CN106444899A  3D printer temperature control system  Google Patents
3D printer temperature control system Download PDFInfo
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 CN106444899A CN106444899A CN201611007897.6A CN201611007897A CN106444899A CN 106444899 A CN106444899 A CN 106444899A CN 201611007897 A CN201611007897 A CN 201611007897A CN 106444899 A CN106444899 A CN 106444899A
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 G—PHYSICS
 G05—CONTROLLING; REGULATING
 G05D—SYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NONELECTRIC VARIABLES
 G05D23/00—Control of temperature
 G05D23/19—Control of temperature characterised by the use of electric means
 G05D23/1906—Control of temperature characterised by the use of electric means using an analogue comparing device
 G05D23/1913—Control of temperature characterised by the use of electric means using an analogue comparing device delivering a series of pulses
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Abstract
The invention discloses a 3D printer temperature control system. The 3D printer temperature control system comprises a bus interface module, a register file, a PID operation module and a temperature acquisition module which are sequentially connected, wherein the PID operation module is also connected with a heating module; the temperature acquisition module judges acquired temperature; if the acquired temperature is not out of range, temperature data is sent to the PID operation module; after calculation of the PID operation module is completed, an effective signal and PID control quantity are output to the heating module; the heating module adopts a PWM mode for heating; heating time is controlled by virtue of a PWM method according to the PID control quantity; the PID operation module is divided into four parts, namely scale operation, integration operation, differential operation and PID result operation; PID operation result is completed after six cycles. The 3D printer temperature control system disclosed by the invention has the advantages that PID operation result can be output once every six cycles by virtue of the PID operation module, and the heating module adopts a novel PWM hardware structure, so that realtime property, accuracy and stability of temperature control are effectively improved, CPU load is reduced, and function extension of the 3D printer can be facilitated.
Description
Technical field
The present invention relates to domain of control temperature, especially a kind of 3D printer temperature control system.
Background technology
PID control have structure simple, easy to understand and convenient and practical the features such as, therefore it is still widely used in now
In temperature control system.PID control employs ratio control in fact, and integration control and differential control three kinds of control computational methods.
Pid control computation using the difference of target temperature and real time temperature as input, respectively passing ratio, integrate, differentiate
Go out to control output.Output is judged whether heating as the input quantity controlling actuator or cools down by PWM mode.
And it is pulse width modulation technology that PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) controls, by the width to some series of pulses
It is modulated, equally to obtain required waveform (containing shape and amplitude).Equally, PWM technology is also to analog signal level
Carry out digitally coded method.By the use of highresolution counter, the dutycycle of square wave is used for one specifically by modulation
The level of analogue signal is encoded.For example, when PID arithmetic goes out controlled quentity controlled variable for 256 in the 3D printer of conventional melt lamination,
The numerical value that PWM then plus 1 to enumerator within each unit interval and compared in enumerator simultaneously and control size output 1 or
0, duty cycle adjustment heating power is realized with this.
In 3D printing, participating in temperature controlled object has individual two：Printhead and hott bed.Both temperature adjustment performances
3D printing quality can be directly affected with bad well.General FD M type 3D printer printhead is broken generally into two parts：Cold end and heat
End.Cold end is responsible for providing material at the appropriate speed, and uniformly sprays fused materials offer pressure for nozzle, and hot junction is then responsible for will
Material melts.Cold end comprises a feeding screw rod and forces material to enter the driving means of hot junction thawing room.In order to ensure there is foot
The material of enough amounts enters and melts room and provide suitable pressure, and cold end must keep constant drive speed under high friction load
There is provided good torque corresponding simultaneously.The temperature that heating needs is generally between 150 to 250 degrees Celsius, good in order to ensure
Temperature feedback control, can closely connect critesistor outside nozzle or thermocouple carrys out collecting temperature.Hott bed, that is, build heating platform.
The hott bed of FDM type 3D printer can be by preventing alice from improving print quality.When the plastics cooling of extrusion, plastics can go out
Existing slight shrinkage.When this slight contraction process does not occur in whole surface, will result in one
Divide plastics that the situation of alice occurs.This deformation is generally viewed as corner and is lifted away from construction platform.Hott bed in a heating
On carry out printing, be printed upon partly can still keeping certain temperature in print procedure on hott bed, and can
Shrinkage phenomenon is produced with the material allowing temperature be less than fusing point.Hott bed carries out 3D printing operation, some materials such as ABS and PLA
Higherquality finished product can be completed.
As shown in figure 1, traditional 3D printer temperature control solution is to be realized to printhead and hott bed by software
Temperature control, is wherein divided into temperature acquisition, heating and PID control to be made up of three parts：Mastery routine completes pid parameter Selftuning System
And PID arithmetic, draw temperature control amount；Softwareinterrupt routine is responsible for temperature acquisition and heating, cooling control.Each millisecond produces
The raw collection once interrupted to execute temperature and pulse width modulation heating, and the temperature in order to collect is more accurate
Then adopted sample acquisition mode, i.e. collection is averaged for 16 times, and the then input as PID arithmetic function carries out PID control.For
Obtain stable, accurate temperature control, existing scheme requires temperature control interrupt routine must execute with very high frequency.This
Undoubtedly significantly increase the workload of CPU, be also easily caused the response collisions with motor control interrupt routine, generating routine runs and flies
Phenomenon, causes operating interruptions.Additionally, when print speed improves, in order to ensure enough melting times, needing to extend extrusion head
The length of melt chamber, this necessarily improves the requirement to temperature control degree of accuracy.
Content of the invention
The present invention provide a kind of new 3D printer temperature control system, can effectively improve temperature controlled realtime,
Precision and stability, and reduce cpu load.
For achieving the above object, technical scheme is as follows：
A kind of 3D printer temperature control system, including the bus interface module being sequentially connected, register file, PID fortune
Calculate module and temperature collect module, PID arithmetic module is also connected with heating module, temperature collect module judges the temperature collecting,
If without departing from preset range, temperature data is sent to PID arithmetic module, after the completion of PID arithmetic module calculates, output has
, to heating module, heating module adopts PWM mode to heat, and is passed through according to the size of PID control amount for effect signal and PID control amount
PWM method controlling the time of heating, divide scale operation, integral operation, differentiate and PID result computing by PID arithmetic module
Four parts are realized completing PID arithmetic result by hardware.
Wherein, PID arithmetic module includes printhead PID arithmetic module and hott bed PID arithmetic module, and heating module includes beating
Print head heating module and hott bed heating module, printhead PID arithmetic module and hott bed PID arithmetic module connect printhead respectively and add
Thermal modules and hott bed heating module
Preferably, PID arithmetic module controls to calculate controlled quentity controlled variable with reference to BangBang, i.e. target temperature and real time temperature
Make the difference, if difference is larger and exceedes threshold value, using BangBang control, not then carry out PID arithmetic calculate controlled quentity controlled variable.
Preferably, PID arithmetic module setting temperature difference constraint, if target temperature and real time temperature difference are more than temperature difference
Constraint then heating with full power, if target temperature and actual temperature are less than 0, exports 0, that is, stop heating.
Preferably, the calculation step of PID arithmetic module is specially：
1) computing that a cycle is completed：
(1) difference parameter neg_pid_functional_range that bus inputs is negated and Jia 1, whether judgment bias are little
In 0, that is, judge whether its highest order is 0, be positive number if 0, be negative if 1, the effect of difference parameter is
If the difference between real time temperature and design temperature is if greater than it, export heating with full power, on the contrary if less than then defeated
Go out 0, PID arithmetic is controlled the precision within 5 degree, wherein neg_pid_functional_range is 32 data；
(2) calculating difference error_reg, temperature real time data i_current_temp of temperature collect module output is with always
The target temperature i_target_temp of line input carries out mathematic interpolation；
(3) the change of error value of calculating Current Temperatures and a front collecting temperature, i.e. error_ctemp_dState,
The deviation that Current Temperatures can be related in PID arithmetic with a front collecting temperature participates in differentiating, error_ctemp_
Temperature i_temp_ that dState is gathered after the completion of deducting previous operation result by Current Temperatures i_current_temp
After dState_ex, i_temp_dState_ex are then PID arithmetic module output each time, it is latched in heating module, wait
PID again computing when return this value；
(4) Current Temperatures i_current_temp is stored in depositor current_temp_1_reg, represents the period 1,
Current Temperatures are followed depositor be always maintained at exporting temperature to heated mould again after the 5th cycle entirety PID arithmetic terminates
Block, as the input of real time temperature deviation next time；
(5) input useful signal i_valid is saved in depositor valid1_reg, represents the period 1；
2) computing that second period is completed：
(1) period 1 register data current_temp_1_reg is saved in depositor current_temp_2_
In reg；First period register data valid1_reg is saved in depositor valid2_reg, represents second round；
(2) completed percentage computing product term pTerm, pid parameter kp is multiplied with difference terms error_reg because kp with
Error_reg is 32 data, is multiplied and then causes data to overflow, so retaining the 16 of result of product using the method for cut position
Position, i.e. pTerm_tmp [47:16], then it is saved in depositor pTerm_reg, complete differential term and calculate；
(3) i_kd and error_ctemp_dState carries out multiplying, obtains operation result dTerm_tmp_0 after cut position
[47:16], it is stored in depositor dTerm_tmp_0_reg；
(4) calculate integral term intermediate variable temp_iState and be stored in depositor temp_iState_reg, by current difference
Item error_reg is added with front once integration intermediate variable i_temp_iState_reg_ex and draws；
(5) signal min_pid_out_reg, max_pid_out_reg are judged, in relatively difference parameter pid_
After functional_range, if met in the range of difference parameter, proceed PID arithmetic, if be unsatisfactory for, will
Judge that signal puts 1, signal min_pid_out_reg puts 1, then export minima, signal max_pid_ after five cycles of PID arithmetic
Out_reg puts 1, then export maximum after five cycles of PID arithmetic；
3) the 3rd computing that the cycle is completed：
(1) second round register data current_temp_2_reg is saved in depositor current_temp_3_
In reg；Second round register data max_pid_out_reg and min_pid_out_reg is saved in depositor respectively
Max_pid_out_3_reg and min_pid_out_3_reg；Second round register data pTerm_reg is saved in and deposits
Device pTerm_3_reg, second period register data valid2_reg is saved in depositor valid3_reg, represents the 3rd
Cycle；
(2) calculate the cumulative item temp_iState_constrain of integration, judge temp_iState_reg whether where about
In the range of bundle, if it exceeds i_temp_iState_max, then assignment i_temp_iState_max, if less than 0, then assignment 0,
If in restriction range, assignment data temp_iState_reg；
(3) calculate integral term iTerm, Ki is multiplied with temp_iState_constrain, and the result of cut position is saved in deposits
Device iTerm_reg；
(4) differential term dTerm is saved in depositor dTerm_reg；
4) the 4th computing that the cycle is completed：
(1) period 3 register data current_temp_3_reg is saved in depositor current_temp_4_
In reg；Period 3 register data max_pid_out_3_reg and min_pid_out_3_reg is saved in respectively and deposits
Device max_pid_out_4_reg and min_pid_out_4_reg；By period 3 register data temp_iState_
Constrain_reg is saved in depositor temp_iState_constrain_4_reg；By period 3 register data
DTerm_reg is saved in depositor dTerm_4_reg, and the 3rd period register data valid3_reg is saved in depositor
Valid4_reg, represents the period 4；
(2) calculate the addition term of PID output result, because PID arithmetic output result is to be counted by pTerm+iTerm dTerm
Calculate, then in order to obtain faster processing speed, typically longer formula is split, carrying out separate computations can increase place
Reason speed, so, first pTerm_3_reg with iTerm_reg is added, result is saved in depositor pid_out_4_reg；
5) the 5th computing that the cycle is completed：
(1) period 4 register data current_temp_4_reg is saved in depositor current_temp_5_
In reg；Period 4 register data temp_iState_constrain_4_reg is saved in depositor temp_iState_
constrain_5_reg；Period 4 register data dTerm_reg is saved in depositor dTerm_4_reg, by the 4th
Period register data valid4_reg is saved in depositor valid5_reg, represents the period 5；
(2) calculate PID arithmetic result pid_out_tmp, pid_out_4_reg and dTerm_4_reg makes the difference and obtain a result
Item pid_out_5, in PID arithmetic, is provided with restriction range, that is, be less than PID_MAX, more than 0, if exceeding restriction range,
Exceed and then export maximum PID_MAX, less than then exporting minima 0；
(3) judge that PID arithmetic module draws operation result o_pid_out, according to min_pid_out_4_reg, max_
Pid_out_4_reg signal, to judge the final output result of PID, if two signals are all low levels, exports pid_
Out_tmp/2, otherwise, min_pid_out_4_reg high level, export 0；Max_pid_out_4_reg, high level output PID_
MAX；
6) the 6th computing that the cycle is completed：
(1) export o_valid useful signal, represent that PID arithmetic calculates and complete；
(2) export PID arithmetic result, output current integration accumulated value o_temp_iState_constrain_ex and current
Temperature value o_current_temp_ex is to heating module as temporal data.
Preferably, heating module includes last time collecting temperature depositor, deviation depositor and controlled quentity controlled variable depositor, controls
Amount depositor linkage counter and logic judging circuit；Last time collecting temperature depositor and deviation depositor are used for storing respectively
Secondary collecting temperature data and deviation data, and return PID module parameter, enumerator is used for controlling heating port high level or electricity
Flat, heat time heating time is controlled with this；Whether temperature and deviation data are 0 to control by judging PID useful signal and controlled quentity controlled variable
Whether latch signal；When a PID arithmetic finishes, export useful signal and controlled quentity controlled variable, then start a heating cycle；PID is controlled
Amount processed is latched in controlled quentity controlled variable depositor；Judge during counter works to heat whether port heats, if heating, persistently count
Number, when counting sequence meets one millisecond, counter O reset；In counter works, logic is carried out by logic judging circuit
Judge the size between PWM and controlled quentity controlled variable, export heating signal, heating port is driven with this.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows：
The present invention is an exportable PID arithmetic result by PID arithmetic module every 6 cycles, and heating module adopts
New PWM hardware configuration, effectively increases temperature controlled realtime, precision and stability, and reduces cpu load, favorably
Function Extension in 3D printer.
Brief description
Fig. 1 is traditional 3D printer temperature control system software program flow chart.
Fig. 2 is embodiment of the present invention 3D printer temperature control system hardware architecture diagram.
Fig. 3 is PID arithmetic modular structure schematic diagram in embodiment of the present invention 3D printer temperature control system hardware configuration.
Fig. 4 is heating module structural representation in embodiment of the present invention 3D printer temperature control system hardware configuration.
Specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and example, the present invention will be further described.
Fig. 2 is embodiment of the present invention 3D printer temperature control system hardware architecture diagram.Temperature control system includes
The bus interface module that is sequentially connected, register file, PID arithmetic module (include printhead PID arithmetic module and hott bed PID
Computing module) and temperature collect module, printhead PID arithmetic module and hott bed PID arithmetic module are also respectively connected with printhead and add
Thermal modules and hott bed heating module.If the temperature that temperature collect module collects is without departing from preset range, by printhead
It is sent to PID arithmetic module with the temperature data of hott bed.After the completion of PID arithmetic module calculates, useful signal and PID control can be exported
System is measured to heating module.Heating module adopt PWM mode heat, the size according to PID control amount controlled by PWM method plus
The time of heat.Except being sent to operation result in addition to heating module, also the intermediate quantity in computing is sent to and adds PID arithmetic module
Thermal modules are in order to deposit the data after this time computing.Reason is, in upper once PID arithmetic, to use last computing
Intermediate quantity.Register file connects PID arithmetic module and temperature collect module, and is connected to bus by bus interface module.
Fig. 3 is PID arithmetic modular structure schematic diagram in the present embodiment 3D printer temperature control system hardware configuration.At this
In invention, use temperature value and calculated, and have decimal to participate in computing.Using the method for fractional fixed point, 32 temperature
High 16 of degrees of data is integer, and low 16 is decimal.PID arithmetic is mainly by the deviation to real time temperature and target temperature
The calculating that calculating, the calculating of rate of temperature change and deviation add up.Using subtractor, difference is done to target temperature and real time temperature,
Result is saved in 32 deviation depositors.At this time, it may be necessary to whether the value of judgment bias is between [0,5].When deviation is less than 0,
Represent that real time temperature alreadys exceed target temperature, now stop heating, then PID minimum output signal is put 1.Effect is to combine to continue
Electric switch controls, and reduces PID Redundant Operations, improves PID control accuracy and speed.If deviation is more than 5, PID is maximum
Output signal puts 1, represents heating with full power signal.If deviation meets between [0,5], then start PID arithmetic.PID arithmetic
Four parts can be divided：Scale operation, integral operation, differentiate and PID result computing.
In PID arithmetic module, parse based on to pid algorithm principle, be divided into six cycles to complete computing.
1) computing that a cycle is completed：
(1) difference parameter neg_pid_functional_range that bus inputs is negated and Jia 1.Whether judgment bias are little
In 0, that is, judge whether its highest order is 0, be positive number if 0, be negative if 1.The effect of difference parameter is
If the difference between real time temperature and design temperature is if greater than it, export heating with full power, on the contrary if less than then defeated
Go out 0.PID arithmetic is controlled the precision within 5 degree, wherein neg_pid_functional_range is 32 data.
(2) calculating difference error_reg.Temperature real time data i_current_temp of temperature collect module output is with always
The target temperature i_target_temp of line input carries out mathematic interpolation.
(3) the change of error value of Current Temperatures and a front collecting temperature, i.e. error_ctemp_dState are calculated.?
The deviation that Current Temperatures can be related in PID arithmetic with a front collecting temperature participates in differentiating, error_ctemp_
Temperature i_temp_ that dState is gathered after the completion of deducting previous operation result by Current Temperatures i_current_temp
dState_ex.After i_temp_dState_ex is then PID arithmetic module output each time, it is latched in heating module, wait
PID again computing when return this value.
(4) Current Temperatures i_current_temp is stored in depositor current_temp_1_reg, represents the period 1.
Current Temperatures are followed depositor be always maintained at exporting temperature to heated mould again after the 5th cycle entirety PID arithmetic terminates
Block, as the input of real time temperature deviation next time.
(5) input useful signal i_valid is saved in depositor valid1_reg, represents the period 1.
2) computing that second period is completed：
(1) period 1 register data current_temp_1_reg is saved in depositor current_temp_2_
In reg；First period register data valid1_reg is saved in depositor valid2_reg, represents second round.
(2) completed percentage computing product term pTerm.Pid parameter kp is multiplied with difference terms error_reg.Because kp with
Error_reg is 32 data, is multiplied and then causes data to overflow.So retaining the 16 of result of product using the method for cut position
Position, i.e. pTerm_tmp [47:16], then it is saved in depositor pTerm_reg.Complete differential term to calculate.
(3) i_kd and error_ctemp_dState carries out multiplying, obtains operation result dTerm_tmp_0 after cut position
[47:16].It is stored in depositor dTerm_tmp_0_reg.
(4) calculate integral term intermediate variable temp_iState and be stored in depositor temp_iState_reg.By current difference
Item error_reg is added with front once integration intermediate variable i_temp_iState_reg_ex and draws.
(5) signal min_pid_out_reg, max_pid_out_reg are judged.In relatively difference parameter pid_
After functional_range, if met in the range of difference parameter, proceed PID arithmetic.If be unsatisfactory for, will
Judge that signal puts 1.Signal min_pid_out_reg puts 1, then export minima after five cycles of PID arithmetic.Signal max_pid_
Out_reg puts 1, then export maximum after five cycles of PID arithmetic.
3) the 3rd computing that the cycle is completed：
(1) second round register data current_temp_2_reg is saved in depositor current_temp_3_
In reg；Second round register data max_pid_out_reg and min_pid_out_reg is saved in depositor respectively
Max_pid_out_3_reg and min_pid_out_3_reg；Second round register data pTerm_reg is saved in and deposits
Device pTerm_3_reg.Second period register data valid2_reg is saved in depositor valid3_reg, represents the 3rd
Cycle.
(2) calculate the cumulative item temp_iState_constrain of integration.Judge temp_iState_reg whether where about
In the range of bundle.If it exceeds i_temp_iState_max, then assignment i_temp_iState_max.If less than 0, then assignment 0.
If in restriction range, assignment data temp_iState_reg.
(3) calculate integral term iTerm.Ki is multiplied with temp_iState_constrain, and the result of cut position is saved in deposits
Device iTerm_reg.
(4) differential term dTerm is saved in depositor dTerm_reg.
4) the 4th computing that the cycle is completed：
(1) period 3 register data current_temp_3_reg is saved in depositor current_temp_4_
In reg；Period 3 register data max_pid_out_3_reg and min_pid_out_3_reg is saved in respectively and deposits
Device max_pid_out_4_reg and min_pid_out_4_reg；By period 3 register data temp_iState_
Constrain_reg is saved in depositor temp_iState_constrain_4_reg；By period 3 register data
DTerm_reg is saved in depositor dTerm_4_reg.3rd period register data valid3_reg is saved in depositor
Valid4_reg, represents the period 4.
(2) calculate the addition term of PID output result.Because PID arithmetic output result is to be counted by pTerm+iTerm dTerm
Calculate.Then in order to obtain faster processing speed, typically longer formula is split, carrying out separate computations can increase place
Reason speed.So, first pTerm_3_reg with iTerm_reg is added, result is saved in depositor pid_out_4_reg.
5) the 5th computing that the cycle is completed：
(1) period 4 register data current_temp_4_reg is saved in depositor current_temp_5_
In reg；Period 4 register data temp_iState_constrain_4_reg is saved in depositor temp_iState_
constrain_5_reg；Period 4 register data dTerm_reg is saved in depositor dTerm_4_reg.By the 4th
Period register data valid4_reg is saved in depositor valid5_reg, represents the period 5.
(2) calculate PID arithmetic result pid_out_tmp.Pid_out_4_reg and dTerm_4_reg makes the difference and obtains a result
Item pid_out_5.In PID arithmetic, it is provided with restriction range, that is, be less than PID_MAX, more than 0.If exceeding restriction range,
Exceed and then export maximum PID_MAX, less than then exporting minima 0.
(3) judge that PID arithmetic module draws operation result o_pid_out.According to min_pid_out_4_reg, max_
Pid_out_4_reg signal, to judge the final output result of PID.If two signals are all low levels, export pid_
out_tmp/2.Otherwise, min_pid_out_4_reg high level, exports 0；Max_pid_out_4_reg, high level output PID_
MAX.
6) the 6th computing that the cycle is completed
(1) export o_valid useful signal, represent that PID arithmetic calculates and complete.
(2) export PID arithmetic result, output current integration accumulated value o_temp_iState_constrain_ex and current
Temperature value o_current_temp_ex is to heating module as temporal data.
In the present embodiment, PID arithmetic module every 6 cycles are an exportable PID arithmetic result, improve temperature control
Realtime and precision.PID hardware design structure adopts pid algorithm, and pid algorithm combines BangBang and controls to calculate control
(it is if real time temperature is less than target temperature, heating with full power that bangbang controls to amount processed, if real time temperature is more than target
Temperature then stops heating), that is, target temperature and real time temperature make the difference, if difference is larger and exceedes threshold value, adopt Bang
Bang control, not then carry out PID arithmetic calculate controlled quentity controlled variable.In hardware designs, also relate to BangBang control, setting
Temperature difference constraint.If target temperature and real time temperature difference are more than temperature difference constrained, heating with full power, if target temperature
Degree and actual temperature are less than 0, then export 0, that is, stop heating.Temperature collect module persistently provides real time temperature to PID arithmetic mould
Block, PID arithmetic module calculate controlled quentity controlled variable export to heating module complete heat.During due to PID arithmetic period ratio temperature acquisition
Between short, can cause to gather new data and not complete and situation that result of calculation exports again, now increase i_valid input letter
Number, represent the temperature data of input effectively, and output o_valid represents PID arithmetic output effectively after remaining to six cycles.
The controlled quentity controlled variable calculating is exported to drive heating to heating module or to close heating.
Fig. 4 is heating module structural representation in the present embodiment 3D printer temperature control system hardware configuration.Heated mould
Block major function is input control quantity, to drive heating using PWM mode.Heating module according to signal PID arithmetic useful signal,
Accept three parameters from PID arithmetic module：Integration intermediate quantity, last real time temperature and PID arithmetic amount.Integration intermediate quantity
It is connected to the outfan o_temp_iState_constrain_ex of PID arithmetic module, last real time temperature is connected to PID fortune
Calculate the outfan o_current_temp_ex of module.The result that PID processing module calculates is connected to port i_pid_out, is one
Individual be more than or equal to 0, the integer less than 256.After completing once to calculate by PID heating, by the real time temperature this time used and
Integral term is saved in heating module, waits the result of PID arithmetic to drive heating module, after completing whole temperature adjustment process, then
Two data are sent to PID arithmetic module be used in temperature PID calculating next time.
Heating module includes last time collecting temperature depositor, deviation depositor and controlled quentity controlled variable depositor, and controlled quentity controlled variable is deposited
Device linkage counter and logic judging circuit.Last time collecting temperature depositor and deviation depositor are used for the last time collection of storage respectively
Temperature data and deviation data, and return PID module parameter.Enumerator is used for controlling heating port high level or level, with
This is controlling heat time heating time.Whether temperature and deviation data are 0 to control whether to lock by judging PID useful signal and controlled quentity controlled variable
Deposit signal.When a PID arithmetic finishes, export useful signal and controlled quentity controlled variable, then start a heating cycle.PID control amount is locked
It is stored in controlled quentity controlled variable depositor.Judge during counter works to heat whether port heats, if heating, keeping count, work as meter
When number sequential meets one millisecond, counter O reset.In counter works, logical judgment PWM is carried out by logic judging circuit
Size and controlled quentity controlled variable between, exports heating signal, drives heating port with this.
Claims (6)
1. a kind of 3D printer temperature control system is it is characterised in that include bus interface module, the depositor literary composition being sequentially connected
Part, PID arithmetic module and temperature collect module, PID arithmetic module is also connected with heating module, and temperature collect module judges to collect
Temperature, if without departing from preset range, temperature data is sent to PID arithmetic module, PID arithmetic module calculates and completes
Afterwards, useful signal and PID control amount are exported to heating module, heating module adopts PWM mode to heat, according to PID control amount
Size controls the time of heating by PWM method, and PID arithmetic module is divided scale operation, integral operation, differentiated and PID
Four parts of result computing are realized completing PID arithmetic result by hardware.
2. temperature control system according to claim 1 is it is characterised in that PID arithmetic module includes printhead PID arithmetic
Module and hott bed PID arithmetic module, heating module includes printhead heating module and hott bed heating module, printhead PID arithmetic
Module and hott bed PID arithmetic module connect printhead heating module and hott bed heating module respectively.
3. temperature control system according to claim 1 is it is characterised in that PID arithmetic module combines BangBang control
To calculate controlled quentity controlled variable, that is, target temperature and real time temperature make the difference, if difference is larger and exceedes threshold value, using BangBang control
System, not then carry out PID arithmetic calculate controlled quentity controlled variable.
4. temperature control system according to claim 1 is it is characterised in that PID arithmetic module setting temperature difference constrains, such as
Fruit target temperature and real time temperature difference are more than temperature difference constraint then heating with full power, if target temperature and actual temperature are less than
0, then export 0, that is, stop heating.
5. temperature control system according to claim 1 is it is characterised in that the calculation step of PID arithmetic module is specially：
1) computing that a cycle is completed：
(1) difference parameter neg_pid_functional_range that bus inputs is negated and Jia 1, whether judgment bias are less than 0,
Judge whether its highest order is 0, be positive number if 0, be negative if 1, the effect of difference parameter be if
Difference between real time temperature and design temperature if greater than it, then exports heating with full power, on the contrary if less than then exporting 0,
PID arithmetic is controlled the precision within 5 degree, wherein neg_pid_functional_range is 32 data；
(2) calculating difference error_reg, temperature real time data i_current_temp of temperature collect module output is defeated with bus
The target temperature i_target_temp entering carries out mathematic interpolation；
(3) calculate the change of error value of Current Temperatures and a front collecting temperature, i.e. error_ctemp_dState, in PID fortune
The deviation that Current Temperatures and a front collecting temperature can be related in calculation participates in differentiating, error_ctemp_dState by
Temperature i_temp_dState_ex that Current Temperatures i_current_temp is gathered after the completion of deducting previous operation result, i_
After temp_dState_ex is then PID arithmetic module output each time, it is latched in heating module, wait PID computing again
When return this value；
(4) Current Temperatures i_current_temp is stored in depositor current_temp_1_reg, represents the period 1, ought
Front temperature following depositor is always maintained at the 5th cycle entirety PID arithmetic and exports to heating module by temperature again after terminating,
Input as real time temperature deviation next time；
(5) input useful signal i_valid is saved in depositor valid1_reg, represents the period 1；
2) computing that second period is completed：
(1) period 1 register data current_temp_1_reg is saved in depositor current_temp_2_reg
In；First period register data valid1_reg is saved in depositor valid2_reg, represents second round；
(2) completed percentage computing product term pTerm, pid parameter kp is multiplied with difference terms error_reg because kp with
Error_reg is 32 data, is multiplied and then causes data to overflow, so retaining the 16 of result of product using the method for cut position
Position, i.e. pTerm_tmp [47:16], then it is saved in depositor pTerm_reg, complete differential term and calculate；
(3) i_kd and error_ctemp_dState carries out multiplying, obtains operation result dTerm_tmp_0 [47 after cut position:
16], it is stored in depositor dTerm_tmp_0_reg；
(4) calculate integral term intermediate variable temp_iState and be stored in depositor temp_iState_reg, by current difference item
Error_reg is added with front once integration intermediate variable i_temp_iState_reg_ex and draws；
(5) signal min_pid_out_reg, max_pid_out_reg are judged, in relatively difference parameter pid_functional_
After range, if meeting in the range of difference parameter, proceeding PID arithmetic, if be unsatisfactory for, will determine that signal is put
1, signal min_pid_out_reg puts 1, then export minima after five cycles of PID arithmetic, and signal max_pid_out_reg puts
1, then export maximum after five cycles of PID arithmetic；
3) the 3rd computing that the cycle is completed：
(1) second round register data current_temp_2_reg is saved in depositor current_temp_3_reg
In；Second round register data max_pid_out_reg and min_pid_out_reg is saved in depositor max_ respectively
Pid_out_3_reg and min_pid_out_3_reg；Second round register data pTerm_reg is saved in depositor
PTerm_3_reg, second period register data valid2_reg is saved in depositor valid3_reg, represents the 3rd week
Phase；
(2) calculate the cumulative item temp_iState_constrain of integration, judge where whether temp_iState_reg constrain model
In enclosing, if it exceeds i_temp_iState_max, then assignment i_temp_iState_max, if less than 0, then assignment 0, if
In restriction range, then assignment data temp_iState_reg；
(3) calculate integral term iTerm, Ki is multiplied with temp_iState_constrain, and the result of cut position is saved in depositor
iTerm_reg；
(4) differential term dTerm is saved in depositor dTerm_reg；
4) the 4th computing that the cycle is completed：
(1) period 3 register data current_temp_3_reg is saved in depositor current_temp_4_reg
In；Period 3 register data max_pid_out_3_reg and min_pid_out_3_reg is saved in depositor respectively
Max_pid_out_4_reg and min_pid_out_4_reg；By period 3 register data temp_iState_
Constrain_reg is saved in depositor temp_iState_constrain_4_reg；By period 3 register data
DTerm_reg is saved in depositor dTerm_4_reg, and the 3rd period register data valid3_reg is saved in depositor
Valid4_reg, represents the period 4；
(2) calculate PID output result addition term because PID arithmetic output result be calculated by pTerm+iTerm dTerm and
Come, then in order to obtain faster processing speed, typically longer formula is split, carrying out separate computations can increase process speed
Degree, so, first pTerm_3_reg with iTerm_reg is added, result is saved in depositor pid_out_4_reg；
5) the 5th computing that the cycle is completed：
(1) period 4 register data current_temp_4_reg is saved in depositor current_temp_5_reg
In；Period 4 register data temp_iState_constrain_4_reg is saved in depositor temp_iState_
constrain_5_reg；Period 4 register data dTerm_reg is saved in depositor dTerm_4_reg, by the 4th
Period register data valid4_reg is saved in depositor valid5_reg, represents the period 5；
(2) calculate PID arithmetic result pid_out_tmp, pid_out_4_reg and dTerm_4_reg makes the difference item of obtaining a result
Pid_out_5, in PID arithmetic, is provided with restriction range, that is, be less than PID_MAX, more than 0, if exceeding restriction range, surpasses
Cross and then export maximum PID_MAX, less than then exporting minima 0；
(3) judge that PID arithmetic module draws operation result o_pid_out, according to min_pid_out_4_reg, max_pid_
Out_4_reg signal, to judge the final output result of PID, if two signals are all low levels, exports pid_out_
Tmp/2, otherwise, min_pid_out_4_reg high level, export 0；Max_pid_out_4_reg, high level output PID_MAX；
6) the 6th computing that the cycle is completed：
(1) export o_valid useful signal, represent that PID arithmetic calculates and complete；
(2) PID arithmetic result, output current integration accumulated value o_temp_iState_constrain_ex and Current Temperatures are exported
Value o_current_temp_ex is to heating module as temporal data.
6. temperature control system according to claim 1 is it is characterised in that heating module includes last time collecting temperature deposits
Device, deviation depositor and controlled quentity controlled variable depositor, controlled quentity controlled variable depositor linkage counter and logic judging circuit；Last time collection temperature
Degree depositor and deviation depositor are used for storage last time collecting temperature data and deviation data respectively, and return PID module parameter,
Enumerator is used for controlling heating port high level or level, to control heat time heating time with this；Temperature and deviation data pass through to sentence
Whether disconnected PID useful signal and controlled quentity controlled variable are 0 controlling whether latch signal；When a PID arithmetic finishes, export useful signal
And controlled quentity controlled variable, then start a heating cycle；PID control amount is latched in controlled quentity controlled variable depositor；Judge during counter works
Whether heating port heats, if heating, keeping count, and when counting sequence meets one millisecond, counter O reset；Counting
During device work, the size between logical judgment PWM and controlled quentity controlled variable is carried out by logic judging circuit, export heating signal, with this
Drive heating port.
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