CN106521120A - Bearing steel heating decarbonization control method - Google Patents

Bearing steel heating decarbonization control method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106521120A
CN106521120A CN201610944313.1A CN201610944313A CN106521120A CN 106521120 A CN106521120 A CN 106521120A CN 201610944313 A CN201610944313 A CN 201610944313A CN 106521120 A CN106521120 A CN 106521120A
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heating
temperature
air
furnace
preheating
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CN201610944313.1A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN106521120B (en
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席波
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南京钢铁股份有限公司
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D3/00Diffusion processes for extraction of non-metals; Furnaces therefor
    • C21D3/02Extraction of non-metals
    • C21D3/04Decarburising
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D1/00General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering
    • C21D1/74Methods of treatment in inert gas, controlled atmosphere, vacuum or pulverulent material
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D11/00Process control or regulation for heat treatments
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D3/00Diffusion processes for extraction of non-metals; Furnaces therefor
    • C21D3/10Furnaces therefor

Abstract

The invention discloses a bearing steel heating decarbonization control method. A side-inlet and side-outlet stepper beam heating furnace is adopted; a fuel adopts high-coke mixed gas; a reductive atmosphere is adopted to heat and control the depth of a decarbonization layer; a one-fire production process is adopted; a raw material adopts a GCr15 continuous-cast blank; the steel blank is loaded in the furnace, and enters a preheating section; an air combustion ratio of the preheating section, a heating section and a soaking section is set; a heating temperature, an actual air combustion ratio and a residual oxygen display value are observed if according with the requirements; the pre-temperature of a heat exchanger is observed if exceeding the set temperature; and if abnormalities are generated, the manual intervention is performed. The method solves the contradiction of difficultly controlling the depth of the decarbonization layer due to need of high-temperature long-time dispersion heating by one-fire bearing steel, cancels a peeling procedure, and satisfies that the decarbonization layer dose not exceed 0.5% D high requirement index with low cost.

Description

A kind of bearing steel heats Decarburization Control method
Technical field
The invention belongs to special steel heating technology field, being related to one kind carries out computer heating control decarburized layer using reducing atmosphere The technology of depth, specifically a kind of bearing steel heat Decarburization Control method.
Background technology
The decarburized layer of bearing steel steel is an important technical indicator, and decarburized layer deepness directly influences the wear-resisting of bearing Performance and used life.The decarburized layer of steel depends primarily on the control of heating steel billet technique, it would however also be possible to employ special coating Guard technology(Need to increase more cost).It is distinctly claimed in standard GB/T/T18254, decarburization layer depth different according to specification Degree requires difference, and typically in the range of 1.2%D ~ 2.0%D, the requirement is easier to reach using common heating technique.But due to fierceness Market competition, present user requires more and more higher, as long as there is the Production of bearing user of certain market brand influence, all will Total decarburized layer depth is asked to reach 0.8%D ~ 1.0%D, what is had even requires less than 0.5%D.
The technique of general control decarburized layer deepness is:Low temperature quick heating means are adopted during heating, if running into the non-meter of milling train Draw and stop, steel billet is stopped not in stove, shove charge production again after stove should be dragged for, if detection decarburized layer can not meet technology will Ask, then steel will be carried out after peeling process, could qualified warehouse-in.The weak point of the technique:
(1) a fiery bearing steel is needed to spread in furnace high-temperature heating long-time, it is to eliminate the defects such as carbide liquid-extraction, just uncomfortable Close quickly to heat using low temperature and prevent decarbonization process;
(2) due to being affected by rolling line fault rate, quick heating tapping is occasionally wanted to, steel billet but can't get out;
(3) if rolling line stops, steel billet is needed to drag for stove, the process operability is not strong, not only high labor intensive, and has a strong impact on life Produce efficiency;
(4) using the steel of the technique productions, two fiery bearing steels(Low temperature rapid heating process can be adopted)Decarburized layer deepness one As can only achieve 1.0%D or so, the order to requirements at the higher level needs peeling to process, thus, ton steel cost increase by more than 96 yuan.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of bearing steel heats Decarburization Control method, it is de- using reducing atmosphere computer heating control Carbon-coating depth, it is possible to achieve following two purposes, one is to solve a fiery bearing steel to need high temperature long-time diffusion heating, and is difficult to The contradiction of control decarburized layer deepness;Two is to cancel peeling operation, meets decarburized layer at low cost and refers to less than 0.5%D high requests Mark.
The purpose of the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of bearing steel heats Decarburization Control method, it is characterised in that the method requires as follows:
1)The walking beam heating furnace that side goes out is entered using side;Fuel is high coke mixed gas;Heating furnace burner hearth is divided into With supply hot arc, for hot arc along furnace superintendent direction be divided into preheating section, heating one or two sections and one or two sections of soaking;The parameter of heating furnace includes: Each section of heating-up temperature, heat time, each section of air-fuel ratio, furnace pressure, gas flow, residual oxygen value, temperature before heat exchanger, mix cold wind Machine throttle opening;
2)Bearing steel is GCr15 continuous casting billets using a fiery production technology, raw material, is taken off using weak oxide even reducing atmosphere Carbon, implementation steps are as follows:
(1)GCr15 continuous casting billet shove charges, do not supply hot arc:600~950 DEG C, preheating section:850~1050 DEG C, one section of heating:1160~ 1210 DEG C, two sections of heating:1220 ± 20 DEG C, one section of soaking:1220 ± 20 DEG C, two sections of soaking:1200±20℃;Air-fuel ratio is pressed 2.4 ~ 2.6 settings;
(2)When GCr15 blanks never step to preheating section for hot arc, preheating section air-fuel ratio is by 2.2 settings, and heats one section extremely Two sections of soaking is also by 2.2 settings;
(3)When GCr15 blanks enter each section by certain heat time, each section according to target temperature is set respectively, so as to Automatic combustion is controlled;Average stepping rhythm about 130 seconds;
(4)Observation furnace pressure, controls, between+15Pa ~+30Pa, to prevent from sucking cold wind;
(5)Observation each section of temperature, gas flow, residual oxygen value situation of change;After air-fuel ratio is reduced, intensification can acquire a certain degree of difficulty, and need Gas flow to be heightened, active heat supply;Residual oxygen value constantly can be reduced, until 0.01%;
(6)Whether observation burner hearth afterbody has temperature before phenomenon of burning with anger, and heat exchanger, and highest is no more than 650 DEG C, if constantly rising And near 620 DEG C, should just open and mix air-cooler, to ensure heat exchanger safe operation;Because after air-fuel ratio is reduced, having not in burner hearth In the coal gas for burning completely will be with flue gas stream to burner hearth afterbody and flue, send out with the cold wind of shove charge side suction in stove tail and flue Raw burning, so as to heat exchanger pipe group causes to damage, reduces its service life;
(7)The normal value of Renew theory burning by GCr15 blanks step to stokehold, the air-fuel ratio of back section.
Step(3)In, each section of target temperature be, 880 DEG C of preheating section, one section 1180 DEG C of heating, heating two sections and soaking one Section 1215 DEG C, two sections 1195 DEG C of soaking.In walking beam heating furnace, for hot arc furnace roof be full open hearth roof construction, heat-recovery section stove Push up as screw-down structure, furnace roof partition wall is set between each confession hot arc;Each section has air-fuel ratio setting value and actual value to show, theoretical Air-fuel ratio is about 2.5, and residual oxygen sample point arranges tubular metal heat exchanger in main chimney flue before heat exchanger in flue.
The present invention enters the walking beam heating furnace that side goes out using side, and fuel is high coke mixed gas.Heating furnace overall length 42960mm, effective width 13100mm in stove, heating furnace burner hearth are divided into(That is heat-recovery section)With supply hot arc, for hot arc It is divided into preheating section, heating one or two sections and one or two sections of soaking again along furnace superintendent direction.For hot arc furnace roof be full open hearth roof construction, recuperation of heat Section furnace roof is screw-down structure, between each confession hot arc sets furnace roof partition wall.Each section has air-fuel ratio(That is air and gas flow Ratio)Setting value and actual value show that chemically correct fuel is about 2.5(Daily can be according to the narrow fluctuation of mixed gas calorific value), it is residual Oxygen sample point arranges 3 group of 2 stroke tubular metal heat exchanger in flue in main chimney flue before heat exchanger(Tube Sheet of Heat Exchanger group 1/4 high temperature side of material is 0Cr18SiAl, and 3/4 high temperature side is 0Cr17, and low temperature side is 20g aluminium impregnation of steel tube, and plug-in unit is 1Cr13.), it is allowed to temperature≤650 DEG C into before heat exchanger, for warm-up combustion-supporting air, reclaim waste gas residual heat.To prevent high temperature The damage of side pipe group, when hot blast temperature overtemperature, will report to the police and automatically opens up hot blast diffusion valve, in addition, before air heat exchanger Flue be provided with diluent air system, cold wind can be mixed to reduce flue-gas temperature when flue gas overtemperature from trend flue, it is right Heat exchanger is protected.These hardware facilities are carried out weak oxide even reducing atmosphere computer heating control decarburized layer deepness technology Basic condition.
The present invention adopts reducing atmosphere computer heating control decarburized layer deepness, and solving a fiery bearing steel needs high temperature long-time to expand Heating is dissipated, and is difficult to control to the contradiction of decarburized layer deepness;Cancel peeling operation simultaneously, meet decarburized layer at low cost and be less than 0.5%D high request indexs.
The kind that the present invention is had high demands to decarburization suitable for special steel manufacturing enterprise, such as bearing steel, spring steel and other vapour Automobile-used steel, application prospect are very wide.After using the invention, bearing steel steel decarburization index can be made to reach 0.5%D(D is round steel Diameter, similarly hereinafter)Hereinafter, so as to avoid peeling treatment process, drop this benefit and reach more than 96 yuan/t steel.
Specific embodiment
A kind of bearing steel heats Decarburization Control method, using reducing atmosphere control technique, carries out by following technological process: Billet-charging steel billet enters preheating section setting preheating section, bringing-up section and soaking zone air-fuel ratio observation heating temperature If whether degree, actual mixing ratio and residual oxygen show value meet the requirements, whether overtemperature appearance is different for temperature before observing heat exchanger Often manual intervention.
The equipment that Decarburization Control technique is adopted:Side inlet side outlet walking beam type heating furnace.Need to adjust the parameter bag of heating furnace Include:Each section of heating-up temperature, heat time, each section of air-fuel ratio, furnace pressure, gas flow, residual oxygen value, temperature before heat exchanger, mix Air-cooler throttle opening.
Bearing steel can must adopt high temperature long-time using a fire or two fiery production technologies, a fiery bearing steel (GCr15) Diffusion heating technique is higher to the control technology difficulty of decarburization.And two fiery bearing steels(Bloom)Can quickly be added using low temperature Thermal process is less to present invention process operation difficulty.Therefore, lower mask body introduces a fiery bearing steel(GCr15 continuous casting billets)It is weak Oxidisability even reducing atmosphere decarbonization process implementation steps:
GCr15 continuous casting billet shove charges, now in heating-furnace, each zone temperatures are still performed by corresponding steel grade heater skill, but changeover portion (Refer to the confession hot arc of immediately bearing steel steel billet, such as preheating section)Heating-up temperature starts temperature raising, is that bearing steel high temperature heating creates conditions, Air-fuel ratio is by 2.4 ~ 2.6 settings.Such as, if 45 steel, 50 ~ 60 DEG C of preheating section raising in stove, reaches 860~900 DEG C;One section of heating 90 ~ 120 DEG C are improved, 1120~1160 DEG C are reached, so that the GCr15 temperature raisings drop air-fuel ratio for follow-up shove charge is prepared;(Note:Work 45 steel and GCr15 heating-up temperatures of skill documentation requirements see the table below 1)
1 unit of table:℃
When GCr15 blanks never step to preheating section for hot arc, preheating section air-fuel ratio is by 2.2 settings, and heats one section to equal Two sections of heat is also by 2.2 settings;
When GCr15 blanks enter each section by certain heat time, each section according to target temperature is set respectively(Preheating section 880 DEG C, heating one section 1180 DEG C, heating two sections and one section 1215 DEG C of soaking, two sections 1195 DEG C of soaking), so as to automatic combustion control System;Average stepping rhythm about 130 seconds;
Note observing furnace pressure, control, between+15Pa ~+30Pa, to prevent from sucking cold wind;
Note observing each section of temperature, gas flow, residual oxygen value situation of change.After air-fuel ratio is reduced, intensification can acquire a certain degree of difficulty, just Need to heighten gas flow, active heat supply;Residual oxygen value constantly can be reduced, until 0.01%(The minimum of a value that can be detected.Work as insulation When, gas flow can be less than 6000Nm3/h, and now residual oxygen value can go up not down to 6 ~ 9%);
Note observing whether burner hearth afterbody has temperature before phenomenon of burning with anger, and heat exchanger, no more than 650 DEG C of highest, if on constantly Rise and near 620 DEG C, should just open and mix air-cooler, to ensure heat exchanger safe operation;Because after air-fuel ratio is reduced, having in burner hearth Cold wind in imperfect combustion coal gas will be with flue gas stream to burner hearth afterbody and flue, in stove tail and flue with the suction of shove charge side Generation is burnt, and so as to heat exchanger pipe group causes to damage, reduces its service life;
The normal value of Renew theory burning by GCr15 blanks step to stokehold, the air-fuel ratio of back section(2.5 left and right).
Implement the invention produces decarburization requirement≤0.5%D about 1100 tons of qualified bearing steel about over 5 months, ton steel Reduce about 96 yuan of peeling cost.Also, the production process of peeling and secondary check is reduced, the delivery date about 15 of steel is shortened My god.

Claims (3)

1. a kind of bearing steel heats Decarburization Control method, it is characterised in that the method requires as follows:
1)The walking beam heating furnace that side goes out is entered using side;Fuel is high coke mixed gas;Heating furnace burner hearth is divided into With supply hot arc, for hot arc along furnace superintendent direction be divided into preheating section, heating one or two sections and one or two sections of soaking;The parameter of heating furnace includes: Each section of heating-up temperature, heat time, each section of air-fuel ratio, furnace pressure, gas flow, residual oxygen value, temperature before heat exchanger, mix cold wind Machine throttle opening;
2)Bearing steel is GCr15 continuous casting billets using a fiery production technology, raw material, is taken off using weak oxide even reducing atmosphere Carbon, implementation steps are as follows:
(1) GCr15 continuous casting billets shove charge, does not supply hot arc:600~950 DEG C, preheating section:850~1050 DEG C, one section of heating:1160~ 1210 DEG C, two sections of heating:1220 ± 20 DEG C, one section of soaking:1220 ± 20 DEG C, two sections of soaking:1200±20℃;Air-fuel ratio is pressed 2.4 ~ 2.6 settings;
(2) when GCr15 blanks never step to preheating section for hot arc, preheating section air-fuel ratio is by 2.2 settings, and heats one section extremely Two sections of soaking is also by 2.2 settings;
(3) when GCr15 blanks enter each section by certain heat time, each section according to target temperature is set respectively, so as to Automatic combustion is controlled;Average stepping rhythm about 130 seconds;
(4)Observation furnace pressure, controls, between+15Pa ~+30Pa, to prevent from sucking cold wind;
(5)Observation each section of temperature, gas flow, residual oxygen value situation of change;After air-fuel ratio is reduced, intensification can acquire a certain degree of difficulty, and need Gas flow to be heightened, active heat supply;Residual oxygen value constantly can be reduced, until 0.01%;
(6)Whether observation burner hearth afterbody has temperature before phenomenon of burning with anger, and heat exchanger, and highest is no more than 650 DEG C, if constantly rising And near 620 DEG C, should just open and mix air-cooler, to ensure heat exchanger safe operation;Because after air-fuel ratio is reduced, having not in burner hearth In the coal gas for burning completely will be with flue gas stream to burner hearth afterbody and flue, send out with the cold wind of shove charge side suction in stove tail and flue Raw burning, so as to heat exchanger pipe group causes to damage, reduces its service life;
(7)The normal value of Renew theory burning by GCr15 blanks step to stokehold, the air-fuel ratio of back section.
2. bearing steel according to claim 1 heats Decarburization Control method, it is characterised in that:Step(3)In, each section of target Temperature is, 880 DEG C of preheating section, one section 1180 DEG C of heating, heating two sections and one section 1215 DEG C of soaking, two sections 1195 DEG C of soaking.
3. bearing steel according to claim 1 heats Decarburization Control method, it is characterised in that:Step 1)In, stepping beam type In heating furnace, it is full open hearth roof construction for hot arc furnace roof, heat-recovery section furnace roof is screw-down structure, between each confession hot arc sets furnace roof Partition wall;Each section has air-fuel ratio setting value and actual value to show, chemically correct fuel is about 2.5, and residual oxygen sample point is located at heat exchange Before device in main chimney flue, tubular metal heat exchanger is set in flue.
CN201610944313.1A 2016-10-26 2016-10-26 A kind of bearing steel heats Decarburization Control method CN106521120B (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107385177A (en) * 2017-06-06 2017-11-24 无锡兴澄特种材料有限公司 Medium carbon steel skin decarburization controls hot rolling wire production technology
CN107460301A (en) * 2017-06-29 2017-12-12 南京钢铁股份有限公司 A kind of heating means of mitigation GCr15 bearing steel decarburized layer deepness
CN108611572A (en) * 2018-05-11 2018-10-02 鞍钢股份有限公司 A kind of high-ductility hypereutectoid steel spring plate and its production method
CN109112280A (en) * 2018-08-07 2019-01-01 南京钢铁股份有限公司 A kind of control method of bearing steel wire rod decarburized depth
CN109385516A (en) * 2018-10-26 2019-02-26 福建三钢闽光股份有限公司 A kind of method of determining heater for rolling steel decarbonization process parameter
CN109943774A (en) * 2019-02-27 2019-06-28 南京钢铁股份有限公司 A kind of Low Alloy Steel for Automobile and its heating Decarburization Control technique
CN110157872A (en) * 2019-04-19 2019-08-23 首钢京唐钢铁联合有限责任公司 A kind of heating means reducing recuperative heater slab burn out rate

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CN202660889U (en) * 2012-05-04 2013-01-09 北京首钢国际工程技术有限公司 Liquid deslagging high-temperature oriented silicon steel walking beam type slab heating furnace
CN104190705A (en) * 2014-08-04 2014-12-10 南京钢铁股份有限公司 Production technology for bearing steel wire rod
CN104419818A (en) * 2013-08-22 2015-03-18 南京钢铁股份有限公司 Heating method for cold-heading steel wire
CN105132657A (en) * 2015-09-29 2015-12-09 邢台钢铁有限责任公司 Method for decreasing decarburized layers on surfaces of high-carbon-chromium bearing steel wires

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101195853A (en) * 2007-12-19 2008-06-11 莱芜钢铁集团有限公司 Heating method for preventing high carbon belt steel bloom decarburization
CN202660889U (en) * 2012-05-04 2013-01-09 北京首钢国际工程技术有限公司 Liquid deslagging high-temperature oriented silicon steel walking beam type slab heating furnace
CN104419818A (en) * 2013-08-22 2015-03-18 南京钢铁股份有限公司 Heating method for cold-heading steel wire
CN104190705A (en) * 2014-08-04 2014-12-10 南京钢铁股份有限公司 Production technology for bearing steel wire rod
CN105132657A (en) * 2015-09-29 2015-12-09 邢台钢铁有限责任公司 Method for decreasing decarburized layers on surfaces of high-carbon-chromium bearing steel wires

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107385177A (en) * 2017-06-06 2017-11-24 无锡兴澄特种材料有限公司 Medium carbon steel skin decarburization controls hot rolling wire production technology
CN107385177B (en) * 2017-06-06 2018-12-21 无锡兴澄特种材料有限公司 Medium carbon steel skin decarburization controls hot rolling wire production technology
CN107460301A (en) * 2017-06-29 2017-12-12 南京钢铁股份有限公司 A kind of heating means of mitigation GCr15 bearing steel decarburized layer deepness
CN108611572A (en) * 2018-05-11 2018-10-02 鞍钢股份有限公司 A kind of high-ductility hypereutectoid steel spring plate and its production method
CN109112280A (en) * 2018-08-07 2019-01-01 南京钢铁股份有限公司 A kind of control method of bearing steel wire rod decarburized depth
CN109385516A (en) * 2018-10-26 2019-02-26 福建三钢闽光股份有限公司 A kind of method of determining heater for rolling steel decarbonization process parameter
CN109943774A (en) * 2019-02-27 2019-06-28 南京钢铁股份有限公司 A kind of Low Alloy Steel for Automobile and its heating Decarburization Control technique
CN110157872A (en) * 2019-04-19 2019-08-23 首钢京唐钢铁联合有限责任公司 A kind of heating means reducing recuperative heater slab burn out rate
CN110157872B (en) * 2019-04-19 2021-02-26 首钢京唐钢铁联合有限责任公司 Heating method for reducing burning loss rate of plate blank of heat accumulating type heating furnace

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