CN106465667A - A kind of mossberry cultivation technique - Google Patents

A kind of mossberry cultivation technique Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106465667A
CN106465667A CN201510523936.7A CN201510523936A CN106465667A CN 106465667 A CN106465667 A CN 106465667A CN 201510523936 A CN201510523936 A CN 201510523936A CN 106465667 A CN106465667 A CN 106465667A
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China
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mossberry
soil
branch
cultivation
planting
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Inventor
王梓贞
王闯
孙喜奎
吕心歌
王丹丹
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HEILONGJIANG HEJIANG INSTITUTE OF FORESTRY SCIENCES
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HEILONGJIANG HEJIANG INSTITUTE OF FORESTRY SCIENCES
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Priority to CN201510523936.7A priority Critical patent/CN106465667A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods

Abstract

A kind of mossberry cultivation technique, its special character includes cultivation season, milpa selects, preparation before cultivation, mode of planting, field management, shaping and pruning, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, harvesting, treelet cold-proof survive the winter, seedling propagation etc. is related to the links during mossberry cultivation management.A kind of mossberry cultivation technique has filled up the technological gap of China's mossberry cultural method; for preventing and treating mossberry pest and disease damage, efficiently breeding provides comprehensive technological guidance to improve mossberry yield and quality and mossberry, is mossberry standardized cultivation and has established theoretical basiss in the large-scale production of China.

Description

A kind of mossberry cultivation technique
Technical field
The present invention relates to the production cultivation field of small berries fruit tree, specifically a kind of mossberry cultivation technique.
Background technology
Mossberry is the perennial shrub of Ericaceae Vaccinium crowberry subgenus, is commonly called as cranberry, Cranberriess, because raceme is similar to crane Head also known as " the crane certain kind of berries ", be a kind of fruit surface and sarcocarp is all cherry edible berry.Mossberry has extensive use in food and medically On the way, it is described as the top food in fruit by U.S. national health academy, mossberry fruit is rich in VC, VA, VE, hippuric acid, anthocyanidin, catechu The beneficial nutritional and officinal compositions such as element and vaccine element, play an important role in food processing and medical health field, mossberry cultivation technique is climing One of focus of Pericarpium Citri tangerinae correlational study, there is no normalized cultivating and growing pattern in China at present, and this patent elaborates mossberry cultivation technique comprehensively, Fill up the technological gap of China's mossberry cultural method, efficient for preventing and treating mossberry pest and disease damage, raising mossberry yield and quality and mossberry Breeding provides comprehensive technological guidance, is mossberry standardized cultivation and has established theoretical basiss in the large-scale production of China.
Content of the invention
The mossberry cultivation technique that this patent provides is producing cultivation, intertillage management, prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control mistake in order to solve mossberry Problem present in journey, specification mossberry cultivating and growing pattern, improves mossberry yield and economic well-being of workers and staff.
The technical scheme is that, a kind of mossberry cultivation technique, its special character include cultivation season, milpa select, cultivation before Preparation, mode of planting, field management, shaping and pruning, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, harvesting, treelet be cold-proof to survive the winter, seedling propagation is related to mossberry cultivation Links in management:
1st, cultivation season
Cultivation season:In mossberry 1 year, spring and autumn all can be colonized, and outdoor cropping must be carried out after the latest frost phase terminates, and such as selects daylight Warm indoor cultivation, can be carried out in the anniversary.The Northeast is suitably colonized in mid-April, the latest no more than mid-May, after mid-May climing more Fructus Citri tangerinae branch is sprouted, and is unfavorable for that mossberry nursery stock takes root.
2nd, milpa selects
Milpa condition:Mossberry should not be planted in the plot of arid, should select organic abundant, rich in humus, water capacity high, Permeability is good, P in soil H is less than the plot such as 5 cheuch on grassy marshland ground, low-lying land or forest gentle slope and is planted.
Illumination condition:Mossberry is sun plant, well-grown in sun-drenched environment, also may be used in the case of scattering light abundance With well-grown, be not suitable for plantation in dark environment, illumination preferable plot cultivation mossberry can promote its growth promoter.
Ambient temperature and ventilation condition:Mossberry individuality tolerance to cold projects, and cultivates under normal circumstances without consideration winter issue, but 1 year Raw seedling outdoor cropping will do cold-proof process of surviving the winter.The excessively airtight easy initiation powdery mildew of mossberry planting environment, will also result in plant decline and grows Deteriorated, therefore mossberry planting environment will keep well-ventilated.
3rd, prepare before cultivating
Selection of seedling:1 year raw Seedling is generally chosen in field planting, and when selecting mossberry nursery stock, the nursery stock of high-quality typically has 5-6 major branch, major branch Bar length in 15cm, the bossed hole skin of branch, and flexible, old branch are in puce, and on major branch, luxuriant is full, and quantity is more, simultaneously Root system is closeer, and fibrous root is more.
Site preparation:Need site preparation before mossberry plantation, first passing through upset topsoil of turning over it is therefore an objective to chesson, turning over and bury stubble, weeds etc., Carry out raking the soil level after turning over operation with disc harrow, spike-tooth harrow, deep 4-10 centimetre of rake, by broken soil block of raking the soil level, loose table soil, water-retaining effect, carries High-geotemperature.Suitably suppress soil with land presser after raking the soil level, finally leveled land surface with earth level(l)er.
Improve the soil:The requirement to cultivation matrix for the mossberry is more special, and happiness is acid, soft, good air permeability, the sandy loam rich in Organic substance, Before field planting will to site preparation after the pH value of soil be adjusted it is desirable to P in soil H after improveing is 4-4.5, soil organic matter content is 8%-12%. Cultivating soil is generally mixed with the turfy soil of slant acidity and fine sand, and original soil and turfy soil, fine sand mixed proportion are 2: 2: 1 or 3: 3: 1, and often Square metre be mixed into 80g about Cosan reduce the pH value of soil to 4.5, every square metre of potassium sulfate compound fertilizer 200g being mixed into slant acidity simultaneously As base manure, improve the soil and generally carry out in the autumn of field planting the previous year, after mixing with soil, place that to be colonized mossberry growth result again within more than 4 months preferable.
Do furrow:Mossberry has the characteristics that happiness is wet waterlogging, should be cultivated using low furrow, furrow depth 45cm, the long 6m of furrow, furrow width 1m, furrow Surrounding pavement 15cm above ground level.Spread the plastic sheeting being slightly wider than furrow bottom in furrow bottom, to increase water retaining function, after low furrow are carried out, after improving the soil Soil pour in cultivating bed, soil is filled at the 5cm of ground.
4th, mode of planting
It is colonized raw mossberry nursery stock strain in 1 year, line-spacing is 30cm × 30cm, the field planting above mossberry nursery stock strain of life in 2 years, line-spacing are after building well 60cm×60cm.Wide 15cm, the planting pit of deep 10cm are dug in field planting first, the nursery stock with Tu Tuo is put in cultivation plant pit, gently carries nursery stock upwards, Earthing simultaneously, is compacted earthing, makes earthing slightly above stem, pour once permeable after field planting.
5th, field management
Weeding:Mossberry plant is short and small, easily crop smothering occurs, frequent weeding.6-8 month weed growth vigorous season, should be every 10 days Remove 1 weeds, also can be selected for herbicide, such as 1500 times of liquid of diuron carry out weeding, should reduce weeding by machine's number of times as far as possible, in order to avoid in weeding During injure mossberry nursery stock.
Irrigate:Mossberry belongs to shallow root system plant, more sensitive to moisture factor demand, and the wet fearness of happiness is dry, in furrow to be kept in routine servicing Soil water-containing state is moistening and not hydrops, mossberry plant after seedling-slowing stage, often irrigate to promote root system development.Vegetative growth phase will be protected all the time Hold ground moistening to promote plant strong, before entering fruit development stage and fruit maturation, suitably reduce water supply, prevent from nourishing and growing and reproduction life Length is gone forward side by side, and reduces the competing foster ability of fruit, after fruit harvesting, recovers suitable water supply, promotes nourishing and growing of plant, subtracts after entering rest period Few water supply, typically pours 1 time and permeable meet mossberry and survive the winter needs, in principle in each Growing season particularly in 5 months when rest period starts Ten days will often irrigate, and concentrates irrigation to carry out in the 6-8 month, and the standard totally meeting moisture needed for mossberry growth is that cultivation furrow face keeps moistening.
Plough:For increasing rippers layer thickness, improve soil physical and chemical property, increase soil fertility, each Growing season carries out 1-2 time ploughing, Deeply it is advisable with 15cm in principle.
Topdress:After mossberry seedling-slowing stage terminates, impose 1 available nitrogen phosphate fertilizer in conjunction with watering, general mu imposes Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 10kg and carbamide 8kg.Young sprout growth and alabastrum shaping age impose foliage fertilizer, and period sprays the potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3 times of 0.1%-0.2%.Autumn imposes base manure, every plant Apply the general compound fertilizer of 200g fruit tree.
6th, shaping and pruning
Fixed dry:Need surely to do after the field planting of mossberry building well, the nursery stock after determining to do typically retains the 3-4 different major branch in direction, and each major branch is repaiied Cutting rear length is 8-10cm, and each major branch retains 3-4 brood cell and a number of blade.
Summer pruning:Summer will prune to mossberry major branch.Trunk is selected and remain the suitable 4-5 major branch in direction, remaining is all dredged Remove, the major branch of reservation answers cutting back 1/2 about, and the best fruiting period will control crown width, remove weak branch, rot branch, intersect branch and overlapping branch etc., to fruit Branch growth provides sufficient nutrition, promotes fruit development.
Winter pruning:After cultivating 2 years, mossberry annual winter will be pruned, and will remove descending branch, the level of fruit tree bottom during pruning Branch, thin and delicate branch, the hat overstocked branch of in the layer, intersection branch and overlapping branch etc., and the bud at cutting back branch top, to promote middle and lower part flower bud development.
7th, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
Disease control:Mossberry Major Diseases have leaf blight, mummy and leaf chlorosis disease.Suppression leaf blight can use 50% in 6-9 month 1000 times of liquid of carbendazim or 1000-1500 times of liquid of 50% thiophanate methyl or 50% benzene Lay 1000-1500 times of liquid of spy are prevented and treated.Suppression mummy can Spray 50% carbamide in early spring, control the primary stage of mossberry mummy, spray 20% triforine before blooming, disease resisting effect can be made to reach 90% More than.
Pest control:Mossberry Major Pests include Lepidoptera, stick up the insect of wing mesh, Homoptera, between the 5-8 month of insect high-incidence season, Can be every 15-20 days spraying 1500 times of liquid of 10% cypermethrin or 1000-1500 times of liquid of 2.5% time.Can spray for insect pests such as aphid, mite class 50% wards off aphid 2000 times of liquid of mist ultra micro wettable powder or 50% aphid pine 1000-1500 times of liquid of cream or 2000 times of liquid of 50% phoxim emulsifiable concentrate, every 15 It sprays 1 time, and 1 Growing season sprays 3 times, can effectively prevent the generation of above insect pest, improves mossberry fruit yield and condition.
8th, harvest
Mossberry has dry receipts, wet receipts two ways, and mossberry fruit harvest starts from early September until mid-September, the optimal harvesting time with Fruit becomes dark red and is defined.
9th, treelet is cold-proof survives the winter
Winter is many carry out surviving the winter by the way of forming layers of ice to water filling in low furrow cold-proof.When early November, soil layer freezed, to entirely low Fill water in furrow, water filling depth makes mossberry Herb be immersed in water, the standard that ice sheet insulating layer is formed is after water freezing in planting bed, climing more Fructus Citri tangerinae Herb should freeze 5cm under ice sheet, and ice sheet insulating layer can play, to mossberry, cold-proof effect of surviving the winter well.
10th, seedling propagation
Mossberry expanding propagation has a lot of methods, such as cuttage, press strip and tissue culture.Other two methods compared by press strip, and breeding potential is high, economical It is suitable for, is preferable mossberry seedling-wood breeding mode, the usual press strip best opportunity selects vigorous the carrying out the 5-8 month of mossberry Shoot growth.
Technique effect
The solution have the advantages that, using technique scheme, it is possible to achieve a kind of mossberry cultivation technique, this technology can solve climing Yield poorly present in Pericarpium Citri tangerinae cultivating and growing process, breed difficulty, pest and disease damage occurred frequently the problems such as so that the remarkable in economical benefits after mossberry harvesting increases.
Specific embodiment
With reference to example, the invention will be further described.
Cultivation season:Northeast and North China's outdoor cropping all can be carried out after the latest frost phase terminates, if in sunlight indoor cultivation, can Carried out with the anniversary.
Milpa selects:Plantation mossberry must select P in soil H to be less than 5 cultivation plot plantation, otherwise easily causes chlorosis.
Prepare before cultivation:Mossberry site preparation process can be in conjunction with turning over the operation burying fertilizer, the typically every mu farm manure applying fermentation of fully becoming thoroughly decomposed 1000kg, after uniformly mixing, deep ploughing rake is thin.
Mode of planting:Mossberry preferably from band Tu Tuo field planting, pours field planting water in time after cultivation.
Field management:Because mossberry suitable growth is in low-lying moistening habitat, this ambient soil humus content is higher, is formed The fertile biological characteristicses of mossberry happiness, after exhibition young leaves, will topdress particularly before bud is sprouted and before fruit grouting, generally select 0.2% phosphorus Acid dihydride potassium foliage fertilizer best results, can meet the normal demand of mossberry growth promoter.
Shaping and pruning:Mossberry winter pruning is divided into long cane pruning, the middle tip to prune and short cane pruning.Long cane pruning major branch stays 8-12 bud, The middle tip is pruned major branch and is stayed 5-8 bud, and short cane pruning major branch stays 1-3 bud branch, will remove old branch, sick branch, overstocked branch and weak branch during pruning.
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:The chlorosis disease that the Major Diseases of mossberry cause for nutritional deficiency, shows as between vein, and vein chlorosis is serious The withered and yellow death of Herb can be caused.The main cause causing chlorosis disease is that P in soil H is too high, the content of organic matter is low, the trace element Fe in soil2+ Disappearance, chlorosis usual mugineic acid fertilizer magnesium sulfate or iron sulfate in soil after occurring, or mix a certain proportion of turf in soil, can take Obtain preferable effect.
Harvesting:Mossberry has dry receipts, wet receipts two ways, is mainly plucked using artificial using dry receipts, is typically in harvesting using wet receipts The previous day cultivates low furrow in mossberry and fills water, and the 2nd day, the fruit on mechanical water handlebar tendril beat, and tendril berry floats on waterborne, then Collected with waterwheel, preserve after leaching moisture.
Treelet is cold-proof to survive the winter:Raw seedling will carry out cold-proof process of surviving the winter within 1 year, when the Second Year mossberry nursery stock anti-adversity ability of cultivation is formed, Then do not need to carry out cold-proof process of surviving the winter.
Seedling propagation:Select the branch of more than 20cm length during press strip, remove bottom blade, at close rhizome 1/3, carry out band girdle, Smear 1000mg/L ABT root-growing agent hestening rooting with hairbrush at band girdle, before press strip, the soil around press strip sterilized with carbendazol wettable powder, By the depths 4-5cm that places into the soil at press strip ring peeling during press strip, earthing is compacted, and pours permeable.Should avoid pouring water excess or very few during the management of press strip Seedling, To keep ground moistening to be advisable, promote press strip seedling rooting, after mossberry enters rest period, press strip Seedling can be separated with parent, forms new plant after transplanting Strain.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of cultivation technique of mossberry it is characterised in that:This technology includes cultivation season, milpa selects, cultivate front preparation, field planting side Formula, field management, shaping and pruning, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, harvesting, treelet be cold-proof to survive the winter, seedling propagation, specifically carries out as follows:
Cultivation season
In mossberry 1 year, spring and autumn all can be colonized, and outdoor cropping must be carried out after the latest frost phase terminates, such as from sunlight indoor cultivation, permissible Anniversary is carried out.The Northeast is suitably colonized in mid-April, and the latest no more than mid-May, after mid-May, mossberry branch is sprouted, unfavorable Take root in mossberry nursery stock;
Milpa selects
Mossberry should not be planted in arid plot, organic matter should be selected to enrich, be rich in humus, water capacity is high, permeability is good, P in soil H is low The plot such as the cheuch on grassy marshland ground, low-lying land or forest gentle slope in 5 are planted;Mossberry is sun plant, fills in sunny or scattering light Under conditions of foot all can well-grown, be not suitable in dark environment plantation.Mossberry individuality tolerance to cold project, cultivate under normal circumstances without Consider winter issue, but raw Seedling outdoor cropping in 1 year will do cold-proof process of surviving the winter;The ventilation state of mossberry milpa will keep good;
Prepare before cultivation
Selection of seedling, 1 year raw Seedling is generally chosen in field planting, and when selecting mossberry nursery stock, the nursery stock of high-quality typically has 5-6 major branch, main branch length In 15cm, the bossed hole skin of branch, and flexible, old branch are in puce, and on major branch, luxuriant is full, and quantity is more, and root system is relatively simultaneously Close, fibrous root is more;
Site preparation, including turning over, rake the soil level, suppress, smooth several steps;
Improve the soil, will improve the soil before mossberry cultivation it is desirable to P in soil H after improveing is 4-4.5, soil organic matter content is 8%-12%, cultivating soil Generally mix with the turfy soil of slant acidity and fine sand, original soil and turfy soil, fine sand mixed proportion are 2: 2: 1 or 3: 3: 1, mixed soil Generally every square metre be mixed into 80g about Cosan reduce the pH value of soil to 4.5, every square metre of potassium sulfate type being mixed into slant acidity is combined simultaneously Fertile 200g, as base manure, improves the soil and generally carries out in the autumn of field planting the previous year, places and be colonized mossberry effect more relatively in more than 4 months after mixing with soil Good;
Do furrow, should be cultivated using low furrow, furrow depth 45cm, the long 6m of furrow, furrow width 1m, furrow surrounding pavement 15cm above ground level.In furrow bottom Spread the plastic sheeting being slightly wider than furrow bottom, to increase water retaining function, after low furrow are carried out, the soil after improvement is poured in cultivating bed, soil is filled to away from ground At the 5cm of face.
Mode of planting
1 year raw mossberry nursery stock seeding row spacing 30cm × 30cm of field planting, the field planting above mossberry nursery stock seeding row spacing of life in 2 years is 60cm × 60cm, field planting Front dig wide 15cm, the planting pit of deep 10cm first, nursery stock with Tu Tuo is put in cultivation plant pit, gently carries nursery stock, earthing simultaneously upwards, press Real earthing, makes earthing slightly above stem, pours once permeable after field planting.
Field management
Weeding:In 6-8 month weed growth vigorous season, 1 weeds should be removed every 10 days, also can be selected for herbicide, such as 1500 times of diuron Liquid carries out weeding;
Irrigate:General pour 1 time when rest period starts and permeable meet mossberry and survive the winter required moisture, after each Growing season is particularly into mid-May Often to irrigate, to concentrate irrigation can carry out at 6-8 month bottom;
Plough:Each Growing season can carry out 1-2 time ploughing, and is deeply advisable with 15cm in principle;
Topdress:Mossberry seedling-slowing stage combines to water after terminating and imposes 1 available nitrogen phosphate fertilizer, and general mu imposes Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 10kg and carbamide 8kg; Young sprout growth and alabastrum shaping age impose foliage fertilizer, and period sprays the potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3 times of 0.1%-0.2%;Autumn imposes base manure, applies 200g for every plant The general compound fertilizer of fruit tree.
Shaping and pruning
Fixed dry, need surely to do after the field planting of mossberry building well, the nursery stock after determining to do typically retains the 3-4 different major branch in direction, each major branch is long after pruning Spend for 8-10cm, each major branch 3-4 brood cell of reservation and a number of blade.
Summer pruning:Summer will prune to mossberry major branch, the suitable 4-5 major branch in direction of selecting and remain on trunk, and remaining all removes, and protects The major branch staying answers cutting back 1/2 about.
Winter pruning:After cultivation 2 years, mossberry annual winter will be pruned, prune remove the descending branch of fruit tree bottom, horizontal branch, thin and delicate branch, The hat overstocked branch of in the layer, intersection branch and overlapping branch etc..
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
Disease control:Mossberry Major Diseases have leaf blight, mummy and leaf chlorosis disease.Suppression leaf blight can use bacterium more than 50% in 6-9 month Clever 1000 times of liquid or 1000-1500 times of liquid of 50% thiophanate methyl or 50% benzene Lay 1000-1500 times of liquid of spy are prevented and treated.Suppression mummy can be Early spring sprays 50% carbamide, controls the primary stage of mossberry mummy, sprays 20% triforine, disease resisting effect can be made to reach more than 90% before blooming.
Pest control:Mossberry Major Pests include Lepidoptera, stick up the insect of wing mesh, Homoptera, between the 5-8 month of insect high-incidence season, can be every Spray within 15-20 days 1000 times of liquid of 10% permethrin milk oil or 1000 times of liquid of 10% chlorpyrifos ec, can effectively prevent the generation of insect pest.
Harvesting
Mossberry has dry receipts, wet receipts two ways, and the results of mossberry fruit start from early September until mid-September, harvest the optimal time with fruit Become dark red to be defined.
Treelet is cold-proof to survive the winter
Winter is many carry out surviving the winter by the way of forming layers of ice to water filling in low furrow cold-proof.When early November, soil layer freezed, into entirely low furrow Fill water, water filling depth makes mossberry Herb be immersed in water, the standard that ice sheet insulating layer is formed is that mossberry is full after water freezing in planting bed Strain should freeze 5cm under ice sheet, and ice sheet insulating layer can play, to mossberry, cold-proof effect of surviving the winter well.
Seedling propagation
Mossberry expanding propagation has a lot of methods, such as cuttage, press strip and tissue culture.Other two methods compared by press strip, and breeding potential is high, economic and practical, It is preferable mossberry seedling-wood breeding mode, the usual press strip best opportunity selects vigorous the carrying out the 5-8 month of mossberry Shoot growth.
CN201510523936.7A 2015-08-19 2015-08-19 A kind of mossberry cultivation technique Pending CN106465667A (en)

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CN108076941A (en) * 2017-11-30 2018-05-29 钟山佳欣果蔬有限责任公司 A kind of implantation methods for improving citrus survival rate
CN110218109A (en) * 2019-04-30 2019-09-10 黑龙江省科学院自然与生态研究所 A kind of high-quality Cranberry growth regulator and preparation method thereof and application method
CN110604003A (en) * 2019-10-28 2019-12-24 湖南杨氏鲜果有限公司 Citrus large seedling cultivation management method for improving fruiting quality and yield

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108076941A (en) * 2017-11-30 2018-05-29 钟山佳欣果蔬有限责任公司 A kind of implantation methods for improving citrus survival rate
CN110218109A (en) * 2019-04-30 2019-09-10 黑龙江省科学院自然与生态研究所 A kind of high-quality Cranberry growth regulator and preparation method thereof and application method
CN110604003A (en) * 2019-10-28 2019-12-24 湖南杨氏鲜果有限公司 Citrus large seedling cultivation management method for improving fruiting quality and yield

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