CN106508410A - High-yield and high-efficient cultivation method based on improvement for both variety and sowing period of wheat and maize - Google Patents

High-yield and high-efficient cultivation method based on improvement for both variety and sowing period of wheat and maize Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106508410A
CN106508410A CN201611086154.2A CN201611086154A CN106508410A CN 106508410 A CN106508410 A CN 106508410A CN 201611086154 A CN201611086154 A CN 201611086154A CN 106508410 A CN106508410 A CN 106508410A
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wheat
maize
yield
winter
variety
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Inventor
裴雪霞
党建友
张晶
闫翠萍
王姣爱
董飞
程麦风
万超群
武雪萍
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WHEAT RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
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WHEAT RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention relates to a sowing technique for wheat and maize, specifically relates to a high-yield and high-efficient cultivation method based on improvement for both variety and sowing period of wheat and maize and especially relates to a method for increasing use rate of light-heat resources in the south of Shanxi Province by improving both variety and sowing period of wheat and maize. Division for temperature, light, spring and winter characters of wheat, variety selection for wheat and maize and confirmation for sowing period are scientific conclusions acquired on the basis of years of experiments. According to the invention, through the reasonable allocation of variety for wheat and maize, the sowing in proper period and the change in maize sowing manner, firstly, the robust wheat individuals before the winter are realized, the colony quality is high, the strong seedlings can overwinter and a firm basis is established for high yield; secondly, the growth and development periods of summer maize are prolonged, the yield of summer maize is greatly increased and the use rate of light-heat resources is increased; thirdly, the problems of double cropping and insufficient light-heat resources of wheat and maize in the south of Shanxi Province are solved and double-season double high yield of wheat and maize is realized; fourthly, the degree of mechanization of the wheat and maize planting is increased and the labor investment is saved; fifthly, the northward shifting of the double cropping planting area of wheat and maize is realized.

Description

Wheat and corn kind date of seeding pair, changes high-yield high-efficiency cultivation method
Technical field
The present invention relates to wheat and corn seeding technique, specifically a kind of wheat and corn kind date of seeding is double to change high-yield high-efficiency cultivation Method, specifically for a kind of by wheat and corn kind date of seeding double methods for changing raising Shanxi south area sunlight-heat reaources utilization rate.
Background technology
Shanxi Province is one of wheat main product province of China, is accounted for importantly in national food security and Wheat indurstry development is being guaranteed Position.Shanxi south area (including Linfen and Yuncheng) the semiarid monsoon climatic region in category warm temperate zone, average precipitation 420mm~ 600mm, 9.0 DEG C~13.0 DEG C of average temperature of the whole year, water surface evaporation 900mm~1200mm, farmland multiple crop index up to 130%~ 150%, 54.27 hundred million kilograms of grain yield accounts for the 42.6% of the whole province, and wherein wheat yield accounts for 86.5% that the whole province's wheat is always produced, It is our province grain ration main producing region, carries the important task of grain security and ecological safety.With agricultural structure adjustment, winter wheat-Xia Yu Rice yields two crops a year, it has also become the main cropping pattern in Shanxi Province, wherein water ground more than 90%, nonirrigated farmland more than 35%.Wheat and corn The subject matter that the system of two crops a year is present, one is that sunlight-heat reaources utilization rate is low.Wheat and corn variety matching is improper, and date of seeding does not conform to Reason, sunlight-heat reaources utilization ratio and yields poorly and unstable in the anniversary.According to analysis, annual accumution average out to over Shanxi Province Linfen is nearly 54 years 4715.2 DEG C, and in the trend for rising year by year, 5103.2 DEG C of nearly 10 years annual accumution average out to, therefore, winter wheat spring habit strengthens, and passes System date of seeding, easily causes prosperous length before the winter, and colony quality is low, and yield is unstable;Nearly 54 year coming year sunshine time average out to 2170.2 hours, In downward trend year by year, nearly 10 year year sunshine time average out to 2004.5 hours, wheat and corn two crops a year sunlight-heat reaources show slightly It is not enough;In addition wheat and corn variety matching is improper, and sunlight-heat reaources waste serious, it is impossible to realize that the anniversary gives stable high yields irrespective of drought or water logging;Two is liquid manure Plan strategies for imbalance, utilization ratio is low.Two Ji Jun of wheat and corn is to be respectively fertigation unit, the imbalance of chemical fertilizer allocation proportion, and adopts Broad irrigation after chemical fertilizer broadcast application, liquid manure serious waste of resources.
As global warming, winter wheat variety spring habit strengthen, emerge-shorten the time required to mono- rib phase, needed for single leaf Accumulated temperature is reduced, therefore, replacing the winter variety of tradition plantation with semi-winterness kind or half winter inclined winter variety, date of seeding, is more traditional Postpone 5-6 days, screen the fast Early-medium maturing variety (on June 15 or so) of later stage dehydration and replace middle-late ripening variety, summer corn sowing can 5-7 days in advance, Traditional Man interplanted summer corn, saving of work and time is replaced to shorten date of seeding with the hard stubble of mechanization is live;While summer corn Late-maturing resistance to close type high-yield variety is planted, solves the problems, such as that the warm light of winter wheat-summer maize system two crops a year is not enough by " one enters to move back ", Realize the double high yield synergy of double seasons.
The content of the invention
Variety matching is unreasonable, sunlight-heat reaources are utilized to solve under the two-cropping for wheat and corn in one year system of Shanxi south area for the present invention The problem that efficiency is low, all annual productions are not high, there is provided a kind of wheat and corn kind date of seeding pair changes high-yield high-efficiency cultivation method.
The present invention adopts the following technical scheme that realization:A kind of wheat and corn kind date of seeding pair, changes high-yield high-efficiency cultivation side Method,
The selection of a, winter wheat variety:Winter wheat correct one's mistakes plantation winter variety (emerge-mono- rib phase is average 68.5 days, singly 95.7-99.1 DEG C of leaf accumulated temperature) to plant semi-winterness (emerge-mono- rib phase is average 55.9 days, 84.0-88.6 DEG C of single leaf accumulated temperature) or partly The inclined winter variety of winter habit (emerge-mono- rib phase is average 62.3 days, 89.1-93.7 DEG C of single leaf accumulated temperature);Change middle-late ripening variety (June 20 Harvest in the future) (harvested before June 15) for Early-medium maturing variety.
The selection of b, Summer Corn Varieties:Summer corn shortens breeding time plain edition kind (95-98 days, 3500-4000 plant/acre) For resistance to close type kind (105-110 days, 4300-4500 plant/acre) of long breeding time, seed-producing rate should be higher than that 87.0%;
C, adjustment winter wheat date of seeding:It is suitable (after June 16) to change winter wheat early sowing (25~October of September 3) evening receipts Broadcast (day in October 8-13, it is ensured that wheat Wintering Period is in single rib phase) early to receive (before June 15);
D, adjustment summer corn date of seeding:Change when summer corn is robbed (June 6~10) artificial wheat row set broadcast for after harvesting wheat in time (the preferred same day) hard stubble of mechanization live (planting density of the live density according to kind).
Wheat and corn kind of the present invention is reasonably combined, the change of proper seeding and corn seeding mode, makes that winter wheat is suitable to be broadcast Phase postpones 5-10 days, 500~550 DEG C of accumulated temperature before the winter, and before the winter, the strong sprout of 5 leaf of leaf age, 1 heart to 6 leaves, is that stable high yield lays the foundation; Make summer corn date of seeding 5-6 days in advance, harvest time postpones 7-8 days, breeding time increases by 170~260 DEG C of accumulated temperature;By planting long fertility Phase resistance to close kind, realizes that summer corn significantly increases production.The present invention makes winter wheat stable yields or slightly increases production, per mu yield in 500~550kg, Summer corn significantly increases production, and per mu yield brings up to 650~680kg, two seasons mu volume increase, 130~150kg by 500~550kg, improves Shanxi Southern area sunlight-heat reaources utilization ratio and total grain output.
The division of wheat temperature light Growth habit, wheat and corn Fruit variety, suitable date of seeding determination are the sections obtained by test for many years Conclusion is learned, wheat and corn kind is reasonably combined, the change of proper seeding and corn seeding mode, the present invention realizes wheat first Individual healthy and strong before winter, colony quality is high, and strong sprout is survived the winter, and is that high yield establishes solid foundation;Next extends summer corn growthdevelopmental stage, Realize yield of Summer Corn to greatly improve, improve sunlight-heat reaources utilization rate high;3rd science solve Shanxi south Wheat Maize one Year, two ripe sunlight-heat reaources were not enough, realized wheat and corn double seasons double high yields;4th improves wheat and corn planting mechanization degree, Save labour's input;5th realizes moving northward for two-cropping for wheat and corn in one year growing area.Therefore, the present invention is wheat and corn The important technology part of annual high-yield flat Efficient Cultivation.
Specific embodiment
Embodiment 1
Shanxi south area wheat and corn kind date of seeding pair, changes cultural method, takes following steps:A, winter wheat plantation semi-winterness Kind faces excellent 7287, belongs to mid-early maturity winter wheat variety;B, summer corn plant resistance to close type kind of long breeding time first jade 335, breeding time For 110 days, reasonable planting density was 4500 plants/acre;C, the sowing of winter wheat October 8, June 15 are harvested;D, summer corn are in the winter The harvesting wheat same day is live using the hard stubble of mechanization.
With traditional wheat and corn variety matching, compared with date of seeding, winter wheat date of seeding, postpones 7 days, and before the winter, leaf age is up to the strong of 6 leaves Seedling, 5 days in advance summer corn date of seeding, harvest time postpones 7 days;The live set that saves of the hard stubble of summer corn is broadcast labour used, is cultivated Maize sprout-promoting;Winter wheat per mu yield 549.8kg, summer corn per mu yield anniversary per mu yield are 652.3kg, are always produced in season in the anniversary pair 1202.1kg, mu volume increase 142.2kg, improves sunlight-heat reaources utilization rate.
Embodiment 2
Shanxi south area wheat and corn kind date of seeding pair, changes cultural method, takes following steps:It is inclined that a, winter wheat planted for half winter Winter variety faces and selects 2035, belongs to mid-early maturity winter wheat variety;B, summer corn plant resistance to close type kind great Feng 30 of long breeding time, fertility Phase is 108 days, and reasonable planting density is 4500 plants/acre;C, the sowing of winter wheat October 13, June 14 are harvested;D, summer corn exist It is live using the hard stubble of mechanization that winter wheat harvests the same day.
With traditional wheat and corn variety matching, compared with date of seeding, winter wheat suitable date of seeding, postpones 10 days, and before the winter, leaf age is up to 5 leaves 1 The strong sprout of the heart, 6 days in advance summer corn date of seeding, harvest time postpones 10 days;The live set that saves of the hard stubble of summer corn broadcasts work used Power, maize sprout-promoting is cultivated;Winter wheat per mu yield 503.2kg, summer corn per mu yield anniversary per mu yield is 682.7kg, and double season in anniversary is total 1185.9kg, mu volume increase 129.8kg are produced, sunlight-heat reaources utilization rate is improve.
Embodiment 3
Shanxi south area wheat and corn kind date of seeding pair, changes cultural method, takes following steps:A, winter wheat plantation semi-winterness Kind Linfen 8050, belongs to mid-early maturity winter wheat variety;B, summer corn plant long breeding time resistance to close type kind great Feng 30, and breeding time is 108 days, reasonable planting density was 4600 plants/acre;C, the sowing of winter wheat October 10, June 13 are harvested;D, summer corn are little in the winter It is live using the hard stubble of mechanization that wheat harvest obtains the same day.
With traditional wheat and corn variety matching, compared with date of seeding, winter wheat suitable date of seeding, postpones 7 days, and before the winter, leaf age is up to 5 leaves 1 The strong sprout of the heart, 7 days in advance summer corn date of seeding, harvest time postpones 7 days;The live set that saves of the hard stubble of summer corn broadcasts work used Power, maize sprout-promoting is cultivated;Winter wheat per mu yield 538.9kg, summer corn per mu yield anniversary per mu yield is 669.6kg, and double season in anniversary is total 1208.5kg, mu volume increase 153.9kg are produced, sunlight-heat reaources utilization rate is improve.
Embodiment 4
In specific implementation process, the present invention is also to 32 wheat breeds:Linfeng No.3, face drought 6, Linfeng 615, face choosing 2035th, Shanxi wheat No. 94, face excellent 2069, face excellent 7287, face remote No. 8, stone 4185, Linyou 145, Yao wheat 16, Linfen 8050, Shun wheat 1718th, Ji 5265, fortune drought 20410, Shanxi wheat 47, Shanxi wheat 79, Shanxi wheat 84, Handan 6172, stone wheat 19, stone 4185, weighing apparatus see 35, tobacco grower 19th, Jinan 17, good star 66, good star 99, Jimai 22, capital 9428, Shanxi too 170, middle wheat 175, long by 6878, length 4738, have studied the winter Front single leaf development accumulated temperature, entrance single rib phase last, leaf age etc. before the winter.By cluster analysis, by wheat breed temperature-sensitive ecotype Be divided into the inclined winter habit of winter habit, semi-winterness, semi-winterness and the inclined spring habit of semi-winterness, and determine each temperature-sensitive ecotype kind emerge to Accumulated temperature needed for single rib phase, suitable date of seeding temperature on average, the index (table 1) such as accumulated temperature, main stem leaf age needed for single leaf before the winter.Certainly, this Bright claimed semi-winterness and the inclined winter variety of semi-winterness are not restricted to following kinds, emerge-mono- rib phase, single leaf accumulated temperature exists Arbitrary kind in the scope of the invention is applied to technical scheme.
1 wheat breed temperature-sensitive ecotype of table and development index, the relation table of suitable date of seeding
In addition, the present invention have studied impact (table 2) of 4 dates of seeding to wheat Linfen 8050 breeding time accumulated temperature, as a result show: Morning date of seeding, breeding time are long, and breeding time accumulated temperature is more.Date of seeding, affects big to growing before the previous growth, especially winter, to taking out After ear period, development impact is less.Meanwhile, date of seeding, affects less to the per day accumulated temperature of breeding time, differs≤0.3 DEG C.Therefore, it is little The wheat maturity period determined by kind temperature-sensitive ecotype, and less with date of seeding correlation.Observed by Electronic Speculum spike differentiation process, date of seeding Early, spike differentiation process shifts to an earlier date.Indoors artificial is simulated and Sowing Time Tests show, in certain ecological zone, kind safe overwintering Anti- (resistance to) is cold less with Growth habit correlation, high with developmental process, low temperature induction (Cold Acclimation) correlation.Shanxi Province south Wheat safe overwintering developmental process is single rib phase.
Impact (>=0 DEG C) of 2 date of seeding of table to breeding time and accumulated temperature
In summary, wheat will be given stable high yields irrespective of drought or water logging, semi-winterness to be planted or half winter inclined winter habit, Early-medium maturing variety, date of seeding relatively mistake Go to postpone 5-10 days, Shanxi south area times should be in day in October 8-13, and harvest time is before June 15.
Further, the present invention is by 10 Summer Corn Varieties:Great Feng 30, prosperity 51, connection section 96, first village jade 99, jade 335th, too beautiful 511, connection section 532, scholar sea 738, too beautiful 811 and JK1403, breeding time, dry-matter accumulation, yield component and Quantifier elimination (table 3) is produced, the wherein date of seeding of each Summer Corn Varieties is June 15.As a result show:The breeding time of kind, receipts Obtain index and yield has differences, yield and seed-producing rate, 100-grain weight, grain number per spike JK1403 yield and go out in extremely significantly positive correlation Seed rate highest, 100-grain weight are high, next to that first jade 335.
3 different corn variety Yield and its components of table
Invention further contemplates 4 dates of seeding, are to 30 summer corn breeding times of great Feng, Dry-matter translation, Yield and its components The impact (table 4) of factor, as a result shows, the postponement of summer corn date of seeding postpones growthdevelopmental stage, 100-grain weight, seed-producing rate and yield drop It is low.The appropriate early sowing of summer corn, breeding time are long, and pustulation period light temperature is sufficient, and dry-matter accumulation is more, and grain number per spike is more, and yield is high.
4 Different sowing-season maize yield of table and yield forming
Remarks:In table 4, the corn yield and yield forming of 6-15 dates of seeding are different from table 3, are as two table ancient name for China are beautiful The plantation time of rice is different.
Therefore, Shanxi south area Summer Maize wants high yield:2500 DEG C or so, hundred of 105~110d of breeding time, breeding time accumulated temperature Weight > 27g, seed-producing rate > 87%, date of seeding before June 15, more than 4000 plants of suitable planting density, preferred 4300-4500 Plant/acre.
Test according to more than, summarize " wheat and corn kind date of seeding pair changes cultural method ":Winter wheat is corrected one's mistakes the plantation winter Property kind be semi-winterness or the inclined winter variety of semi-winterness, change middle-late ripening variety for Early-medium maturing variety;It is general that summer corn shortens breeding time Flow-through kind is resistance to close type kind of long breeding time;Change winter wheat early sowing evening receipts early receipts are broadcast for suitable;Change set when summer corn is robbed to broadcast as machine The hard stubble of toolization is live.Winter wheat suitable date of seeding is made to postpone 5~10d, 500~550 DEG C of accumulated temperature before the winter, before the winter, 5 leaf of leaf age, 1 heart is to 6 leaves Strong sprout, be that stable high yield lays the foundation;Summer corn date of seeding is made to shift to an earlier date 5-6d, harvest time postpones 7-8d, and breeding time increases accumulated temperature 170~260 DEG C;By planting resistance to close kind of long breeding time, realize that summer corn significantly increases production, totally improve Shanxi south area photo-thermal The level of resources utilization, realizes double high yields of double seasons.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of wheat and corn kind date of seeding double change high-yield high-efficiency cultivation method, it is characterised in that
The selection of a, winter wheat variety:From semi-winterness(Emerge-mono- rib phase is average 55.9 days, 84.0-88.6 DEG C of single leaf accumulated temperature) Or the inclined winter habit of semi-winterness(Emerge-mono- rib phase is average 62.3 days, 89.1-93.7 DEG C of single leaf accumulated temperature)Wheat breed, and belong to mid-early maturity Kind(Harvested before June 15);
The selection of b, Summer Corn Varieties:From long breeding time resistance to close type of the seed-producing rate higher than 87.0%(105-110 days, 4300- 4500 plants/acre)Kind;
C, adjustment winter wheat date of seeding:Above-mentioned winter wheat variety was sowed in -13 days on the 8th October, was harvested before Second Year June 15;
D, adjustment summer corn date of seeding:Above-mentioned summer corn hard stubble of timely mechanization after harvesting wheat is live.
CN201611086154.2A 2016-12-01 2016-12-01 High-yield and high-efficient cultivation method based on improvement for both variety and sowing period of wheat and maize Pending CN106508410A (en)

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107079697A (en) * 2017-05-08 2017-08-22 河南农业大学 The Yellow River and Huai He River area sunlight-heat reaources rationally utilize the double early double evening sequential cropping cultivation methods of wheat and corn

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CN101699961A (en) * 2009-11-13 2010-05-05 山东省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所 Integrated fertilization method under condition of NPKS of double-cropping crops of wheat and corn
CN102017839A (en) * 2010-09-29 2011-04-20 山东省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所 Simplified fertilizer application method of wheat and corn crop rotation anniversary
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