1 is metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite identical with the material of frictional layer 3 and with the integrally casting of frictional layer 3, and integrally casting is gone back on the frictional disk has ventilation slot 4.It is evenly distributed with the frictional disk on the inside of axial ventilation hole 5-2, the frictional disk and is evenly distributed with fixture block 9.
Step 1:The preparation of three-dimensional grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton:Using with the step 1 identical experimental method of embodiment 1, setting experiment condition be 1800~2200 DEG C of sintering temperature, be incubated 1~3h, carry out pressureless sintering, the porosity 60~70% of gained foam silicon carbide ceramics block, mass percent shared by 2~5mm of mesh diameter, wherein carborundum is 98wt%.
Step 2:The pretreatment of ceramic foam skeleton:By the foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton after sintering, in the atmosphere furnace for being put into 800~950 DEG C, 0.5~12h is incubated, one layer 20~500 μm of silicon oxide film is obtained, its microstructure is shown in Fig. 3 A.
Step 3:The design of brake disc and its casting mould:Data and practical condition are calculated according to microcomputer modelling, simulation, design, making can integrally be cast with the steel casting mould of the thick foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton/steel composite material Moving plates of 10~15mm and can integrally be cast with the graphite jig of the thick foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton/quiet disks of copper alloy composite material of 10~15mm.In order to prevent network ceramic skeleton from being drifted about in casting process, devise in a mold for preventing ceramic skeleton movement, the detent of drift and compressing pin-lift arrangement.
Step 4:The vacuum-pressure casting of foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton enhancing steel Moving plate, the foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton enhancing quiet disk of copper alloy:
1. foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton is placed in the die cavity of steel mold according to design requirement, when 350~500 DEG C of mold temperature, the vacuum of mold cavity is less than 1500Pa, during 1550~1750 DEG C of molten steel temperature, apply 0.05~0.25MPa pressure to molten steel and start vacuum-pressure casting, obtain three-dimensional network silicon carbide ceramic skeleton/steel composite material aircraft Moving plate.
2. foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton is placed in graphite jig die cavity according to design requirement, when 350~500 DEG C of mold temperature, the vacuum of mold cavity is less than 2000Pa, during 1150~1250 DEG C of molten alloyed copper temperature, the pressure for applying 0.05~0.25MPa to copper alloy solution starts vacuum-pressure casting, by foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton and copper alloy composite integrated Obtain the quiet disk of aircraft.
Step 5:The heat treatment of brake disc:
1. foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton enhancing steel Moving plate uses corresponding normalizing or annealing process according to the trade mark of the steel of selection
2. the foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton enhancing quiet packing of copper alloy uses corresponding annealing process according to the trade mark of the copper alloy of selection
Step 6:The Precision Machining of brake disc:The rubbing surface and disk ring surface roughness Ra 0.8~1.6 of brake disc, the plane of disk ring, hub and connecting seat is vertical with its centre of gyration, perpendicularity is less than 0.01mm, through the defect such as carrying out flaw detection flawless, loose, shrinkage cavity, cold shut, misrun, meets requirement for dynamic balance.
Step 7:Finished product is put in storage:By described brake disc one by one inspection, pack, be put in storage respectively.
Done foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton enhancing steel Moving plate and the quiet disk composition antithesis of foam silicon carbide ceramics skeleton enhancing copper alloy, 1: 1 brake force bench test has been carried out by GJB1184-2005A standards, result of the test is as shown in Figure 14-1,14-2, friction pair disclosure satisfy that the normal of aircraft and stop the brake request that takes off, braking distance is short, only 900 DEG C of brake disc maximum temperature, and visible fire check is not produced, show good friction and wear behavior.
The clutch disc of embodiment 5
The clutch disc structure of the present embodiment is as shown in Figure 15-1 and 15-2, and the present embodiment clutch disc includes metal disk body 1 and machine riveting in metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional layer 3 of its both sides;The frictional layer 3 is metal/continuous structure phase ceramics skeletal composite, and the metal disk body 1 is steel disk.Ventilation slot 4 and riveted holes are provided with the clutch disc frictional layer 3, riveted holes of the metal disk body 1 provided with riveting frictional layer 3, be provided with the ventilation slot be uniformly arranged on axial ventilation hole 5-2, metal disk body 1 with rotation hub be connected have mounting hole 7 and fixture block 9.
The production method of the above-mentioned composite clutch disc for rotary motion machinery is specific as follows:
Step 1:The preparation of plane grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton:By the SiC powder that particle mean size is 0.5 μm;Particle mean size is 2 μm of boron carbide powder;Average thickness 80nm, 100 μm of average diameter, apparent density 0.030g/cm3 graphene;Particle mean size is 1 μm of cubic boron nitride powder, SiC powder 92wt.% by weight percentage, boron carbide powder 1.5wt.%, graphene 5wt.%, cubic boron nitride 1.5wt.%, it is placed in the ball milling bucket equipped with alumina balls, then ball, material add DOLAPIX PCN dispersants, ZUSOPLAST PS1 plasticizer than being 3: 1, binding agent, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), defoamer etc., in ball milling bucket rotating speed 60r/min, 10~12 times mixing 24h of slurry pH value, obtain the mixed slurry that uniform solid concentration is 45~55vol%.Above-mentioned silicon carbide slurry is poured into gypsum mold, biscuit of ceramics is prepared into and dries.Using pressureless sintering method, 1800~2200 DEG C of sintering temperature is incubated 1~3h, obtains long 300mm, wide 300mm, 5~15mm of thickness silicon carbide ceramics block, with high pressure waterjet into needs enhancing shape.
Step 2:The pretreatment of plane grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton:By the plane grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton after sintering, in the atmosphere furnace for being put into 800~950 DEG C, 0.5~12h is incubated, one layer 20~500 μm of silicon oxide film is obtained.Or After plane grid ceramic skeleton is cleaned, 20~500 μm of chromium oxide of last layer thickness, yittrium oxide, titanium oxide, rare earth oxide or alkaline-earth oxide film are covered on the surface of ceramic skeleton with the method for chemistry or electrochemistry;Or the film of the metal such as Ni, Cu, Ti, Cr of 20~500 μm of thickness.The present embodiment is preferentially surface-treated using electrochemical method to ceramic skeleton, the surface of ceramic skeleton is covered the Cu films of 250 μm of last layer thickness, it is to be dried after be placed in 120 DEG C of batch-type furnace, insulation 8~12 hours.
Step 3:The design of clutch disc and its casting mould:According to design requirement and drawing, suitable metal material is first selected, further according to the casting method of selected metal material, the simulation for carrying out the microcomputer modelling and clutch configuration of casting mould is calculated.Data and practical condition are calculated according to microcomputer modelling, simulation, design, making can integrally be cast with the steel casting mould of the thick plane grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton/Al alloy composite frictional layers of 15mm, and can integrally be cast with the graphite casting mould of the thick plane grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton/copper alloy composite material frictional layers of 15mm.In order to prevent plane grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton from being drifted about in casting process, the pin-lift arrangement for clamping plane grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton is devised in a mold.
Step 4:The compression casting of plane grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton enhancing Al alloy composite frictional layer and the vacuum-pressure casting of plane grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton enhancing copper alloy composite material frictional layer:
1. plane grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton is placed in the die cavity of steel mold according to design requirement, in 680~750 DEG C of molten aluminium alloy temperature, apply 0.5~50MPa pressure initiation pressure casting to aluminium alloy solution, obtain plane grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton/Al alloy composite frictional layer.
2. plane grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton is placed in graphite jig die cavity according to design requirement, when 350~500 DEG C of mold temperature, the vacuum of mold cavity is less than 2000Pa, during 1150~1250 DEG C of molten alloyed copper temperature, the pressure for applying 0.05~0.25MPa to copper alloy solution starts vacuum-pressure casting, and plane grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton and copper alloy composite integrated are obtained into composite frictional layer.
Step 5:The heat treatment of clutch disc:
Plane grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton/Al alloy composite frictional layer, corresponding solution strengthening Technology for Heating Processing is used according to the trade mark of the aluminium alloy of selection.
Plane grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton/copper alloy composite material frictional layer, corresponding annealing process is used according to the trade mark of the copper alloy of selection.
Step 6:The Precision Machining of clutch disc:Plane grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton/Al alloy composite frictional layer and plane grid silicon carbide ceramics skeleton/copper alloy composite material frictional layer are riveted together with metal backing respectively, then according to rubbing surface and disk ring surface roughness Ra 0.8~1.6, the plane of disk ring, hub and connecting seat is vertical with its centre of gyration, perpendicularity is machined less than 0.01mm, through the defect such as carrying out flaw detection flawless, loose, shrinkage cavity, cold shut, misrun, requirement for dynamic balance is met.
Step 7:Finished product is put in storage:By described brake disc one by one inspection, pack, be put in storage respectively.
The ceramic skeleton of the present invention can select various structures, preparation method and pretreatment mode, and to adapt to the design and use demand of differentiated friction disk, several ways therein are only enumerated below, but not as the exhaustion to embodiments thereof.
The preparation and pretreatment of 6 cycle of embodiment stepped construction ceramic skeleton
Figure 16 is several multi-forms of cycle stepped construction, and the lamination unit of cycle stepped construction ceramic skeleton is octahedron, hexahedron, tetrahedron, rectangular pyramid or fowler ethylenic structure, and skeleton section is circle, ellipse, semicircle or polygon.
The preparation of the ceramic skeleton of cycle stepped construction:Using purity > 98%, carborundum, beta-silicon nitride powder and the graphite of d50=1.0 μm of average grain diameter first prepare carborundum combination silicon nitride complex phase ceramics.The present embodiment is by taking the carborundum combination silicon nitride complex phase ceramics skeleton of hexagon as an example, and skeleton is laminated construction, and every layer is connected for hexagon, and the cross section of skeleton is 2mm × 2mm square, and the length of skeleton is 3mm.According to the skeleton structure form of design, the gypsum mold for casting is prepared.Slurry is injected in mould after froth in vacuum, solidifies 12~24h at 60~80 DEG C.Curing and demolding, acquisition surface is smooth, fine and close, uniform, high intensity cycle stepped construction base substrate.Base substrate is dried into 24~48h at 80~200 DEG C, then under 8~10atm argon gas atmosphere, 1900~2100 DEG C of 0.5~1.5h of sintering, obtain long 300mm, wide 300mm, high 5~15mm, mass percent shared by carborundum for 70wt%, outward appearance is regular, cycle stepped construction carborundum combination silicon nitride complex phase ceramics block, with high pressure waterjet into needs enhancing shape.
The pretreatment of cycle laminated ceramic skeleton:After cycle stepped construction carborundum combination silicon nitride ceramics skeleton is cleaned, skeleton is pre-processed using galvanoplastic.
The preparation and pretreatment of the flat grid structure ceramic skeleton of embodiment 7
Figure 17 is a kind of structural representation of flat grid structure, and its mesh shape is square.In addition, the mesh shape of the planar structure can also be circle, ellipse, semicircle or polygon, lattice number every square centimeter is 1~15.
The preparation of aluminum oxide-silicon carbide network ceramic skeleton:The present embodiment prepares ceramic skeleton in dry pressing mode.Raw material uses purity > 99%, the alumina powder and silicon carbide powder of d50=0.5 μm of average grain diameter.The mass percent of alumina powder is 15~30%, and the mass percent of silicon carbide powder is 70~85%, with the PVA aqueous solution through ball milling mixing it is uniform after granulate.According to the length of side 4mm of aluminum oxide-silicon carbide complex phase ceramic skeleton, adjacent mesh apart from 2mm, Gridding length is 10mm hexagon equidistant arrangement, prepares the steel mold for dry pressing.Aluminum oxide-silicon carbide ceramic powder after granulation is obtained into base substrate in punching block in dry pressing under 150MPa pressure.By base substrate in argon gas atmosphere, pressure 0.15MPa, 1850 DEG C of sintering 0.5h obtain the regular ceramic skeleton of accurate size, uniform microstructure, outward appearance.
The pretreatment of aluminum oxide-silicon carbide network ceramic skeleton:After ceramic skeleton is cleaned, electrochemically ceramic skeleton is surface-treated, the surface of ceramic skeleton is covered the W metal film of 100~250 μm of last layer thickness, it is to be dried after be placed in 120 DEG C of batch-type furnaces and be incubated 8~12h.
The preparation and pretreatment of the continuous column structure ceramic skeleton of embodiment 8
Figure 18 is a kind of structural representation of continuous column structure, and it is that the continuous array of pillar cell structure is formed, and the cross section of its pillar cell is hexagon.In addition, the pillar cell of the continuous column structure can also be circle, ellipse, semicircle or polygon.
The preparation of columnar arrays silicon carbide ceramics skeleton:By the silicon carbide slurry prepared according to a certain percentage, it is injected into silica gel mould, biscuit of ceramics and the drying of cylindrical column array structure are obtained with gel injection-moulding legal system, reaction sintering method is recycled, 1300~1800 DEG C of sintering temperature is incubated 1~3h, length is obtained for 300mm, width is 300mm, thickness for 5~15mm the cylindrical column array-structure ceramic block of carborundum, with high pressure waterjet into needs shape.80~90wt% of mass percent shared by carborundum in columnar arrays structure silicon carbide ceramics.
The pretreatment of columnar arrays silicon carbide ceramics skeleton:After columnar arrays structure silicon carbide ceramics after sintering is cleaned, dried, the film of the metals such as the Ni or Cu or Ti or Cr of 80~400 μm of thickness is plated on the surface of skeleton using electric plating method, then one layer of carbon or graphite are covered with spray process again, naturally 30~60min of insulation is placed in 100~150 DEG C of batch-type furnace after drying, the dry, carbon of 300~500 μm of thickness or graphite linings are obtained.
The preprocess method of the ceramic skeleton of embodiment 9
Spraying method as described in example 1 above can be selected to be pre-processed, the microstructure of the ceramic skeleton after processing is as shown in Figure 3 C.Electric plating method as described in example 3 above can also be selected to be pre-processed, the microstructure of the ceramic skeleton after processing is as shown in Figure 3 B.The method of oxidizing atmosphere plated film as described in example 4 above can also be selected to be pre-processed, the microstructure of the ceramic skeleton after processing is as shown in Figure 3A.Can also be without pretreatment, its surface is as shown in Figure 3 D.Mode by different pretreatments can obtain the ceramic skeleton of Different Optimization performance.
Embodiment 10 prepares the mould of the metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite
Required according to user and provided drawing, first select suitable metal material, further according to selected metal material casting method, carry out the computer Simulation calculation of brake disc structure and the modeling of casting mould.According to computer Simulation calculation data, modeling and practical condition, design, making steel casting mould.Mould is wherein played as shown in Figure 19-1, it is provided with the detent 11 for placing ceramic skeleton, positioning wedged block 10 is provided between adjacent positioned groove 11, and the relevant position of detent 11 of mold (as shown in Figure 19-2) is provided with several push rods 12.The setting of detent 11, positioning wedged block 10 and push rod 12 can prevent ceramic skeleton from being drifted about in casting process.The shape of the casting mould detent 11 is identical with the shape of continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton 2;The cross section of the positioning wedged block 10 and push rod 12 can be circular, oval, rectangle or hexagon.
But, it is necessary to which using core 13, the core 13 is casting film covered sand core when needing the symmetrical frictional layer 3 of integrally casting, and having the frictional disk of air vent between frictional layer 3.Figure 20-1 and 20-2 give the structural representation of core 13.The sand Positioning wedged block 10 is provided with core 13 with the opposite position of groove 14 on the ceramic skeleton, and the relevant position that continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton 2 is covered is provided with several push rods 12.The effect of positioning wedged block 10 and push rod is to prevent ceramic skeleton movement, drift.The cross section of the positioning wedged block 10 and push rod 12 can be circular, oval, rectangle or hexagon.

Claims (17)

  1. A kind of metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk, it is characterised in that:
    The frictional disk includes metal disk body (1) and located at metal disk body (1) side or is symmetrically set in metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional layer (3) of its both sides;
    The metal disk body (1) is the metal backing mechanically connected with frictional layer (3);Either by identical with frictional layer (3) composite material quality and formed with the composite of frictional layer (3) integrally casting;Either by identical with the metal material material in frictional layer (3) and formed with the metal material of frictional layer (3) integrally casting;Either by identical with the metal material material in frictional layer (3) and formed with frictional layer (3) integrally casting and with the metal material of reinforcement (6).
  2. Metal according to claim 1/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk, it is characterised in that:
    The metal backing and the mechanical connection of frictional layer (3) refer to:Riveting, welding or bolt-connection.
  3. Metal according to claim 2/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk, it is characterised in that:
    The reinforcement (6) along frictional disk non-rubbing surface be radially arranged and with frictional layer (3) integrally casting shaping, the reinforcement be straight line or curve shape.
  4. Metal according to claim 3/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk, it is characterised in that:
    The reinforcement (6) be shaped as lath-shaped, cylindric, elliptic cylindrical shape, it is T-shaped, I-shaped in one or more of combinations.
  5. Metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk according to claim 3, it is characterised in that:
    The frictional disk is provided with air vent, and the air vent includes the radial air openings (5-1) that are radially arranged along disk body and/or along the axially arranged axial ventilation hole of disk body (5-2);
    The axial ventilation hole (5-2) is that, by running through or not through the hole formation of frictional disk disk body, its contour line is circular, ellipse, rectangle or hexagon;
    When frictional disk has symmetrical frictional layer (3), the radial air openings (5-1) are the hole formations between straight line or curve reinforcement (6) on frictional disk non-rubbing surface circumferencial direction;
    Or, when frictional disk has frictional layer (3), the radial air openings (5-1) are the hole formations between straight line or curve reinforcement (6) on the non-rubbing surface circumferencial direction of two frictional disks;
    Or, when frictional disk has frictional layer (3), the radial air openings (5-1) are that the hole formed by straight line of the frictional disk on non-rubbing surface circumferencial direction or curve reinforcement (6) with other metal disk bodies (1) is formed.
  6. Metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk according to claim 5, it is characterised in that:
    Frictional layer (3) radial direction is integrally cast with ventilation slot (4);The ventilation slot (4) is straight line or curve in radial direction.
  7. Metal according to claim 6/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk, it is characterised in that:
    The mounting hole (7) or fixture block (9) being connected for the rotating disk or rotary shaft with moving component are integrally cast with the frictional disk;The contour line of the mounting hole (7) or fixture block (9) is circular, ellipse, rectangle or hexagon.
  8. Metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk according to claim 7, it is characterised in that:
    The continuous structure phase ceramics are continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton (2);
    The percent by volume that continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton (2) in the frictional layer (3) accounts for frictional layer (3) is 5~60%;Thickness is 2~35mm.
  9. Metal according to claim 8/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk, it is characterised in that:
    The continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton (2) is different according to material, is divided into:Silicon carbide ceramics skeleton, silicon nitride ceramics skeleton, aluminium oxide ceramics skeleton, zirconia ceramics skeleton, mullite ceramic skeleton;Or the complex phase ceramic skeleton of carborundum, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide;
    Carborundum, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, mullite in above-mentioned continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton (2);Or carborundum, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide complex phase ceramic account for the percentage of ceramic skeleton gross mass for 60~99wt%.
  10. Metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk according to claim 8, it is characterised in that:
    The structure of the continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton (2) is cycle stepped construction, flat grid structure, continuous column structure or three-dimensional network continuous structure;
    Wherein, the cycle stepped construction ceramic skeleton is the stacking of octahedron, hexahedron, tetrahedron, rectangular pyramid, fullerene or other structures, and the skeleton section is circle, ellipse, rectangle, six sides or other geometries;
    Hole in the flat grid structure ceramic skeleton is circle, ellipse, rectangle, six sides, triangle or other geometries, lattice number 1~15 every square centimeter;
    The cross section of pillar is circle, ellipse, rhombus, rectangle, six sides, triangle or other geometries in the continuous column structure ceramic skeleton;
    The three-dimensional network continuous structure ceramic skeleton interconnects on three-dimensional, and the porosity is 40~90%, and mesh diameter is 0.5~8mm.
  11. Metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk according to claim 10, it is characterised in that:
    The material of metal material in the metal disk body (1) and metal of the frictional disk/continuous structure phase ceramics composite is:Aluminium alloy, magnesium alloy, titanium alloy, high temperature alloy, copper alloy, iron or steel.
  12. Metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk according to claim 11, it is characterised in that:The aluminium alloy is ZLXXX, 7XXX, 6XXX, 5XXX, 4XXX, 2XXX or 1XXX series alloys.
  13. Metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk according to claim 12, it is characterised in that:
    The aluminium alloy, magnesium alloy, titanium alloy, high temperature alloy, copper alloy, iron or steel use 20~100nm of average grain diameter, accounts for the percent by volume of metal is strengthened and toughening for 0.1~5% one-dimensional or two-dimentional carbon material, and described one-dimensional or two-dimentional carbon material is CNT or graphene;
    Or, the aluminium alloy, magnesium alloy, titanium alloy, high temperature alloy, copper alloy, iron or steel use 20~500nm of average grain diameter, account for the percent by volume of metal for 0.1~5% nano-ceramic particle to be strengthened and toughening, the nano-ceramic particle is carborundum, titanium carbide, titanium carbonitride, aluminum oxide, cupric oxide or silica.
  14. The preparation method of any one of the claim 1-13 metals/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk, it is characterised in that:
    The casting method that the frictional disk is used when making casts for normal pressure casting, low pressure casting, compression casting, negative pressure casting, counter-pressure casting or vacuum-pressure;Above-mentioned casting method combine with electromagnetic field or with ultrasonic combined casting;
    During making, the metal of melting is cast into and is fixed with the die cavity of continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton (2), be integrally cast with the frictional disk of metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional layer (3);Or the metal of integrally casting/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional layer (3) and metal backing mechanical bond are obtained into frictional disk;Then frictional disk finished product is obtained after Precision Machining or heat treatment+Precision Machining again.
  15. The preparation method of metal according to claim 14/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk, it is characterised in that:The preparation method of ceramic skeleton is in the frictional disk:Template slip casting method, presoma infusion process, gel injection-moulding method, foaming, addition pore creating material method, sol-gal process, freeze-drying, dry pressing, hydrostatic pressing method or 3 D-printing method;
    During making, ceramic skeleton base substrate is first prepared, then using reaction-sintered, pressureless sintering or hot-pressing sintering method, sintering obtains long 10~300mm, and wide 10~300mm, thickness is 2~35mm ceramic skeleton;Carborundum, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, mullite, or carborundum, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide complex phase ceramic account for the percentage of ceramic skeleton gross mass for 60~99wt%, remaining is sintering aid or sintering addition phase, and the sintering aid or sintering addition are mutually selected from boron carbide, carbon, silica, aluminum oxide, yittrium oxide, silicon nitride, titanium diboride, zirconium diboride or molybdenum disilicide.
  16. The preparation method of metal according to claim 15/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk, it is characterised in that:The surface of the continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton (2) is pre-processed, if preprocess method is as follows:
    Continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton (2) is placed in 800~950 DEG C of atmosphere furnace, 0.5~12h is incubated, one layer 20~500 μm of sull is obtained;
    Or starched with CNT, petroleum coke, carbon black, conductive charcoal in one layer of continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton (2) surface spraying, the slurry that the carbon containing or graphite such as printing ink or graphite is made, drying obtains the carbon or graphite linings of 20~500 μm of thickness;
    Or continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton (2) is surface-treated with the method for chemistry or electrochemistry, its surface is covered chromium oxide, yittrium oxide, titanium oxide, rare earth oxide, alkaline-earth oxide or the W metal of 20~500 μm of last layer thickness, Cu, Ti, Cr film.
  17. The casting mould used in the preparation method of metal/continuous structure phase ceramics composite frictional disk according to claim 14, it is characterised in that:
    The casting mould is discoid, including upper die and lower die and the cast gate on mould;Provided with the detent (11) and positioning wedged block (10) for preventing ceramic skeleton movement, drifting about in the lower mould die cavity;The upper mould, which is provided with, prevents ceramic skeleton movement, the push rod (12) of drift;
    During for having the frictional disk of air vent between the symmetrical frictional layer of integrally casting (3), the casting mould also includes core (13), and the top half of the core (13), which is provided with, can prevent ceramic skeleton movement, the positioning wedged block (10) of drift;The latter half of the core, which is provided with, can prevent ceramic skeleton movement, the push rod (12) of drift;
    The shape of the detent (11) of the casting mould is identical with the shape of continuous structure phase ceramics skeleton (2);The cross section of the positioning wedged block (10) and push rod (12) can be circular, oval, rectangle or hexagon.
CN201480049998.2A 2014-05-09 2014-09-19 Friction disk of metal/continuous-structure phase ceramic composite material and method for manufacturing same CN106536963A (en)

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