CN106497609A - 带co2捕集的igcc系统中气化炉煤粉输送系统及方法 - Google Patents

带co2捕集的igcc系统中气化炉煤粉输送系统及方法 Download PDF

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CN106497609A
CN106497609A CN201611145116.XA CN201611145116A CN106497609A CN 106497609 A CN106497609 A CN 106497609A CN 201611145116 A CN201611145116 A CN 201611145116A CN 106497609 A CN106497609 A CN 106497609A
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gasification furnace
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周贤
许世森
王保民
李明亮
彭烁
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Huaneng Clean Energy Research Institute
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    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
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Abstract

一种带CO2捕集的IGCC系统中气化炉煤粉输送系统及方法,进行CO2捕集的IGCC电站会产生大量的高纯度CO2,使用高纯度CO2代替高纯度N2作为干煤粉气化炉煤粉输送的气体,可大幅度减少IGCC电站对于高纯度N2的需求,降低空分系统空压机与增压机能耗;同时,CO2作为输送气体进入气化炉后,在高温高压条件下,还会与碳发生气化反应,减少气化过程对氧气的需求,降低空分系统的制氧规模,进一步降低空分能耗与设备投资。本发明减少空分系统的能耗,提高气化炉的冷煤气效率,最终实现IGCC系统的净效率提高,以部分补偿CO2捕集带来的效率损失。

Description

带CO2捕集的IGCC系统中气化炉煤粉输送系统及方法
技术领域
本发明属于先进能源技术领域,具体涉及一种带CO2捕集的IGCC系统中气化炉煤粉输送系统及方法。
背景技术
整体煤气化联合循环(Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle,IGCC)是将清洁的煤气化技术和高效的燃气-蒸汽联合循环相结合的先进发电系统,具有较高的发电效率和优良的环保性能,IGCC实施CO2捕集后能耗损失低于常规燃煤发电技术。IGCC由两大部分组成,即煤气化部分和燃气-蒸汽联合循环部分。煤气化部分主要设备有气化炉、空分系统、煤气净化设备、CO2捕集装置等;燃气-蒸汽联合循环部分的主要设备有燃气轮机、余热锅炉、汽轮机等。采用干煤粉气化炉的IGCC的工作过程简要描述为煤粉由惰性气体输送后在气化炉中与工业级纯氧和水经过气化反应成为中低热值煤气(主要是CO+H2),经过净化与CO2捕集后,除去粗煤气中的硫化物、氮化物、粉尘等污染物以及绝大部分的CO2,使之变为清洁低碳的气体燃料,进入燃气轮机的燃烧室燃烧,然后高温气体工质驱动燃气透平作功,燃气轮机排气则进入余热锅炉加热给水,产生过热蒸汽驱动蒸汽轮机作功。
在空分系统中,空气经过压缩、深冷与精馏等过程,可以获得工业级纯氧,部分高纯度氮气,以及纯度不太高的污氮气。煤粉通常采用空分系统产生的高纯度氮气作为惰性气体输送进入气化炉。高纯度氮气的产生需要消耗额外的压缩功,使空分系统的能耗会增加。因此,在IGCC的技术研发中,一个课题即是研究如何用少量的高纯度氮气输送煤粉。
发明内容
为了解决上述现有技术存在的问题,本发明的目的在于提供一种带CO2捕集的IGCC系统中气化炉煤粉输送系统及方法,减少空分系统的能耗,提高气化炉的冷煤气效率,最终实现IGCC系统的净效率提高,以部分补偿CO2捕集带来的效率损失。
为达到以上目的,本发明采用如下技术方案:
一种带CO2捕集的IGCC系统中气化炉煤粉输送系统,包括干煤粉气化炉2,所述干煤粉气化炉2的煤粉入口连通煤处理设备1,干煤粉气化炉2的氧化剂入口连通空分系统3,气化炉2还包括水蒸气入口,干煤粉气化炉2的合成气出口依次连通废热锅炉4、气-气换热器5、洗涤除尘设备6、水汽变换单元7、余热回收单元8、脱硫脱碳单元9和硫回收单元10;所述脱硫脱碳单元9的燃料气出口连通入气-气换热器5的燃料气入口,气-气换热器5的燃料气出口连通燃气轮机11的入口,燃气轮机11的尾气出口连通余热锅炉12的入口,余热锅炉12的高温高压蒸汽出口连通汽轮机13的入口;所述废热锅炉4的高压蒸汽出口连通余热锅炉12的入口;所述脱硫脱碳单元9的高纯度CO2出口连通煤处理设备1出口和干煤粉气化炉2的煤粉入口。
所述带CO2捕集的IGCC系统中气化炉煤粉输送系统进行煤粉输送的方法,原煤在煤处理设备1中处理为煤粉后,由脱硫脱碳单元9产生高纯度CO2输送到干煤粉气化炉2中;空分系统3产生的纯氧与另外一股水蒸气作为干煤粉气化炉2的氧化剂和反应介质进入干煤粉气化炉2中;干煤粉气化炉2产生的合成气进入废热锅炉4,干煤粉气化炉2产生的渣排除;合成气在废热锅炉4释放高温显热后,进入气-气换热器5,废热锅炉4产生的高压蒸汽进入余热锅炉12过热;合成气在气-气换热器5中降温并释放热量给燃料气,随后进入洗涤除尘设备6;合成气在洗涤除尘设备6除去灰尘、NH3和Cl污染物后,进入水汽变换单元7;合成气在水汽变换单元7将大部分CO与水反应转换为CO2与H2,再进入余热回收单元8;合成气在余热回收单元降温后进入脱硫脱碳单元9,脱硫脱碳单元9分离出来的H2S进入硫回收单元10,硫回收单元10将H2S转化为产品硫;脱硫脱碳单元9产生的CO2分为两路,一部分用于输送煤粉,另一部分由电站输出,用于利用与封存;合成气在脱硫脱碳单元9脱除CO2与H2S后,成为合格燃料气,再进入气-气换热器5升温;燃料气离开气-气换热器5后进入燃气轮机11做功发电,燃烧尾气进入余热锅炉12;余热锅炉12产生的高温高压蒸汽进入汽轮机13做功发电,余热锅炉12排烟排入大气。
进行CO2捕集的IGCC电站中通常会有大量的高纯度CO2,使用高纯度CO2代替高纯度N2作为干煤粉气化炉煤粉输送的气体可大幅度减少IGCC电站对于高纯度N2的需求,降低空分系统空压机与增压机能耗,降低厂用电量。CO2作为输送气体进入气化炉后,在高温高压条件下,还会与碳发生反应,减少气化过程对于氧气的需求,降低空分系统的制氧规模,进一步降低空分能耗与设备投资。此外,CO2与碳发生的反应可以提高气化炉出口有效气的产率,提高气化炉的冷煤气效率。采用CO2输送煤粉的IGCC电站的系统净效率将有较大提高,部分补偿了CO2捕集带来的效率损失。
本发明和现有技术相比较,具有以下优点:
1、本发明提供的带CO2捕集的IGCC系统中气化炉煤粉输送新方法,使用高纯度CO2代替高纯度N2作为煤粉的输送的介质,从而大幅度减少IGCC电站对于高纯度N2的需求,降低空分系统空压机与增压机能耗,降低厂用电量。
2、本发明提供的带CO2捕集的IGCC系统中气化炉煤粉输送新方法,可减少气化过程对于氧气的需求,降低空分系统的制氧规模,进一步降低空分能耗与设备投资。
3、本发明提供的带CO2捕集的IGCC系统中气化炉煤粉输送新方法,在气化炉内高温高压条件下CO2与碳发生的反应可以提高气化炉出口有效气的产率,提高气化炉的冷煤气效率。
附图说明
图1为本发明利用CO2输送煤粉的IGCC电站示意图。
具体实施方式
以下结合附图及具体实施例,对本发明作进一步的详细描述。如图1所示,本发明带CO2捕集的IGCC系统中气化炉煤粉输送方法,原煤在煤处理设备1中处理为煤粉后,由脱硫脱碳单元9产生高纯度CO2输送到干煤粉气化炉2中;空分系统3产生的纯氧与另外一股水蒸气作为干煤粉气化炉2的氧化剂和反应介质进入干煤粉气化炉2中;干煤粉气化炉2产生的合成气进入废热锅炉4,干煤粉气化炉2产生的渣排除;合成气在废热锅炉4释放高温显热后,进入气-气换热器5,废热锅炉4产生的高压蒸汽进入余热锅炉12过热;合成气在气-气换热器5中降温并释放热量给燃料气,随后进入洗涤除尘设备6;合成气在洗涤除尘设备6除去灰尘、NH3和Cl污染物后,进入水汽变换单元7;合成气在水汽变换单元7将大部分CO与水反应转换为CO2与H2,再进入余热回收单元8;合成气在余热回收单元降温后进入脱硫脱碳单元9,脱硫脱碳单元9分离出来的H2S进入硫回收单元10,硫回收单元10将H2S转化为产品硫;脱硫脱碳单元9产生的CO2分为两路,一部分用于输送煤粉,另一部分由电站输出,用于利用与封存;合成气在脱硫脱碳单元9脱除CO2与H2S后,成为合格燃料气,再进入气-气换热器5升温;燃料气离开气-气换热器5后进入燃气轮机11做功发电,燃烧尾气进入余热锅炉12;余热锅炉12产生的高温高压蒸汽进入汽轮机13做功发电,余热锅炉12排烟排入大气。

Claims (2)

1.一种带CO2捕集的IGCC系统中气化炉煤粉输送系统,其特征在于:包括干煤粉气化炉(2),所述干煤粉气化炉(2)的煤粉入口连通煤处理设备(1),干煤粉气化炉(2)的氧化剂入口连通空分系统(3),气化炉(2)还包括水蒸气入口,干煤粉气化炉(2)的合成气出口依次连通废热锅炉(4)、气-气换热器(5)、洗涤除尘设备(6)、水汽变换单元(7)、余热回收单元(8)、脱硫脱碳单元(9)和硫回收单元(10);所述脱硫脱碳单元(9)的燃料气出口连通入气-气换热器(5)的燃料气入口,气-气换热器(5)的燃料气出口连通燃气轮机(11)的入口,燃气轮机(11)的尾气出口连通余热锅炉(12)的入口,余热锅炉(12)的高温高压蒸汽出口连通汽轮机(13)的入口;所述废热锅炉(4)的高压蒸汽出口连通余热锅炉(12)的入口;所述脱硫脱碳单元(9)的高纯度CO2出口连通煤处理设备(1)出口和干煤粉气化炉(2)的煤粉入口。
2.权利要求1所述带CO2捕集的IGCC系统中气化炉煤粉输送系统进行煤粉输送的方法,其特征在于:原煤在煤处理设备(1)中处理为煤粉后,由脱硫脱碳单元(9)产生高纯度CO2输送到干煤粉气化炉(2)中;空分系统(3)产生的纯氧与另外一股水蒸气作为干煤粉气化炉(2)的氧化剂和反应介质进入干煤粉气化炉(2)中;干煤粉气化炉(2)产生的合成气进入废热锅炉(4),干煤粉气化炉(2)产生的渣排除;合成气在废热锅炉(4)释放高温显热后,进入气-气换热器(5),废热锅炉(4)产生的高压蒸汽进入余热锅炉(12)过热;合成气在气-气换热器(5)中降温并释放热量给燃料气,随后进入洗涤除尘设备(6);合成气在洗涤除尘设备(6)除去灰尘、NH3和Cl污染物后,进入水汽变换单元(7);合成气在水汽变换单元(7)将大部分CO与水反应转换为CO2与H2,再进入余热回收单元(8);合成气在余热回收单元降温后进入脱硫脱碳单元(9),脱硫脱碳单元(9)分离出来的H2S进入硫回收单元(10),硫回收单元(10)将H2S转化为产品硫;脱硫脱碳单元(9)产生的CO2分为两路,一部分用于输送煤粉,另一部分由电站输出,用于利用与封存;合成气在脱硫脱碳单元(9)脱除CO2与H2S后,成为合格燃料气,再进入气-气换热器(5)升温;燃料气离开气-气换热器(5)后进入燃气轮机(11)做功发电,燃烧尾气进入余热锅炉(12);余热锅炉(12)产生的高温高压蒸汽进入汽轮机(13)做功发电,余热锅炉(12)排烟排入大气。
CN201611145116.XA 2016-12-13 2016-12-13 带co2捕集的igcc系统中气化炉煤粉输送系统及方法 Pending CN106497609A (zh)

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