CN106508978A - Smoke agent for control of greenhouse botrytis cinerea and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Smoke agent for control of greenhouse botrytis cinerea and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106508978A
CN106508978A CN201610926581.0A CN201610926581A CN106508978A CN 106508978 A CN106508978 A CN 106508978A CN 201610926581 A CN201610926581 A CN 201610926581A CN 106508978 A CN106508978 A CN 106508978A
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parts
fumicants
preventing
weight
siberian cocklebur
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丁艺涵
马新攀
马成耀
郭便荣
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Zhengzhou Sibian Technology Co Ltd
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Zhengzhou Sibian Technology Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N25/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators, characterised by their forms, or by their non-active ingredients or by their methods of application, e.g. seed treatment or sequential application; Substances for reducing the noxious effect of the active ingredients to organisms other than pests
    • A01N25/18Vapour or smoke emitting compositions with delayed or sustained release
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N65/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing material from algae, lichens, bryophyta, multi-cellular fungi or plants, or extracts thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N65/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing material from algae, lichens, bryophyta, multi-cellular fungi or plants, or extracts thereof
    • A01N65/08Magnoliopsida [dicotyledons]
    • A01N65/24Lauraceae [Laurel family], e.g. laurel, avocado, sassafras, cinnamon or camphor

Abstract

The invention discloses a smoke agent for control of greenhouse botrytis cinerea. The smoke agent includes the following raw materials by weight: 25-35 parts of cassia seed, 20-30 parts of xanthium sibiricum, 15-20 parts of Verbena officinalis, 15-20 parts of cinnamon, 15-20 parts of Eupatorium fortune, 20-30 parts of bamboo charcoal powder, 30-45 parts of ammonium nitrate, 15-20 parts of ammonium chloride, 6-12 parts of talcum powder, and 4-8 parts of a surfactant. The smoke agent has a control effect on botrytis cinerea up to 86-94%, the effect is significant, and the discharge of the smoke agent has no need of water blending spray, the active component distribution is wider, and the control is faster and more thorough. The smoke agent is green and environment-friendly, has no residue and drug resistance, and is convenient to use.

Description

A kind of fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The invention belongs to bactericide field, more particularly, to a kind of fumicants and its system for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold Preparation Method.
Background technology
Tomato is the maximum vegetable variety of early spring greenhouse cultivation area, and often in high temperature, the environment of high humidity in booth, Tomato pest and disease damage occurs very universal.And graw mold of tomato is one of Major Diseases during tomato growth, fruit is often resulted in Rot, so as to have a strong impact on the yield and quality of tomato.The chemical pesticide for preventing and treating gray mold at present mainly has:Benzimidazole The medicines such as the diethofencarb of carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, the procymidone of diformazan phthalimide class, different vein and N- carbanilic acid vinegar classes Agent.Single for a long time uses such medicament so that botrytis cinerea is cut escalated dose and led to which creating the serious resistance to the action of a drug Cause the problem of residues of pesticides increasingly severe, threaten human health.Therefore develop the efficient, botanical pesticide of low toxicity, low-residual It is the task of top priority.And the research of the botanical pesticide for being also related to prevent and treat tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold in prior art.
Chinese Patent Application No. 201210314562.4 discloses a kind of plant source day for graw mold of tomato
Right bactericide, lives containing galic essential oil, plants essential oil mixture, organic solvent, surface in the raw material of described bactericide Property agent, water.The invention is using galic essential oil as major antibacterial agent, including two or more other plant essential oils are used as synergist.Should Invention fungicidal activity composition is entirely volatile oil, and after being sprayed at experimental plot, volatile ratio is very fast, and prevention effect is poor.
Chinese Patent Application No. 201310337197.3 discloses a kind of medicament of graw mold of tomato preventing and treating and its preparation side Method, with the root of Chinese wild ginger, the root bark of shaggy-fruited dittany, Siberian cocklebur, the bighead atractylodes rhizome, the Chinese bulbul, cloves and granatum as raw material.The present invention passes through certain density ethanol Each raw material is extracted, is finished product by metered bacillus subtilis in extract, during use, add 200~300 times clear Water, after extracing disease flower, disease fruit, is uniformly sprayed to complete stool.The invention raw material is Chinese medicine, but not according to Chinese medicine Characteristic is selectively compounded, without synergy in antifungal mechanism.
The content of the invention
In view of this, the purpose of the present invention is for the deficiencies in the prior art, there is provided one kind prevents and treats tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold Fumicants, the various raw materials collaborations that the fumicants is adopted are antibacterial, reach 86-94% to the preventive effect of graw mold of tomato, effect is significant, and And set off fumicants and need not be watered sprinkling, more extensively, faster more thoroughly, environmental protection, noresidue do not have for preventing and treating for active component distribution There is the resistance to the action of a drug, it is easy to use.
The invention also discloses a kind of preparation method for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold.
To reach above-mentioned purpose, the present invention is employed the following technical solutions:
A kind of fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, including the raw material of following parts by weight:Cassia seed 25-35 parts, Siberian cocklebur 20- 30 parts, Verbena officinalis 15-20 parts, Chinese cassia tree 15-20 parts, eupatorium 15-20 parts, bamboo charcoal powder 20-30 part, ammonium nitrate 30-45 parts, ammonium chloride 15-20 parts, talcum powder 6-12 parts, surfactant 4-8 parts.
Further, including the raw material of following parts by weight:30 parts of cassia seed, 25 parts of Siberian cocklebur, 18 parts of Verbena officinalis, Chinese cassia tree 16 Part, 18 parts of eupatorium, 26 parts of bamboo charcoal powder, 40 parts of ammonium nitrate, 18 parts of ammonium chloride, 9 parts of talcum powder, 5 parts of surfactant.
Further, the surfactant is neopelex, fatty glyceride, polysorbate or wooden One kind in plain sodium sulfonate.
A kind of preparation method of the fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, comprises the following steps:
(1)Cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis are weighed, 80-100 mesh is crushed to, cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount 8-12 is added The ethanol solution of times bulking value fraction for 60-80%, while adding cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount 0.1-0.2 times weight Cellulase, soak 1-2h, then ultrasonic wave extraction 2-3 time, merging filtrate be evaporated to without alcohol taste, obtains extract I;
(2)Chinese cassia tree and eupatorium are weighed, 60-80 mesh is crushed to, 8-12 times of weight water is added, 6- is extracted using steam distillation 8h, collection slip out liquid, isolate volatile oil, obtain extract II;
(3)After the water dissolves of 3-6 times of weight are added in ammonium nitrate, bamboo charcoal powder, ammonium chloride, talcum powder, surfactant are added And extract I and extract II, stirring mixing 1-2h, low temperature drying to constant weight are after crushing, packed to seal to obtain fumicants.
Further, the bamboo charcoal powder particle diameter is 10-20 μm.
Further, the step(1)Cellulase enzyme activity is 3 × 104U/g。
Further, the step(1)Middle ultrasonic power is 300-600W, and extraction time is 30-50min.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
1st, the present invention prepare prevent and treat tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold fumicants adopt the raw material with bacteriostatic activity include cassia seed, Chinese cassia tree, Siberian cocklebur, Verbena officinalis and eupatorium, derive from plant, widely distributed, environmental protection.Rheum emodin pair wherein in cassia seed Graw mold of tomato mycelia and its spore germination have very strong inhibitory action;Strumaroside, alkaloid in Siberian cocklebur, linoleic acid, steroid Alcohol etc., grows to graw mold of tomato mycelia with very strong inhibitory action, and the mechanism of action is mainly by suppressing spore Formation and spore germination etc., cut down the quantity of formation of ash arrhizus bacteria spore, reduce spore germination rate to realize to graw mold of tomato The inhibitory action of bacterium;General flavone in Verbena officinalis, to Escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, bacillus subtilis and plant Pathogen such as botrytis cinerea, powdery mildew of cucumber all have very strong inhibitory action;Volatile oil in Chinese cassia tree is to tomato gray mould The mycelial growths of diseases of garden stuff pathomycete such as germ, green mold of apple bacterium, tomato Phoma asparagi Sacc and cucumber reaping hook germ and embrace Son is sprouted with stronger inhibitory action, can completely inhibit the growth of botrytis cinerea mycelia;Volatile oil in eupatorium, to big Enterobacteria, staphylococcus aureus, bacillus subtilis and some plant pathogens have very strong inhibitory action.This is several Raw material compounding use, with very strong Synergistic bacteriostasis, fungistatic effect is notable and low to the toxicity of people and animals.
2nd, to raw material extraction using classification extract method, wherein the main antipathogenic composition of cassia seed be rheum emodin, Siberian cocklebur In main antipathogenic composition be strumaroside, alkaloid, linoleic acid, sterol etc., the main antipathogenic composition of Verbena officinalis is general flavone, therefore, Cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis are mainly extracted using ultrasonic wave ethanol, and destroy plant cell wall by cellulase degradation, The composition in plant cell is made easily to dissolve, spread, recovery rate is high.And the main antipathogenic composition in Chinese cassia tree and eupatorium is volatilization Oil, is extracted using the method for steam distillation, and volatile ingredient loss is few, and recovery rate is high.
In addition, when preparation prevents and treats the fumicants of tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, the ethanol extract of cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis Extract I is obtained after removing ethanol, the volatile oil reduced pressure concentration extracted in Chinese cassia tree and eupatorium obtains extract II into medicinal extract, carries Take after thing II and extract I and bamboo charcoal powder etc. mix, as bamboo charcoal powder is loose and porous structure, and suction-operated is stronger, Can be by the active ingredient adsorption in extract II and extract I in bamboo charcoal powder, then low temperature drying again, whole process are effective Component damages are very little, and when actually used, prevention effect is good.
3rd, fumicants prepared by the present invention, is cooperated with incendiary agent with ammonium nitrate as oxidant with ammonium chloride as smoke agent, Smoke effect is good;With bamboo charcoal powder as incendiary agent, particle diameter is 10-20 μm, with loose porous structure, specific surface area than larger, It is easier to light, absorption property is relatively good, active component is then more easily dispersed in bamboo charcoal powder, it is living after subsequent point burning smoke agent Property composition disperses in booth evenly, good antimicrobial effect.With talcum powder as cooling agent, low cost, moreover it is possible to make incendiary agent more hold Easily ignite;With neopelex, fatty glyceride, polysorbate or sodium lignin sulfonate as surfactant, can So that active insecticidal components disperse evenly, during contributing to smoke, insecticidal constituent is dispersed, increases fungistatic effect.
4th, lead is both provided with the fumicants packaging bag for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold prepared by the present invention, the fumicants is put The centre position being placed in booth, it is possible to put combustion wire, it is 0.2g/m to fumigate usage amount3
The fumicants after dispenser twice reaches 80.3%-92.8%, effect is significant to the preventive effect of graw mold of tomato, and fires Put fumicants and need not be watered sprinkling, more extensively, faster more thoroughly, environmental protection, noresidue are no anti-for preventing and treating for active component distribution The property of medicine, it is easy to use.
Specific embodiment
With reference to specific embodiment, the invention will be further described, wherein the raw material cassia seed of present invention employing, meat Osmanthus, Siberian cocklebur, Verbena officinalis and eupatorium are the fresh raw material through drying.
Embodiment 1
A kind of fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, including the raw material of following parts by weight:25 parts of cassia seed, 30 parts of Siberian cocklebur, 15 parts of Verbena officinalis, 20 parts of Chinese cassia tree, 15 parts of eupatorium, 30 parts of bamboo charcoal powder, 30 parts of ammonium nitrate, 15 parts of ammonium chloride, 6 parts of talcum powder, surface 8 parts of activating agent.
Wherein surfactant is neopelex.
A kind of preparation method of the fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, comprises the following steps:
(1)Cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis are weighed, 80 mesh after mixing, are crushed to, cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount 8 is added Times bulking value fraction is 60% ethanol solution, while adding cassia seed, the fiber of 0.1 times of weight of Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount Plain enzyme, soaks 1h, and then ultrasonic wave extraction 2 times, ultrasonic power are 300W, and extraction time is 30min, is then combined with filtrate, It is evaporated to without alcohol taste, obtains extract I;
(2)Chinese cassia tree and eupatorium are weighed, 60 mesh after mixing, are crushed to, 8 times of weight waters are added, 6h are extracted using steam distillation, Collection slips out liquid, isolates volatile oil, obtains extract II;
(3)In ammonium nitrate add 3 times of weight water dissolves after, add bamboo charcoal powder, ammonium chloride, talcum powder, surfactant with And extract I and extract II, stirring mixing 1h, low temperature drying to constant weight are after crushing, packed to seal to obtain fumicants.
Wherein the particle diameter of bamboo charcoal powder is 10-20 μm.
Wherein step(1)Cellulase enzyme activity is 3 × 104U/g。
Embodiment 2
A kind of fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, including the raw material of following parts by weight:27 parts of cassia seed, 28 parts of Siberian cocklebur, 16 parts of Verbena officinalis, 18 parts of Chinese cassia tree, 16 parts of eupatorium, 28 parts of bamboo charcoal powder, 32 parts of ammonium nitrate, 16 parts of ammonium chloride, 7 parts of talcum powder, surface 7 parts of activating agent.
Wherein surfactant is fatty glyceride.
A kind of preparation method of the fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, comprises the following steps:
(1)Cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis are weighed, 90 mesh after mixing, are crushed to, cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount 9 is added Times bulking value fraction is 70% ethanol solution, while adding cassia seed, the fiber of 0.15 times of weight of Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount Plain enzyme, soaks 2h, and then ultrasonic wave extraction 3 times, ultrasonic power are 400W, and extraction time is 35min, is then combined with filtrate, It is evaporated to without alcohol taste, obtains extract I;
(2)Chinese cassia tree and eupatorium are weighed, 70 mesh after mixing, are crushed to, 8 times of weight waters are added, 7h are extracted using steam distillation, Collection slips out liquid, isolates volatile oil, obtains extract II;
(3)In ammonium nitrate add 4 times of weight water dissolves after, add bamboo charcoal powder, ammonium chloride, talcum powder, surfactant with And extract I and extract II, stirring mixing 1.5h, low temperature drying to constant weight are after crushing, packed to seal to obtain fumicants.
Wherein the particle diameter of bamboo charcoal powder is 10-20 μm.
Wherein step(1)Cellulase enzyme activity is 3 × 104U/g。
Embodiment 3
A kind of fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, including the raw material of following parts by weight:28 parts of cassia seed, 26 parts of Siberian cocklebur, 17 parts of Verbena officinalis, 17 parts of Chinese cassia tree, 17 parts of eupatorium, 27 parts of bamboo charcoal powder, 35 parts of ammonium nitrate, 17 parts of ammonium chloride, 8 parts of talcum powder, surface 6 parts of activating agent.
Wherein surfactant is polysorbate.
A kind of preparation method of the fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, comprises the following steps:
(1)Cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis are weighed, 100 mesh after mixing, are crushed to, cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount is added 10 times of bulking value fractions are 80% ethanol solution, while adding cassia seed, the fibre of 0.2 times of weight of Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount The plain enzyme of dimension, soaks 1.5h, and then ultrasonic wave extraction 2 times, ultrasonic power are 500W, and extraction time is 40min, are then combined with filter Liquid, is evaporated to without alcohol taste, obtains extract I;
(2)Chinese cassia tree and eupatorium are weighed, 80 mesh after mixing, are crushed to, 9 times of weight waters are added, 8h are extracted using steam distillation, Collection slips out liquid, isolates volatile oil, obtains extract II;
(3)In ammonium nitrate add 5 times of weight water dissolves after, add bamboo charcoal powder, ammonium chloride, talcum powder, surfactant with And extract I and extract II, stirring mixing 2h, low temperature drying to constant weight are after crushing, packed to seal to obtain fumicants.
Wherein the particle diameter of bamboo charcoal powder is 10-20 μm.
Wherein step(1)Cellulase enzyme activity is 3 × 104U/g。
Embodiment 4
A kind of fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, including the raw material of following parts by weight:30 parts of cassia seed, 25 parts of Siberian cocklebur, 18 parts of Verbena officinalis, 16 parts of Chinese cassia tree, 18 parts of eupatorium, 26 parts of bamboo charcoal powder, 40 parts of ammonium nitrate, 18 parts of ammonium chloride, 9 parts of talcum powder, surface 5 parts of activating agent.
Wherein surfactant is neopelex.
A kind of preparation method of the fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, comprises the following steps:
(1)Cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis are weighed, 80 mesh after mixing, are crushed to, cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount 11 is added Times bulking value fraction is 65% ethanol solution, while adding cassia seed, the fiber of 0.15 times of weight of Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount Plain enzyme, soaks 1.5h, and then ultrasonic wave extraction 2 times, ultrasonic power are 500W, and extraction time is 45min, is then combined with filter Liquid, is evaporated to without alcohol taste, obtains extract I;
(2)Chinese cassia tree and eupatorium are weighed, 70 mesh after mixing, are crushed to, 9 times of weight waters are added, 7h are extracted using steam distillation, Collection slips out liquid, isolates volatile oil, obtains extract II;
(3)In ammonium nitrate add 5 times of weight water dissolves after, add bamboo charcoal powder, ammonium chloride, talcum powder, surfactant with And extract I and extract II, stirring mixing 1.5h, low temperature drying to constant weight are after crushing, packed to seal to obtain fumicants.
Wherein the particle diameter of bamboo charcoal powder is 10-20 μm.
Wherein step(1)Cellulase enzyme activity is 3 × 104U/g。
Embodiment 5
A kind of fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, including the raw material of following parts by weight:30 parts of cassia seed, 25 parts of Siberian cocklebur, 18 parts of Verbena officinalis, 16 parts of Chinese cassia tree, 18 parts of eupatorium, 20 parts of Chinese Stellera Root, 26 parts of bamboo charcoal powder, 40 parts of ammonium nitrate, 18 parts of ammonium chloride, cunning 9 parts of stone flour, 5 parts of surfactant.
Wherein surfactant is neopelex.
A kind of preparation method of the fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, comprises the following steps:
(1)Cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur, Verbena officinalis and Chinese Stellera Root are weighed, 80 mesh after mixing, are crushed to, cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur, horsewhip is added Grass and 11 times of bulking value fractions of Chinese Stellera Root total amount be 65% ethanol solution, while add cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur, Verbena officinalis and The cellulase of 0.15 times of weight of Chinese Stellera Root total amount, immersion 1.5h, then ultrasonic wave extraction 2 times, ultrasonic power is 500W, Extraction time is 45min, is then combined with filtrate, is evaporated to without alcohol taste, obtains extract I;
(2)Chinese cassia tree and eupatorium are weighed, 70 mesh after mixing, are crushed to, 9 times of weight waters are added, 7h are extracted using steam distillation, Collection slips out liquid, isolates volatile oil, obtains extract II;
(3)In ammonium nitrate add 5 times of weight water dissolves after, add bamboo charcoal powder, ammonium chloride, talcum powder, surfactant with And extract I and extract II, stirring mixing 1.5h, low temperature drying to constant weight are after crushing, packed to seal to obtain fumicants.
Wherein the particle diameter of bamboo charcoal powder is 10-20 μm.
Wherein step(1)Cellulase enzyme activity is 3 × 104U/g。
Embodiment 6
A kind of fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, including the raw material of following parts by weight:32 parts of cassia seed, 24 parts of Siberian cocklebur, 19 parts of Verbena officinalis, 15 parts of Chinese cassia tree, 19 parts of eupatorium, 25 parts of bamboo charcoal powder, 42 parts of ammonium nitrate, 19 parts of ammonium chloride, 10 parts of talcum powder, surface 4 parts of activating agent.
Wherein surfactant is sodium lignin sulfonate.
A kind of preparation method of the fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, comprises the following steps:
(1)Cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis are weighed, 90 mesh after mixing, are crushed to, cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount 12 is added Times bulking value fraction is 75% ethanol solution, while adding cassia seed, the fiber of 0.1 times of weight of Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount Plain enzyme, soaks 1h, and then ultrasonic wave extraction 3 times, ultrasonic power are 600W, and extraction time is 50min, is then combined with filtrate, It is evaporated to without alcohol taste, obtains extract I;
(2)Chinese cassia tree and eupatorium are weighed, 80 mesh after mixing, are crushed to, 10 times of weight waters are added, 6h are extracted using steam distillation, Collection slips out liquid, isolates volatile oil, obtains extract II;
(3)In ammonium nitrate add 6 times of weight water dissolves after, add bamboo charcoal powder, ammonium chloride, talcum powder, surfactant with And extract I and extract II, stirring mixing 2h, low temperature drying to constant weight are after crushing, packed to seal to obtain fumicants.
Wherein the particle diameter of bamboo charcoal powder is 10-20 μm.
Wherein step(1)Cellulase enzyme activity is 3 × 104U/g。
Embodiment 7
A kind of fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, including the raw material of following parts by weight:34 parts of cassia seed, 22 parts of Siberian cocklebur, 20 parts of Verbena officinalis, 16 parts of Chinese cassia tree, 20 parts of eupatorium, 22 parts of bamboo charcoal powder, 44 parts of ammonium nitrate, 20 parts of ammonium chloride, 11 parts of talcum powder, surface 5 parts of activating agent.
Wherein surfactant is fatty glyceride.
A kind of preparation method of the fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, comprises the following steps:
(1)Cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis are weighed, 100 mesh after mixing, are crushed to, cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount 8 is added Times bulking value fraction is 80% ethanol solution, while adding cassia seed, the fiber of 0.2 times of weight of Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount Plain enzyme, soaks 2h, and then ultrasonic wave extraction 3 times, ultrasonic power are 500W, and extraction time is 40min, is then combined with filtrate, It is evaporated to without alcohol taste, obtains extract I;
(2)Chinese cassia tree and eupatorium are weighed, 80 mesh after mixing, are crushed to, 11 times of weight waters are added, 7h are extracted using steam distillation, Collection slips out liquid, isolates volatile oil, obtains extract II;
(3)In ammonium nitrate add 3 times of weight water dissolves after, add bamboo charcoal powder, ammonium chloride, talcum powder, surfactant with And extract I and extract II, stirring mixing 1h, low temperature drying to constant weight are after crushing, packed to seal to obtain fumicants.
Wherein the particle diameter of bamboo charcoal powder is 10-20 μm.
Wherein step(1)Cellulase enzyme activity is 3 × 104U/g。
Embodiment 8
A kind of fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, including the raw material of following parts by weight:35 parts of cassia seed, 20 parts of Siberian cocklebur, 18 parts of Verbena officinalis, 15 parts of Chinese cassia tree, 18 parts of eupatorium, 20 parts of bamboo charcoal powder, 45 parts of ammonium nitrate, 17 parts of ammonium chloride, 12 parts of talcum powder, surface 6 parts of activating agent.
Wherein surfactant is polysorbate.
A kind of preparation method of the fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, comprises the following steps:
(1)Cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis are weighed, 90 mesh after mixing, are crushed to, cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount 9 is added Times bulking value fraction is 60% ethanol solution, while adding cassia seed, the fiber of 0.2 times of weight of Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount Plain enzyme, soaks 1h, and then ultrasonic wave extraction 3 times, ultrasonic power are 400W, and extraction time is 45min, is then combined with filtrate, It is evaporated to without alcohol taste, obtains extract I;
(2)Chinese cassia tree and eupatorium are weighed, 60 mesh after mixing, are crushed to, 12 times of weight waters are added, 8h are extracted using steam distillation, Collection slips out liquid, isolates volatile oil, obtains extract II;
(3)In ammonium nitrate add 4 times of weight water dissolves after, add bamboo charcoal powder, ammonium chloride, talcum powder, surfactant with And extract I and extract II, stirring mixing 2h, low temperature drying to constant weight are after crushing, packed to seal to obtain fumicants.
Wherein the particle diameter of bamboo charcoal powder is 10-20 μm.
Wherein step(1)Cellulase enzyme activity is 3 × 104U/g。
Comparative example 1
Comparative example 1 is substantially the same manner as Example 4, and difference is:Raw material has done corresponding adjustment, by the cassia seed in raw material Remove, accordingly increase the amount of Siberian cocklebur, i.e.,:
A kind of fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, including the raw material of following parts by weight:55 parts of Siberian cocklebur, 18 parts of Verbena officinalis, 16 parts of Chinese cassia tree, 18 parts of eupatorium, 26 parts of bamboo charcoal powder, 40 parts of ammonium nitrate, 18 parts of ammonium chloride, 9 parts of talcum powder, 5 parts of surfactant.
Its preparation method is same as Example 4.
Comparative example 2
Comparative example 2 is substantially the same manner as Example 4, and difference is:Raw material has done corresponding adjustment, and the Siberian cocklebur in raw material is gone Fall, accordingly increase the amount of cassia seed, i.e.,:
A kind of fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, including the raw material of following parts by weight:55 parts of cassia seed, Verbena officinalis 18 Part, 16 parts of Chinese cassia tree, 18 parts of eupatorium, 26 parts of bamboo charcoal powder, 40 parts of ammonium nitrate, 18 parts of ammonium chloride, 9 parts of talcum powder, surfactant 5 Part.
Its preparation method is same as Example 4.
Comparative example 3
Comparative example 3 is substantially the same manner as Example 4, and difference is:Raw material has done corresponding adjustment, by the Verbena officinalis in raw material Remove, accordingly increase the amount of Chinese cassia tree, i.e.,:
A kind of fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, including the raw material of following parts by weight:30 parts of cassia seed, 25 parts of Siberian cocklebur, 34 parts of Chinese cassia tree, 18 parts of eupatorium, 26 parts of bamboo charcoal powder, 40 parts of ammonium nitrate, 18 parts of ammonium chloride, 9 parts of talcum powder, 5 parts of surfactant.
Its preparation method is same as Example 4.
Comparative example 4
Comparative example 4 is substantially the same manner as Example 4, and difference is:Raw material has done corresponding adjustment, and the eupatorium in raw material is gone Fall, accordingly increase the amount of Chinese cassia tree, i.e.,:
A kind of fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, including the raw material of following parts by weight:30 parts of cassia seed, 25 parts of Siberian cocklebur, 18 parts of Verbena officinalis, 34 parts of Chinese cassia tree, 26 parts of bamboo charcoal powder, 40 parts of ammonium nitrate, 18 parts of ammonium chloride, 9 parts of talcum powder, 5 parts of surfactant.
Its preparation method is same as Example 4.
Comparative example 5
The raw material that comparative example 5 is adopted with embodiment 4 is identical, and difference is:Preparation method has been adjusted, only with ultrasonic wave Extraction method, i.e.,:
A kind of preparation method of the fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, comprises the following steps:
(1)Raw material cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur, Verbena officinalis, Chinese cassia tree and eupatorium are weighed, 80 mesh after mixing, are crushed to, raw material total amount 11 is added Times bulking value fraction is 65% ethanol solution, while adding the cellulase of 0.15 times of weight of raw material weight, soaks 1.5h, Then ultrasonic wave extraction 2 times, ultrasonic power are 500W, and extraction time is 45min, is then combined with filtrate, is evaporated to nothing Alcohol taste, obtains extract;
(2)In ammonium nitrate add 5 times of weight water dissolves after, add bamboo charcoal powder, ammonium chloride, talcum powder, surfactant with And extract, stirring mixing 1.5h, low temperature drying to constant weight are after crushing, packed to seal to obtain fumicants.
Wherein the particle diameter of bamboo charcoal powder is 10-20 μm.
Wherein step(1)Cellulase enzyme activity is 3 × 104U/g。
Tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold field efficiency test
Tested with reference to the relevant pesticide field efficacy medicine test criterion of the Ministry of Agriculture.Efficiency test is big two 70m × 8m × 3m's Carry out in canopy, in two booths, tomato growth situation is consistent.The interior plastic sheeting of each canopy separates the cell of 10m(Area is 80m2), 14 cells altogether, one of them sets off this as blank control group respectively as trial zone in remaining 13 cell The fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold prepared by inventive embodiments 1-8 and comparative example 1-5, lights fumicants again after 24h, altogether Dispenser twice, by 0.2g/m2Amount dispenser.
Investigation method is:The sampling per 3 points of cell, often clicks 5 plants of tomato, listing mark, and per plant from top to bottom(In above, Lower three)10 leaf investigation are taken altogether, and whole blade area percentage classification is accounted for lesion area on every blade.
Tomato leaf stage division:0 grade, disease-free spot;1 grade, lesion area accounts for less than the 5% of whole blade area;3 grades, disease Spot area accounts for the 6-10% of whole blade area;5 grades, lesion area accounts for the 11-20% of whole blade area;7 grades, lesion area is accounted for The 21-50% of whole blade area;9 grades, lesion area accounts for more than the 51% of whole blade area.
Investigation disease index, the 7d investigation preventions effect after last time dispenser before spraying for the first time.Calculate tomato gray mould Sick blade disease index and prevention effect.
Disease index=[ ∑(The sick numbers of sheets at different levels × relative value of series)/(Investigation total number of sheets × 9)] × 100%
Prevention effect=[ 1-(CK0×PT1)/(CK1×PT0)] × 100%
Wherein:CK0Disease index before the dispenser of-blank group;CK1Disease index after the dispenser of-blank group;
PT0Disease index before the dispenser of-trial zone;PT1Disease index after the dispenser of-trial zone.
1 tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold field efficiency test data of table
As can be seen from Table 1, embodiment of the present invention 1-8 prepare the fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold after dispenser twice, Reach 80.3%-92.8%, effect is significant to the preventive effect of graw mold of tomato, and set off fumicants and need not be watered sprinkling, activity into More extensively, faster more thoroughly, environmental protection, noresidue, no resistance to the action of a drug are easy to use for preventing and treating for distribution.
Embodiment 5 is substantially the same manner as Example 4, and it is on the basis of embodiment 4 to increased one that difference is embodiment 5 Raw material Chinese Stellera Root is planted, and the terpene and flavonoids in Chinese Stellera Root is to fusarium graminearum, cucumber fusarium axysporum and tomato ash Mildew mycelia has very strong inhibitory action, therefore the effect of the embodiment 5 of increase Chinese Stellera Root is better than embodiment 4, illustrates auspicious The effect that the fragrant root of langdu also has collaboration antibacterial, but toxicity is also bigger than normal.
Comparative example 1-4 is raw material to be adjusted on the basis of embodiment 4, and raw material total amount is constant, preparation method phase Together.Wherein comparative example 1 removes cassia seed, accordingly increases the amount of Siberian cocklebur;Comparative example 2 removes Siberian cocklebur, accordingly increases cassia seed Amount;Comparative example 3 removes Verbena officinalis, accordingly increases the amount of Chinese cassia tree;Comparative example 4 removes eupatorium, accordingly increases the amount of Chinese cassia tree; And the fumicants of comparative example 1-4 preparation is lower than embodiment 4 to the preventive effect of graw mold of tomato, this several original of present invention selection are illustrated Material, has complementary advantages, and the effect with Synergistic each other lacks any one, and fungistatic effect accordingly will weaken.
Comparative example 5 is that preparation method is have adjusted on the basis of embodiment 4, does not do classification and extracts, only with ultrasonic extraction Method, and comparative example 5 is lower than embodiment 4 to the preventive effect of graw mold of tomato, illustrates to carry out classification extraction according to property of raw material, energy Strengthen the recovery rate of antipathogenic composition, reduce loss, so as to strengthen preventive effect effect.
Finally illustrate, only to illustrate technical scheme and unrestricted, this area is common for above example Other modifications or equivalent that technical staff is made to technical scheme, without departing from technical solution of the present invention Spirit and scope, all should cover in the middle of scope of the presently claimed invention.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold, it is characterised in that:Including the raw material of following parts by weight:Cassia seed 25-35 parts, Siberian cocklebur 20-30 parts, Verbena officinalis 15-20 parts, Chinese cassia tree 15-20 parts, eupatorium 15-20 parts, bamboo charcoal powder 20-30 part, nitric acid Ammonium 30-45 parts, ammonium chloride 15-20 parts, talcum powder 6-12 parts, surfactant 4-8 parts.
2. a kind of fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Including following weight The raw material of number:30 parts of cassia seed, 25 parts of Siberian cocklebur, 18 parts of Verbena officinalis, 16 parts of Chinese cassia tree, 18 parts of eupatorium, 26 parts of bamboo charcoal powder, ammonium nitrate 40 parts, 18 parts of ammonium chloride, 9 parts of talcum powder, 5 parts of surfactant.
3. a kind of fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The surface-active Agent is the one kind in neopelex, fatty glyceride, polysorbate or sodium lignin sulfonate.
4. a kind of preparation method of the fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that:Including Following steps:
(1)Cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis are weighed, 80-100 mesh is crushed to, cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount 8-12 is added The ethanol solution of times bulking value fraction for 60-80%, while adding cassia seed, Siberian cocklebur and Verbena officinalis total amount 0.1-0.2 times weight Cellulase, soak 1-2h, then ultrasonic wave extraction 2-3 time, merging filtrate be evaporated to without alcohol taste, obtains extract I;
(2)Chinese cassia tree and eupatorium are weighed, 60-80 mesh is crushed to, 8-12 times of weight water is added, 6- is extracted using steam distillation 8h, collection slip out liquid, isolate volatile oil, obtain extract II;
(3)After the water dissolves of 3-6 times of weight are added in ammonium nitrate, bamboo charcoal powder, ammonium chloride, talcum powder, surfactant are added And extract I and extract II, stirring mixing 1-2h, low temperature drying to constant weight are after crushing, packed to seal to obtain fumicants.
5. the preparation method of the fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold according to claim 4, it is characterised in that:The bamboo Powdered carbon particle diameter is 10-20 μm.
6. the preparation method of the fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold according to claim 4, it is characterised in that:The step Suddenly(1)Cellulase enzyme activity is 3 × 104U/g。
7. the preparation method of the fumicants for preventing and treating tomato in plastic greenhouse gray mold according to claim 4, it is characterised in that:The step Suddenly(1)Middle ultrasonic power is 300-600W, and extraction time is 30-50min.
CN201610926581.0A 2016-10-31 2016-10-31 Smoke agent for control of greenhouse botrytis cinerea and preparation method thereof Pending CN106508978A (en)

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CN112609205A (en) * 2020-11-30 2021-04-06 陕西科技大学 Nitrogen-doped carbon fiber loaded zirconium-induced transition metal phosphide and preparation method thereof

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