CN106440517A - Direct expansion type heat pump device and process control method of heat collection liquid - Google Patents

Direct expansion type heat pump device and process control method of heat collection liquid Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106440517A
CN106440517A CN201610791446.XA CN201610791446A CN106440517A CN 106440517 A CN106440517 A CN 106440517A CN 201610791446 A CN201610791446 A CN 201610791446A CN 106440517 A CN106440517 A CN 106440517A
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China
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heat
thermal
liquid
collector
tube
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CN201610791446.XA
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CN106440517B (en
Inventor
徐荣吉
王瑞祥
许淑惠
吕浩
王刚
高峰
胡洁
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Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture
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Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B30/00Heat pumps
    • F25B30/06Heat pumps characterised by the source of low potential heat
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B49/00Arrangement or mounting of control or safety devices
    • F25B49/02Arrangement or mounting of control or safety devices for compression type machines, plants or systems
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers
    • Y02E10/44Heat exchange systems

Abstract

The invention relates to a direct expansion type heat pump device and a process control method of heat collection liquid. The device comprises a heat pump circulation branch and a solar heat collector. The heat pump circulation branch comprises a first branch and a second branch. The first branch comprises a compressor and a condenser which are connected in sequence. The second branch comprises a heat exchanger. The solar heat collector comprises a shell and a heat collection part arranged in the shell. A flowing path is formed among a fed liquid separation pipe, a discharged liquid collection pipe and at least one part of capillary pipe heat absorbers of the heat collection part by the heat collection liquid, and the number of the capillary pipe heat absorbers connected into the flowing path can be adjusted. The first branch and the second branch are merged into the position between the fed liquid separation pipe and the discharged liquid collection pipe, and a first heat supply cycle and a second heat supply cycle can be formed. The heat pump device can meet the heat supply need by adjusting the process of the heat collection liquid.

Description

Direct-expansion type heat pump assembly and the flow control method of thermal-arrest liquid
Technical field
The present invention relates to too can radiant heat energy utilize field, and in particular to a kind of direct-expansion type heat pump assembly and thermal-arrest liquid Flow control method.
Background technology
Thermal-arrest liquid in solar thermal collector is flowed by free convection or pump at present.Heat-collecting temperature and flow are passively adjusted Section, it is impossible to which dynamic is by adjusting running status (heat-collecting temperature and flow) to adapt to weather and use demand according to actual needs Change;And heat-absorbent surface of the solar thermal collector generally using slab construction is absorbing solar energy, and the temperature of heat-absorbent surface is universal Higher than endothermic tube temperature, a hyperthermia radiation face and the hot face of leakage is defined, affects collecting efficiency.
At present for the improvement of solar thermal collector, the heat-collecting temperature for being primarily directed to heat collector is carried out.As in vacuum tube Heat collector is inserted into metal tube changing fluid flow, or carries out segment set thermal flow process in the thermal-collecting tube of flat plate collector Arranged in series etc..But the optimization to solar thermal collector is extremely limited, how fundamentally to change the heat-collecting capacity of heat collector with And improve heat collector utilization rate, enable heat collector according to use demand adjust automatically thermal-arrest liquid flow high efficiency run, be still Treat the problem for optimizing further.
In conjunction with solar thermal collector formed direct-expansion type heat pump carry out heat supply application widely.But current solar energy collection Thermal-arrest liquid in hot device is flowed mainly by free convection or pump, and collection heat level is affected greatly by solar radiation, therefore heat-collecting temperature Larger with the fluctuation of heat-collecting capacity, it is impossible to according to the actual heat demand dynamic regulation of direct-expansion type heat pump assembly.
Content of the invention
Technical problem
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is how to adjust heat collecting liquid according to the heat demand of direct-expansion type heat pump assembly The heat-collecting temperature of body and heat-collecting capacity.
Solution
In view of this, An embodiment provides a kind of direct-expansion type heat pump assembly, the direct-expansion type heat pump assembly Including:
Heat pump cycle branch road, which includes tie point and second road;
Wherein, the tie point includes the compressor being sequentially connected and condenser;
Wherein, second branch road includes heat exchanger;
Wherein, and the condenser and the heat exchanger are placed in holding in the hot water storage tank of heat donor fluid;
And solar thermal collector, which includes housing and the thermal-arrest portion being placed in the housing;
Wherein, the thermal-arrest portion include feed liquor separating tube, go out liquid collector tube and be placed in therebetween, several are arranged side by side Heat collection unit;
Wherein, each described heat collection unit includes compound parabolic concentrator and is placed in the compound parabolic optically focused across column Capillary tube heat sucker on device, the thermal-arrest liquid absorption in the capillary tube heat sucker is reflected by the compound parabolic concentrator Too can radiation energy, the thermal-arrest liquid the feed liquor separating tube, described go out liquid collector tube and at least a portion capillary tube Flow path is formed between heat extractor;And on the premise of with physical significance, can be accessed by adjustable mode described The number of the capillary tube heat sucker of flow path;
By by the tie point and second branch road be respectively incorporated into the feed liquor separating tube and described go out liquid liquid collecting Between pipe, the first heating cycle and the second heating cycle can be formed with.
For above-mentioned direct-expansion type heat pump assembly, in a kind of possible implementation, the feed liquor separating tube and described go out Several electrically operated valves are distributed with liquid collector tube, by adjusting the on off state of each electrically operated valve, in open state Electrically operated valve cause thermal-arrest liquid the feed liquor separating tube, described go out shape between liquid collector tube and the capillary tube heat sucker Become the flow path of adjustable, multistage capillary tube heat sucker heat absorption;Wherein, with the direction of swimming over to downstream on feed liquor separating tube it is Capillary tube heat sucker heat absorption series be incremented by direction, then the endotherm area of the capillary tube heat sucker of the higher high-temperature level of series >= The endotherm area of the capillary tube heat sucker in the relatively low low-temperature level of series.
For above-mentioned direct-expansion type heat pump assembly, in a kind of possible implementation, also include control unit, itself and each electricity Movable valve is electrical connection, for adjusting the on off state of each electrically operated valve;Each is adjusted for through the control unit For the flow path that the on off state of the electrically operated valve is formed, in the direction that the heat absorption series of capillary tube heat sucker is incremented by On, when total heat absorption series of capillary tube heat sucker is odd number, the electrically operated valve of the most downstream on the feed liquor separating tube Should close, located at described go out liquid collector tube on the electrically operated valve of most downstream should open;Heat absorption when capillary tube heat sucker When series is even number, otherwise.
For above-mentioned direct-expansion type heat pump assembly, in a kind of possible implementation, it is additionally provided with the feed liquor separating tube Flow control valve is adjusted, and thermal-arrest liquid is adjusted in the flow path by adjusting the aperture for adjusting flow control valve Flow.
For above-mentioned direct-expansion type heat pump assembly, in a kind of possible implementation, the solar thermal collector also includes Sensor group, which includes:First sensor group, which is located at the upstream of the feed liquor separating tube, for detecting that thermal-arrest liquid entering Characteristic parameter at mouthful;Second sensor group, its be located at described go out liquid collector tube downstream, for detecting thermal-arrest liquid in outlet The characteristic parameter at place;3rd sensor group, which is located in the environment residing for the solar thermal collector, for detecting environment ginseng Number;And heat supply temperature sensor, which is located at the heat supply exit of the hot water storage tank, for detecting the confession in the heat supply exit Hot temperature;Above-mentioned (first, second, third) sensor group and heat supply temperature sensor are electrically connected with the control unit respectively, For providing the basic parameter for adjusting the on off state of each electrically operated valve to the control unit.
Preferably, with the axial direction of the capillary heat extractor as length direction, the compound parabolic concentrator with described Capillary heat extractor is adapted in the size of the length direction, and the scope of the intercepting ratio of the compound parabolic concentrator is 0~4/ 5.Preferably, the capillary tube heat sucker is placed on the focal circle of the compound parabolic concentrator along its length, and the hair Caliber≤the 4mm of tubule heat extractor.
For above-mentioned direct-expansion type heat pump assembly, in a kind of possible implementation, by the two-way and above described in Capillary tube heat sucker is in parallel to form capillary tube group, and the both sides of the capillary tube group are divided by two grades of liquor separators and the feed liquor respectively Liquid pipe with described go out liquid collector tube connect.
The present invention additionally provides a kind of flow control method of thermal-arrest liquid, and the flow control method includes:Control unit The parameter and service data of collection solar thermal collector, the also heat supply temperature in the heat supply exit of collection hot water storage tank;Control Portion is based on the parameter, the service data and the heat supply temperature, to the corresponding sun under selected current heat supply mode The object function of energy heat collector is optimized;It is corresponding located at solar thermal collector during optimal value that control unit obtains object function Feed liquor separating tube and the target switch state of each electrically operated valve for going out on liquid collector tube;Wherein, the optimal value is given Minimum pump work at temperature and flow;The on off state of electrically operated valve is adjusted to target switch state by control unit so that the sun Can heat collector thermal-arrest liquid in feed liquor separating tube, go out liquid collector tube, capillary tube heat sucker and the tie point or described Adjustable flow path is formed between second branch road.
For above-mentioned flow control method, in a kind of possible implementation, the flow control method also includes:Control Portion shows the heat supply temperature and the information for drawing according to the parameter and service data, including:The temperature of thermal-arrest liquid, Flow and pressure reduction;Current ambient parameter;And the current on off state of each electrically operated valve;Storage direct-expansion type heat pump The parameter and service data of device, for subsequently recalling.
Beneficial effect
The direct-expansion type heat pump assembly of the present invention improves stability and the efficiency of heat pump assembly, specifically, by adopting hair The heat collection unit that tubule heat extractor is constituted with compound parabolic concentrator improves collecting efficiency, and by changing thermal-arrest liquid Flow path is adjusting collecting efficiency, and then improves heat-collecting temperature and the heat-collecting capacity of solar thermal collector, dynamically can fit Answer the heat demand of heat pump assembly.
Description of the drawings
When considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, the present invention more completely can be more fully understood.Accompanying drawing described herein is used for providing A further understanding of the present invention, embodiment and its illustrates, for explaining the present invention, not constituting inappropriate limitation of the present invention.
Fig. 1 illustrates the structural representation of the direct-expansion type heat pump assembly of one embodiment of the invention;Fig. 2 illustrates the present invention one The cross-sectional schematic of the solar thermal collector of the direct-expansion type heat pump assembly of embodiment.
Fig. 3 illustrates patrolling for the control unit of the solar thermal collector in the direct-expansion type heat pump assembly of one embodiment of the present of invention Collect block diagram;Fig. 4-1 illustrates the control unit of the solar thermal collector in the direct-expansion type heat pump assembly of one embodiment of the present of invention A kind of logic diagram of embodiment;Fig. 4-2 illustrates the solar energy collection in the direct-expansion type heat pump assembly of one embodiment of the present of invention The logic diagram of another kind of embodiment of the control unit of hot device;Fig. 5 illustrates the direct-expansion type heat pump dress of one embodiment of the present of invention A kind of logic diagram of the optimal way of the control unit of the solar thermal collector in putting.
Reference numerals list
1st, feed liquor separating tube 2, capillary tube heat sucker 3, go out liquid collector tube 4, compound parabolic concentrator 5, electrically operated valve 61st, the first temperature sensor 62, second temperature sensor 63, three-temperature sensor 64, heat supply temperature sensor 7, stream Quantity sensor 81, the first differential pressure pickup measuring point 82, the second differential pressure pickup measuring point 9, flow control valve 10, wind speed sensing Device 11, solar radiation sensor 12, compressor 13, condenser 14, choke valve 15, three-way valve 16, working medium pump 17, storage Boiler 18, heat exchanger, 19, holding wire 20, base plate 21, heat-insulation layer 22, framework 23, cover-plate glass.
Specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and embodiment is described in further detail to technical scheme.
The direct-expansion type heat pump assembly of the present invention belongs to a kind of application of solar thermal collector.Specifically, by solar energy collection Hot device (hereinafter referred to as heat collector) is used as the heat donor fluid (first that comes in heat storage water tank 17 of vaporizer of heat pump assembly Heating cycle), or the thermal-arrest liquid absorption in heat collector can directly heat very much the heat supply in hot water storage tank 17 after radiation energy Fluid (the first heating cycle).The first heating cycle operation in the case of, thermal-arrest liquid can be suitable for direct-expansion type heat pump The cold-producing medium of circulation, such as R134a (HFA 134a), R32 (difluoromethane) etc..The present invention is by the collection to heat collector Hot property is optimized to be come so that the collection heat level of heat collector is more mated with the operation of direct-expansion type heat pump assembly and heat demand.
Embodiment 1
Fig. 1 illustrates the structural representation of the direct-expansion type heat pump assembly of one embodiment of the invention.Mainly by heat collector The heat energy that absorbed of thermal-arrest liquid for heating heat donor fluid.And by adjusting the collecting efficiency of heat collector, disclosure satisfy that not Same heat demand.
As shown in figure 1, the direct-expansion type heat pump assembly mainly includes:1) heat pump cycle branch road, its structure mainly includes parallel connection Two branch roads, wherein tie point mainly includes the compressor 12 being sequentially connected and condenser 13, and the second branch road mainly includes Heat exchanger 18, wherein condenser 13 and heat exchanger 18 are placed in hot water storage tank 17.And 2) heat collector, its structure mainly includes Housing and the thermal-arrest portion being placed in housing;Housing is mainly used as the carrier in thermal-arrest portion, and ensures that sunlight can pass through housing Cover-plate glass 23 expose to thermal-arrest portion.Thermal-arrest portion mainly includes feed liquor separating tube 1, go out liquid collector tube 3 and be placed in the two it Between, heat collection unit that several are arranged side by side.The both sides of tie point and the second branch road are incorporated to out liquid by three-way valve 15 respectively The downstream of collector tube 3 and the upstream of feed liquor separating tube 1, that is, define the first heating cycle and the second heating cycle.As one kind It is preferred that, in tie point, the downstream of condenser 13 is provided with choke valve 14, and in the second branch road, the downstream of heat exchanger 18 is provided with Working medium pump 16.
In a kind of possible embodiment, the first above-mentioned heating cycle can be:Thermal-arrest liquid in heat collector exists In feed liquor separating tube 1, go out formation flow path between liquid collector tube 3 and at least a portion capillary tube heat sucker 2.In flow path Thermal-arrest liquid endothermic gasification, then through go out 3 downstream of liquid collector tube three-way valve 15 enter compressor 12 so that after endothermic gasification Thermal-arrest liquid be changed into the gas of High Temperature High Pressure.The gas of the High Temperature High Pressure in the condenser 13 heat release in hot water storage tank 17 After heat donor fluid, the liquid that is changed into as cryogenic high pressure.The liquid of the cryogenic high pressure is after 14 reducing pressure by regulating flow of choke valve, you can The feed liquor separating tube 1 of heat collector is entered through flow control valve 9, absorbs solar radiation according to the flow path for setting in thermal-arrest portion Can endothermic gasification again, after again flow into heat exchanger 18 through going out the three-way valve 15 in 3 downstream of liquid collector tube, so circulate.At this In the case of kind, heat collector is integrally the vaporizer as heat pump cycle, is that heat donor fluid provides thermal source.
In a kind of possible embodiment, the second above-mentioned heating cycle can be:Thermal-arrest liquid in heat collector exists Feed liquor separating tube 1, go out between liquid collector tube 3 and at least a portion capillary tube heat sucker 2 formation flow path.And heat exchanger 18 makes Flow path forms closed loop.Thermal-arrest liquid through going out in 15 inflow heat exchanger 18 of three-way valve in 3 downstream of liquid collector tube is stored in heating The upstream of feed liquor separating tube 1 is pumped into after heat donor fluid in boiler 17 through working medium pump 16, according to setting in thermal-arrest portion Flow path absorb solar radiant energy, after again flow into heat exchanger 18 through going out the three-way valve 15 in 3 downstream of liquid collector tube, to accumulation of heat Heat donor fluid in water tank 17 is heated, and is so circulated.In this case, the thermal-arrest liquid in heat collector directly heats confession Hot fluid.Second heating cycle is primarily adapted for use in heating load and requires the higher and relatively low situation of solar radiation, now needs to pass through Run compressor to complete heating cycle.
And the capillary tube heat absorption of flow path on the premise of with physical significance, can be accessed by adjustable mode The number of device 2;Cause path variable by certain adjustment mode, as most easily manually adjusted or control unit Optimize and revise the change for carrying out realizing route.Additionally, achieving consolidating for corresponding heat collection unit by CPC4 is fixed on base plate 18 Fixed.The two ends of capillary tube heat sucker 2 respectively with feed liquor separating tube 1 and go out liquid collector tube 3 and be connected, the heat collecting liquid in heat exchanger 14 Body enters capillary tube heat sucker 2 by the heat collector entrance of heat collector upstream through feed liquor separating tube 1, in capillary tube heat sucker 2 After absorbing the heat of CPC4 reflection, liquid collector tube 3 is flow to out, and inflow heat exchanger is exported by the heat collector in heat collector downstream 14.
In a kind of possible embodiment, with further reference to Fig. 1, each heat collection unit mainly includes compound parabolic optically focused Device 4 (CPC) and the capillary tube heat sucker 2 being placed on CPC4 across column, the thermal-arrest liquid absorption in capillary tube heat sucker 2 by CPC4 reflection the heat energy for absorbing can be used for the heat supply of the present invention after radiation energy very much.As a kind of preferred, arranged side by side thermal-arrest Unit is uniform, parallel arrangement mode.
Further as shown in Fig. 2 the structure of housing mainly includes base plate 20, framework 22, heat-insulation layer 21 and cover-plate glass 23;Wherein:The upper surface of framework 22 covers the cover-plate glass 23 of high printing opacity, and the inner side of the framework 22 in addition to upper surface is equipped with guarantor Warm layer 21;Base plate 20 is located at the top of the heat-insulation layer 21 of 22 bottom of framework.
As a kind of preferred, in order to ensure the stability in heat-absorbing structure and thermal conversion efficiency, by capillary tube heat sucker 2 On the position of the focal circle for being placed in CPC4, being placed in of being placed in herein, absolutely not stricti jurise, but the position by being generally residing in Relation reaches the effect of collecting efficiency raising, the position that can be such as construed to respect to focal circle, and deviation is less than necessarily Numerical value can be (as 0.5mm).Due to the position be in the range of structures of whole CPC4 have the advantages that collect heat most intensive, It is thus advantageous to improve the collecting efficiency of the thermal-arrest liquid in capillary tube heat sucker 2.
In a kind of possible embodiment, cause path variable by certain adjustment mode, can be such as, on pipeline Several electrically operated valves 5 are distributed with, by adjusting the on off state of each electrically operated valve 5 so that as the thermal-arrest of heat-absorbing medium After upstream end of the liquid through entering liquid separating tube 1 enters heat collector, the electrically operated valve in open state causes thermal-arrest liquid entering Liquid separating tube 1, go out between liquid collector tube 3 and capillary tube heat sucker 2, to form what adjustable, multistage capillary tube heat sucker 2 absorbed heat Target flow path.Wherein, the direction for swimming over to downstream with feed liquor separating tube 1 is incremented by as the heat absorption series of capillary tube heat sucker 2 Direction, then in order to ensure thermal-arrest, there is actual meaning, the endotherm area of the capillary tube heat sucker 2 of the higher high-temperature level of series The endotherm area of >=capillary tube heat sucker 2 in the relatively low low-temperature level of series.Thermal-arrest liquid is along the target flow path During, only enter the capillary tube heat sucker 2 included by the target flow path and absorb the solar radiation reflected by CPC4 After heat energy, finally corresponding collection device and/or application scenario are flowed out to by the downstream for going out liquid collector tube 3.Such as in the present invention, By the heat exchange between the heat donor fluid in thermal-arrest liquid and hot water storage tank 17, to realize target heat supply.
By adjusting the switch shape of several electrically operated valves 5 for being arranged at feed liquor separating tube 1 and going out between liquid collector tube 3 State so that same heat collector can have different target flow paths according to practical situation, i.e., different collection calorific intensity.? In a kind of possible embodiment, the on off state of each electrically operated valve 5 can be adjusted relatively independently, it is also possible to will be therein More than one carries out linkage adjustment as an entirety.With further reference to Fig. 1, in a kind of possible embodiment, electrodynamic valve Door 5 installation principle can be:From the beginning of the upstream for feed liquor separating tube 1 being entered from thermal-arrest liquid, pass through in feed liquor separating tube 1 every time Capillary tube heat sucker 2 is carried out to thermal-arrest liquid after point liquid, installs and be incorporated to electrodynamic valve on the supervisor in the downstream of feed liquor separating tube 1 Door 5, from the second road electrically operated valve 5 is incorporated to, under the relevant position for going out liquid collector tube 3 connected by capillary tube heat sucker 2 Also install on the supervisor of trip side and be incorporated to electrically operated valve 5.
Certainly, aforesaid heat collector is mainly made up of the CPC4 of multigroup little yardstick and corresponding capillary tube heat sucker 2 Heat collection unit is formed side by side.In a kind of possible embodiment, can be in the shorter and pipe number of the length of capillary tube endothermic tube 2 When comparison is many, can be in parallel by capillary tube heat sucker 2 more than two-way or two-way, function is formed equivalent to single capillary before The capillary tube group of tube heat sucker 2, i.e., using the capillary tube group as most basic unit, in feed liquor separating tube 1 and go out liquid collector tube 3 Between be provided with several such capillary tube groups, but, each capillary tube heat sucker 2 in each capillary tube group is needed by two Level liquor separator is realized which with feed liquor separating tube 1 and goes out the connection of liquid collector tube 3.
As can be seen that except using single capillary tube heat sucker 2 as in addition to one individually most basic unit, it is also possible to Form, by parallel for Multi-path capillary heat extractor 2, the most basic unit that function phase is worked as.To improve the collection thermal effect of heat collector further Rate.
Additionally, for the structural integrity for ensureing thermal-arrest portion, CPC4 should in the size of length direction with capillary tube heat sucker 2 When being adapted, being adapted herein, roughly the same, herein roughly the same should be construed to, can such as be construed to capillary tube suction The length of hot device 2 can be slightly longer, and length difference is less than certain critical numerical value (being less than 2cm as unilateral).Possible in one kind In embodiment, it is 0~4/5 in the intercepting of CPC4 than scope, and the external diameter of capillary tube heat sucker 2 no more than 4mm (preferably 1~ 4mm, more preferably 2~4mm) in the case of, CPC4 can have and conventional flat plate collector or vacuum tube collector phase When size (as height≤50mm), in the case of CPC4 is suitable with the size of the heat collector of routine, its can produce than Effect at least 2~5 times of focusing ratio for reaching as high as 10 times of conventional heat collector, hence it is evident that improve collecting efficiency.Additionally, CPC4 can be with using mode machine-shapings such as 3D printings.
As can be seen that present invention CPC4 instead of traditional absorber plate, traditional heat pipe is instead of with capillary endothermic tube 2 Or conventional endothermic tube, the introducing of CPC4 increased the endothermic heat flow density of capillary tube heat sucker 2, reduces area of dissipation;Due to Capillary tube endothermic tube 2 can be preferably disposed in capillary tube heat sucker 2 at the position of substantially focal circle of CPC4, therefore fully sharp Condenser performance with CPC4 so that the temperature of the thermal-arrest liquid in capillary tube endothermic tube 2 inside heat collector can reach theory On maximum temperaturerise, on the premise of high temp objects area and leaking heat are reduced, improve the collecting efficiency of heat collector.
In a kind of possible embodiment, the switch to each electrically operated valve 5 can be realized by introducing control unit The adjustment of state.With further reference to Fig. 1, if the feedback result that control unit draws is so that in Fig. 1 seven electrically operated valves 5 (1,3,5,7) (according to being incorporated to order, five electrically operated valves 5 refer to successively 1 bottom right, right in 2 time, 3 times middle left sides, 4 bottom lefts, 5 Upper right, on 6 in, left on 7, wherein electrically operated valve (1,3,5,7) refers to bottom right, the electricity at lower middle left, upper right, upper left position Movable valve 5) be open mode, then form target flow path (flow process) as shown by the arrow.But, for through control unit For adjusting the flow path of on off state formation of each electrically operated valve 5, still it is to ensure that thermal-arrest has practical significance, On the direction that the heat absorption series of capillary tube heat sucker 2 is incremented by, when the heat absorption series of capillary tube heat sucker 2 is odd number, it is located at The electrically operated valve 5 of the most downstream on feed liquor separating tube 1 should be closed, and the electrodynamic valve of the most downstream being located at out on liquid collector tube 3 Door 5 should be opened;When the heat absorption series of capillary tube heat sucker 2 is even number, otherwise then.
As can be seen that changing the flow process of thermal-arrest liquid by by changing the on off state of each electrically operated valve 5;By changing Become the flow process of thermal-arrest liquid, the downstream for enabling to out liquid collector tube 3 has the different liquid temps that go out, such as:Complete in electrically operated valve 5 In the case of opening, the target flow path of the thermal-arrest liquid of formation is parallel-connection flow, and the situation that opens in part electrically operated valve 5 Under, then the target flow path includes at least a part of serial flow, particularly in the feelings that the series for being incorporated to electrically operated valve 5 is higher Under condition, the heat-collecting temperature of thermal-arrest liquid can be significantly hotter than simple parallel-connection flow;Due in above-mentioned parallel-connection flow and serial flow Under (including all series connection and the sections in series comprising parallel branch), thermal-arrest liquid is formed when flowing through capillary tube heat sucker 2 Crushing difference, therefore in the case of flow identical, can be with the pump work of different pumping thermal-arrest liquid.
Additionally, as shown in figure 1, also include the sensor group for detecting the service data of heat collector, being mainly used in control The parameter acquisition in portion.Sensor group mainly includes:
I) first sensor group, which is located at the upstream of feed liquor separating tube 1, for detecting thermal-arrest liquid in heat collector entrance Characteristic parameter, such as located at the first temperature sensor 61, flow of the porch (i.e. the upstream of feed liquor separating tube 1) of thermal-arrest liquid Sensor 7 and the first differential pressure pickup measuring point 81 etc.;
Ii) second sensor group, which is located at out the downstream of liquid collector tube 3, for detecting thermal-arrest liquid in heat collector outlet The characteristic parameter at place, such as located at 62 He of second temperature sensor in the exit (going out the downstream of liquid collector tube 3) of thermal-arrest liquid Second differential pressure pickup measuring point 82 etc.;
Iii) 3rd sensor group, which is located in the environment residing for heat collector, for detecting ambient parameter, is such as placed in environment In three-temperature sensor 63, air velocity transducer 10 and solar radiation sensor 11 etc.;And
Iv) heat supply temperature sensor 64, which is located at the heat supply outlet of hot water storage tank 17, for detecting in hot water storage tank 17 The heat supply temperature that heat donor fluid possesses.
Specifically:I), ii), iii) in temperature sensor (61,62,63) at three be respectively used to detect heat collector into and out of The ambient temperature that the temperature of the thermal-arrest liquid at mouthful and heat collector are located;I) flow transducer 7 in is used for detecting heat collecting liquid The flow of body;I), ii) in differential pressure pickup measuring point (81,82) at two be used for detecting thermal-arrest liquid flow through after heat collector The pressure drop in heat collector exit;Iii the air velocity transducer 10 in) is used for test environment wind speed;Iii the solar radiation sensing in) Device 11 is used for testing intensity of solar radiation.
Above-mentioned (first, second, third) sensor group and heat supply temperature sensor 64 are electrically connected with control unit respectively, are used In providing the basic parameter for adjusting the on off state of each electrically operated valve 5 to control unit.That is above-mentioned all of test data Control unit is transferred to by holding wire 19, control unit can be placed in the top of hot water storage tank 17, it is also possible to be placed in heat pump cycle and prop up Between road and heat collector, naturally it is also possible to located at the inside of heat collector.In the first heating cycle, heat collector is followed with respect to entirely The vaporizer of ring.And in the second heating cycle, the thermal-arrest liquid in heat collector directly heats accumulation of heat water by heat exchanger 18 Heat donor fluid in case 17,.Heat collector determines collection heat pattern according to the demand of the running temperature of heat pump assembly, and heat collector is to working as The corresponding flow path for collecting the thermal-arrest liquid under heat pattern of front heat supply mode and flow are optimized.I.e. control unit is by control The on off state of electrically operated valve 5 finally realizes different target heat supplying processes adjusting the flow process of thermal-arrest liquid.
Additionally, control unit is also realized being electrically connected by holding wire 19 with the flow control valve 9 of the upstream for being located at feed liquor separating tube 1 Connect, by adjusting flow of the aperture of flow control valve 9 come domination set hot liquid in flow process.
But, the topmost function of control unit be for controlling opening for electrically operated valve 5 according to the operation conditions of heat collector Off status;And then change the target flow path of thermal-arrest liquid.As a kind of specific embodiment, with further reference to Fig. 3, control Portion processed is used for completing the Row control to thermal-arrest liquid, and the flow control method mainly includes following functions:
31) receive capabilities, which is used for gathering and uploading the parameter of heat collector and can characterize heat collector running status Data (service data);
32) processing function, its according to the above-mentioned data that receive, the setting having in conjunction with current collection heat pattern go out liquid Temperature, is optimized to the object function under current collection heat pattern according to certain Optimized Approaches;
It is to be understood that the Optimized Approaches being mentioned above, can be applied to tear choosing and adjustment open using existing, ripe Optimized algorithm (such as neural network algorithm, ant group algorithm, one by one than equity), it is also possible to compiled again according to the actual requirements Journey, or appropriate adjustment is carried out to existing algorithm, as long as current collection can be caused by adjusting the on off state of electrically operated valve 5 Object function under heat pattern is more excellent.
Additionally, with regard to current collection heat pattern, in a kind of possible embodiment, several can be preset in control unit Selected, classical target operational mode, each target operational mode can be with specific object function, so which is obtaining It is applied to occasion corresponding with target operational mode in the case of obtaining optimal value.Or, it is also possible to according to practical situation, in control Certain or certain several new target operational mode are increased newly in portion, so that its object function is fitted in the case of optimal value is obtained For occasion corresponding with new target operational mode.Wherein, the species of optimal value is at least included with the highest temperature under given flow Rise, give out under liquid temp minimum pump work under maximum stream flow and given temperature and flow.
33) feedback function, which is used for calculating the current object function for integrating heat pattern as each electricity corresponding during optimal value The target switch state of the on off state that movable valve 5 should have, i.e. each electrically operated valve 5;
34) perform function, feedback module is shown that the on off state that each electrically operated valve 5 should have is each with collected by which The current on off state of individual electrically operated valve 5 is compared, and executes order accordingly by sending so that each electrically operated valve 5 On off state be adjusted to target switch state.
It is, of course, also possible to possess other miscellaneous functions such as display, storage, specifically:
35) display function, which is used for showing the real-time running state of heat collector by certain form, such as can be to fortune Row state is classified, and is then shown with forms such as " good, normal, overheated ", or according to practical situation and demand, will Some parameters of running status are shown, or the running status characterized by some parameters is with animation streams (as thermal-arrest liquid Flow path etc.) form shown;
36) store function, which is used for recording and storing parameter and the service data of heat collector;Primarily as standby number According to.Such as can be easy to affect heat collector subsequently through on the running status of heat collector to obtain by way of recalling data The factor of energy, so as to carry out improving the research of thermal performance of collectors.Or when heat collector breaks down, can be by recalling correlation Data are used as the reference data of accident analysis.
With further reference to Fig. 4-1 and Fig. 4-2, in a kind of possible embodiment, control unit can include control device With two ingredients of remote control, by two ingredients cooperate to complete that control unit should possess upper State function " 31~36 ";Such as, the division of labor of two parts can be:Control device mainly completes its main operational of correlation and control etc. Function, and remote control then mainly completes the functions such as display.Specifically:
Control device is used as the core component of control unit, and which is mainly integrated with following five functions:
4101) data acquisition function, gathers the service data of heat collector and transmits this data to remote control, its In:Service data can be included but is not limited to:Heat-collecting temperature, flow, the flowing pressure loss of thermal-arrest liquid, ambient temperature, wind Speed, one or more in intensity of solar radiation, be mainly used according to parameter calculate the fluid temperature rise of heat collector, leaking heat and Crushing etc. characterizes the parameter of performance characteristic, or some intermediate parameters, or is used for some parameters at remote control end The running status for being reflected shows in real time;And the current switch states of each electrically operated valve 5, as to electrically operated valve 5 Normal condition when on off state is adjusted;
4102) pattern confirms function, receives the pattern confirmation instruction that remote control is selected, and pattern confirms that instruction can To include:Some is selected as current collection heat pattern in several existing heat collector operational modes, or can be according to working as Front heat-collecting temperature and flow, are manually entered new heat collector operational mode at remote control end, used as current collection hot-die Formula;
4103) calculation function, is optimized to the object function under current collection heat pattern, calculates object function and obtain most The target switch state that in the case of figure of merit, each electrically operated valve 5 corresponding should have, and with reference to the benchmark shape in aforementioned 4101) State, sends corresponding control instruction to each electrically operated valve 5;
4104) storage and writing function, store and record the relevant parameter of heat collector and service data (with real time execution The data of state correlation), parameter can include but is not limited to the size of each part of heat collector (as capillary tube heat sucker 2 and CPC4 Size), service data can include but is not limited to heat supply temperature, heat-collecting temperature, flow, thermal-arrest liquid flowing pressure loss, Ambient temperature, wind speed and intensity of solar radiation etc.;And the on off state of each electrically operated valve 5 is recorded (including current and tune After whole).Storage is primarily to facilitate with writing function and recalls data when needed, can be such as, in the performance to heat collector When carrying out research and during overall merit, or the fault of heat collector being analyzed, as reference data.
In addition to the basic function that aforementioned four should possess as a rule, can also be with following functions:
4105) display function, according to the actual requirements, can optionally show the part real-time running state of heat collector, Including but not limited to heat supply temperature, heat-collecting temperature, flow, thermal-arrest liquid flowing pressure loss, ambient temperature, wind speed, sun spoke Penetrate intensity, electrically operated valve on off state and thermal-arrest liquid flow.Display herein, be primarily to facilitate heat collector site examining and repairing and Manipulation.
And remote control is then mainly integrated with following two functions:
4201) display function, optionally receiving control device collection or the parameter that calculates or data, permissible It is strong that heat-collecting temperature, flow, thermal-arrest liquid flowing pressure loss, ambient temperature, wind speed and solar radiation are including but not limited to received Degree, is mainly used in being shown on the display interface that remote control end has accordingly, understands in order to user current Heat collector running environment situation and heat collector operational factor, and the on off state of each electrically operated valve 5 can also be received, and Mainly it is easy to user to understand the running status of current heat collector.
4202) pattern confirms function, and sending mode confirms that instruction, to control device, selects heat collector for control device Current collection heat pattern, and the object function under current collection heat pattern is optimized, so that the flow process of thermal-arrest liquid is able to Optimize.
The calculating that the parameter of the heat collector that control device is collected and service data can be participated in is mainly explained below, Such as it is mainly used in calculating the pressure loss of the temperature rise, leaking heat and thermal-arrest liquid of heat collector.
The inlet temperature that thermal-arrest liquid can be set in heat collector porch is as Tin, the area of heat collector is A, and thermal-arrest liquid exists Outlet temperature T in heat collector exitout, the series (being from upstream to the number of the heat collection unit that downstream includes) of heat collector is n, Then the area of each grade of distribution is Ai, it is assumed that it is T that intensity of solar radiation is I, ambient temperaturea, the flow of thermal-arrest liquid is m;
The then temperature rise of the first order is:
First, the temperature rise of the first order meets below equation
IA1-Ql_1=cm (Tout_1-Tin_1)=cm Δ T1(1)
In formula, Δ T1Temperature rise for first order thermal-arrest liquid;C is the specific heat of thermal-arrest liquid;Tin_1First order thermal-arrest liquid Inlet temperature, Tin_1=Tin;Tout_1For the outlet temperature of first order thermal-arrest liquid, it is also the entrance temperature of second level thermal-arrest liquid Degree:Tin_2=Tout_1;Ql_1For the leaking heat of first order heat extractor,
In formula, h is the convection transfer rate of heat collector outer surface and environment, and the convection transfer rate is only had with ambient wind velocity Close, h=f (v);Ah_1Exterior surface area for first order capillary tube heat sucker 2;The temperature rise of the thermal-arrest liquid first order is then obtained For:
If the mean temperature of first order thermal-arrest liquid isThe first stage temperature rise is then obtained is:
Same computational methods, second level heat collecting liquid body temperature rises computing formula and is:
IA2-Ql_2=cm (Tout_2-Tin_2)=cm Δ T2(4)
Then i-stage temperature rise is:
N-th grade of temperature rise is:
If as can be seen that identical with endotherm area per the collector area of one-level capillary tube heat extractor 2, with series Increase, endothermic temperature more and more higher, then leaking heat increases therewith;And after working as series increase to a certain extent, the heat absorption of heat collector Amount is equal with leaking heat, and now, the temperature of thermal-arrest liquid reaches highest heat-collecting temperature, will not increase further, follow-up thermal-arrest Flow process can only waste pump work.Therefore, heat collector to be improved go out liquid temp, then need according to per one-level heat collecting liquid body temperature liter Leaking heat afterwards improves the heat extractor area of every one-level step by step.
Wherein it is determined that the computational methods of every one-level pipeline number and pressure drop are:
Due to being to change the flow process of thermal-arrest liquid due to the closing of electrically operated valve 5, therefore, the flow process of thermal-arrest liquid Decision process is mainly finds the electrically operated valve 5 being closed in flow process.The decision method of idiographic flow is:
Whether single flow process is first determined whether, i.e., whether the capillary tube heat sucker 2 of all sockets is parallel connection.When satisfaction remove into Outside the electrically operated valve 5 of liquid separating tube most end one-level is closed, other all of electrically operated valves 5 are all open modes Under situation, thermal-arrest liquid is single parallel-connection flow.
It is not single parallel-connection flow in thermal-arrest liquid, i.e., in the case of thermal-arrest liquid is multipaths, divides in feed liquor first Liquid pipe 1 finds the electrically operated valve 5 of first closing.I.e. j=1, i start to be gradually increased from 1, as a (x, 1)=0, then first-class The pipeline number of journey is x;Then continue to increase from x in electrically operated valve 5, i.e. j=2, the i for going out to find second closing on liquid collector tube 3 Plus, as a (y, 2)=0, then the pipeline number of second procedure is y-x;Then the next electrically operated valve 5 that closes should divide in feed liquor In liquid pipe 1, then, next electrically operated valve 5, i.e. j=1, the i for closing being found on feed liquor separating tube 1 to continue to increase from y, works as a During (z, 2)=0, then the pipeline number of the 3rd flow process is z-y;The like just can obtain every one-level pipeline number until i=n-1. Two electrically operated valves 5 of last string are finally flowed out from going out liquid collector tube 3 for domination set hot liquid, last electrically operated valve 5 On off state receive flow process numerical control system:When flow process pipeline number is odd number, the electrically operated valve 5 on feed liquor separating tube 1 is to close, The valve for going out on liquid collector tube 3 is to open;When flow process number is even number, the electrically operated valve 5 on feed liquor separating tube 1 is to open , the electrically operated valve 5 for going out on liquid collector tube 3 is to close.
Determine after completing the number of the capillary tube heat sucker 2 in flow process and each flow process and can calculate whole heat collector The pressure drop of thermal-arrest liquid.Which is equal to the pressure drop sum of every one-level.And the pressure drop per one-level is equal to capillary tube heat sucker 2 along journey pressure Drop and partial drop of pressure sum.Wherein:
Single capillary heat extractor 2 along journey pressure drop be:
In formula, λ is that the flowing due to thermal-arrest liquid is generally laminar flow along journey pressure-drop coefficient, can useL For the length of tube that absorbs heat;V is the flow velocity of thermal-arrest liquid in endothermic tube;G is acceleration of gravity;
Re is the Reynolds number of thermal-arrest liquid;ρ is thermal-arrest fluid density;D is endothermic tube external diameter;μ is viscous for thermal-arrest hydrodynamic Degree;
Partial drop of pressure is:
In formula, ξ is partial drop of pressure coefficient, inhales to capillary tube as the partial drop of pressure of heat collector is mainly feed liquor separating tube 1 The pressure drop that hot device 2, capillary tube heat sucker 2 are mutated to the caliber for going out liquid collector tube 3 and flow direction is caused, such as a kind of specific In embodiment, ξ can be taken as 1.
Further, from formula (8), the outlet temperature for the thermal-arrest liquid of multistage heat collector is strong with solar radiation Degree, heat collector area, heat extractor area, the hot coefficient of heat transfer of leakage, ambient temperature, thermal-arrest specific heat of liquid and flow have relation.Therefore In the case of given thermal-arrest class of liquids, it is believed that the specific heat of thermal-arrest liquid is constant;In given intensity of solar radiation Under under situation, the face for going out liquid temp and ambient temperature, flow, the area for going out liquid heat collector 3, capillary tube heat sucker 2 of heat collector Accumulate, the relating to parameters such as the hot coefficient of heat transfer are leaked, i.e.,:
And the hot coefficient of leakage is relevant with wind speed, i.e.,:
Tout_i=f (v, Ah_n,An,m,Ta) (12)
And the energy utilization efficiency of heat collector, its except the caloric receptivity with thermal-arrest liquid mutually outside the Pass, also with pumping thermal-arrest The pump work of liquid is relevant.Specifically:Heat collector net efficiency=(heat collecting liquid body temperature liter-pump work)/solar radiation energy.And pump work Then there is relation with the flow of thermal-arrest liquid and flow process.That is, want to obtain the net energy utilization ratio of higher heat collector, On the premise of the confession liquid temp for meeting thermal-arrest liquid and flow, the flow process of thermal-arrest liquid will be reasonably planned, and by the greatest extent Amount reduces the pressure drop of thermal-arrest liquid reducing pump work.
Therefore, under the conditions of different solar radiations, capillary can be adjusted by the on off state of adjustment electrically operated valve 5 The area of tube heat sucker 2 and the area by heat collector and flow come adjust heat collector go out liquid temp and net energy is utilized Efficiency.Mode of operation as heat collector can include following three kinds of target operational mode:
1) maximum temperaturerise under given flow, the pattern is applied to the situation that the heat-collecting temperature to heat collector is required.
2) maximum stream flow under liquid temp is given out, and the pattern is applied to the situation that the heat-collecting capacity to heat collector is required.
3) given temperature, the minimum pump work under flow, the pattern be applied to require thermal-arresting energy-saving operation, from wasted work minimum Situation.
With further reference to Fig. 1, it is the path for more clearly expressing thermal-arrest liquid, can such as passes through matrix A={ a (i, j) } To represent the on off state of each electrically operated valve 5.Wherein (i, j) represents the coordinate of electrically operated valve 5, and wherein, i represents along collection The columns in hot liquid flow direction, j represents the line number along thermal-arrest liquid flow direction.Such as, represent the electrically operated valve 5 during j=1 Represent during for electrically operated valve 5, j=2 on feed liquor separating tube 1 that the electrically operated valve 5 is the electrically operated valve 5 on liquid collector tube 3.a The value denotation coordination of (i, j) is the on off state of the electrically operated valve 5 of (i, j);Can be such as:When a (i, j)=1, represent electronic Valve 5 is opening, and when working as a (i, j)=0, then it represents that electrically operated valve 5 is closed mode.Then whole heat collector each The on off state of electrically operated valve 5, can be expressed as (0,1) matrix of n × 2, you can with by the value of each a (i, j) come The flow process of the thermal-arrest liquid of whole heat collector is described.
Control unit is may be summarized to be to the concrete optimized algorithm that the on off state of electrically operated valve 5 is controlled:
It is the setting of object function first:According to user's request or based on research and/or the analysis of practice, set some Individual alternative object function, such as alternative object function can include following three kinds of functions:
I) index that object function draws is the maximum temperaturerise under given flow, i.e.,:
When m=constant, f1=max (Δ T);Wherein Δ T represents the maximum temperature rise of thermal-arrest liquid;
Ii) index that object function draws is to give out the maximum stream flow under liquid temp, i.e.,:
As thermal-arrest liquid discharge liquid temp ToutDuring=constant, f2=max (m);
Iii) index that object function draws is to give out the minimum pump work under liquid temp, i.e.,:
When going out liquid temp ToutDuring with thermal-arrest fluid flow m=constant, f3=min (Ppump).
Heat supply temperature due to water-retention water tank 17 is set, i.e., heat-collecting temperature is also it has been determined that so above-mentioned object function Iii) corresponding collection heat pattern i.e. be applied to the present invention, will heat collector be applied to direct-expansion type heat pump assembly.
Remote control can select any of which in above-mentioned object function as under current collection heat pattern Object function, the object function i.e. collection heat pattern of corresponding a certain kind emphasis (particular requirement under applicable situation), to the collection The process that heat pattern is optimized can specifically include:
Initialization step:The random n for generating the M flow process for meeting the above-mentioned thermal-arrest liquid that can be used for describing whole heat collector × 2 matrix, i.e., value therein to element a [i, j] is randomly selected between zero and one, is rejected in above-mentioned M matrix without physics The matrix of meaning, the such as matrix without physical significance at least include:
A) matrix of the flow process open circuit of thermal-arrest liquid is caused, that is, needs to ensure that as a (i, 1) and a (i, 2) can not be 0 simultaneously.
With further reference to figure, whenWhen, due in upper and in lower two electrically operated valves 5 be simultaneously in Closed mode, can cause the thermal-arrest liquid open circuit in heat collector, i.e., can not realize most basic heat collector entrance and flow into, export stream The path for going out, belongs to invalid flow process, it is therefore desirable to rejected before calculating is optimized to path.
B) matrix of the high-temperature level collector area less than low-temperature level area, i.e., the heat collector surface of the flow process of per grade thermal-arrest liquid are rejected The collector area of product≤rear stage, and the collector area of >=previous stage.
With further reference to figure, whenWhen, i.e., all electrically operated valves 5 are open mode, flow process for simultaneously Connection;WhenWhen, it is thtee-stage shiplock thermal-arrest;
WhenWhen, two-stage thermal-arrest is formed, wherein rudimentary is a flow process thermal-arrest, and two grades is two flow process collection Heat, two grades of collector areas are more than one-level collector area, meet the requirements;
And work asWhen, two-stage thermal-arrest is similarly formed, wherein rudimentary is two flow process thermal-arrests, and two grades is one Flow process thermal-arrest, two grades of collector areas are less than one-level collector area, undesirable, should give rejecting.The reason for rejecting is:When low When the temperature of level thermal-arrest is sufficiently high, the leaking heat >=solar radiation quantity of senior thermal-arrest can be caused, then the thermal-arrest temperature of heat collector Degree will not continue to raise, i.e., the collector area of senior thermal-arrest is not contributed to the thermal-arrest of heat collector, it is therefore desirable to which path is being entered Row is rejected before optimizing calculating.
The corresponding target function value of M1 matrix after rejecting, with physical significance is calculated, obtains stage optimal value. Using the corresponding matrix A of stage optimal value as objective matrix B initial value;I.e.:Select the M1 matrix with physical significance In corresponding target function value optimum that matrix, as the initial value of objective matrix B;
Optimization step:Rule according to setting is optimized to above-mentioned objective matrix B, meets stopping for setting in optimization process Only during condition, that is, obtain the target function value under the collection heat pattern.Corresponding thermal-arrest liquid path is obtained according to target function value, Thermal-arrest liquid path as after optimization.Control device combines the open and-shut mode of current electrically operated valve 5, electronic to each Valve 5 sends instruction, and the path of thermal-arrest liquid is adjusted to the path of the corresponding thermal-arrest liquid of the target function value.
As a kind of simple example can be:User is at remote control end by the target operation mould of current heat collector Formula is set as that by the index that object function draws be collection heat pattern corresponding to " maximum temperaturerise under given flow ", then control dress Putting, the corresponding control instruction of the individual matrix A as initial value of M1 is sent to each electrically operated valve 5:
As above-mentioned M1=1, the path of the thermal-arrest liquid of the heat collector of the control instruction formation corresponding to matrix A is " multistage Series connection ", is open mode such as (2,5) in five electrically operated valves in Fig. 1, and remaining is closed mode, and this is initial value pair The stage optimal value that answers, i.e., as the initial value of objective matrix B [n, 2].According to the stage optimal value, test, calculate simultaneously The import and export temperature difference of record heat collector.
The process is optimized by above-mentioned stage optimal value can be, control device according to set rule (as empirical value, Random data is exchanged etc.) element value in adjustment matrix A, the path for thermal-arrest liquid is such as adjusted to " most end two-stage is for going here and there Connection ", is closed mode such as (1,5) (bottom right, the upper left side) in 5 electrically operated valves in Fig. 1, and remaining is open mode, to be formed Be the two-stage flow process that goes here and there and combine, this first suboptimization for stage optimal value being carried out.According to the first time optimal value.Root According to the first time optimal value, test, calculate and record heat collector import and export the temperature difference.
The path of contrast perfecting by stage value and the corresponding two kinds of thermal-arrest liquid of first time optimal value is at heat collector import and export The temperature difference, if the first (" plural serial stage ") import and export temperature difference be more than second, control device resends instruction, with " plural serial stage " does not replace the value of objective matrix B [n, 2] as current thermal-arrest liquid flow, is entered according to the rule for setting Traveling one-step optimization;If the first temperature difference is less than second, need to change flow process, by corresponding for first time optimal value thermal-arrest The path of liquid is replaced with after changing flow process as current thermal-arrest liquid flow, the i.e. initial value of objective matrix B [n, 2] Value, is optimized further according to the rule for setting;Until meeting the condition (as iteration or exchange times) for setting, will be most Thermal-arrest liquid flow corresponding to optimal value once is calculated under the optimum state of value as the optimal value under the collection heat pattern afterwards The import and export temperature difference of thermal-arrest liquid of heat collector be maximum temperaturerise (outlet temperature-inlet temperature), and obtain objective matrix The flow process of the corresponding thermal-arrest liquid of B [n, 2].
Certainly, in order to shorten optimized computing cost and improve optimum level, it is also possible to carry out according to the actual requirements Programming or introduce existing other for carrying out the ripe algorithm of optimization selection.Such as still with previous example, will be current Heat collector target operational mode be set as by the index that object function draws be " maximum temperaturerise under given flow " institute right The pattern that answers, inventor has carried out a kind of specific programming according to actual demand to the optimization process, and logic diagram is specifically joined According to Fig. 5, by the algorithm of the programming to the detailed process that the path of thermal-arrest liquid is optimized can be:
501) calculate the M1 corresponding target function value of each matrix, selection target functional value optimum as stage optimum Value;Extract the corresponding matrix A of stage optimal value and be stored in objective matrix B [n, 2], as the first of objective matrix B [n, 2] Initial value.
502) selecting matrix selection matrix A1 and A2 with the probability of setting in M1 matrix carries out calculated crosswise, gives birth to again Become two new matrix A 1 ' and A2 '.The mode of calculated crosswise is as follows:1. integer C is generated between 1 and n at random;2. by matrix A 1 With (i in element a1 [i, j] in A2 and a2 [i, j]>C numerical value) is interchangeable;3. without physics after rejecting matrix switch The matrix of meaning, while the matrix without physical significance is replaced with B [n, 2] cover;Generate the matrix colony after intersecting.
Wherein, the whether selected probability for calculated crosswise of certain matrix in matrix colony, corresponding with the matrix The value of calculation correlation of object function, i.e.,:When the function of maximizing computing of the object function described in the present embodiment, then square The corresponding target function value of matrix in battle array colony is bigger, then selected bigger for the probability that intersects;Correspondingly, work as target Function be minimize computing function when, then the corresponding target function value of the matrix in matrix colony is less, then selected use Less in the probability of intersection.
503) variation calculating is carried out to the matrix colony after obtained above the intersection, the mode for calculating that makes a variation is as follows:1. 1 Random generation integer D and n between;2. with certain probability, determine whether the individuality of the matrix in above-mentioned matrix colony participates in variation Calculate.Herein, single matrix participates in the probability completely random of variation, unrelated with remaining condition any;If 3. some matrix A Take part in variation to calculate, then corresponding for a [i, j] (i=D) numerical value is carried out logic and overturn, i.e.,:If 1, then it is changed into 0;If It is 0, then is entered as 1;4. the matrix without physical significance after matrix makes a variation is rejected;Still the matrix without physical significance is used B [n, 2] cover replaces;Generate the matrix colony after variation.
504) carry out above-mentioned variation, intersect after, by desired value optimum a matrix compare with the initial value of B [n, 2], If corresponding target function value is better than initial value, initial value is substituted with stage optimal value, if initial value is more excellent, continue Retain initial value, that is, stage optimal value is obtained, repeat aforementioned intersection and mutation operator to the matrix group body after variation, to rank Section optimal value is optimized further.
505) until when reaching other stop conditions of the iterationses of setting or setting, in the M1 matrix for obtaining In, according to its corresponding target function value, using one group of optimal value as objective matrix B [n, 2] of target function value optimum.
506) adjust control each electrically operated valve 5 on off state so that the flow path of thermal-arrest liquid be according to target Path determined by the optimal value of matrix B [n, 2], is optimal path.
According to actual needs, the flow of the thermal-arrest liquid of heat collector is entered by regulation, each in heat collector by controlling The flow process being opened and closed to adjust thermal-arrest liquid of individual electrically operated valve 5, combining environmental temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, heat collector size etc. Influence factor, for different application scenarios, can realize different going out liquid temp in the downstream for going out liquid collector tube 3.Such as exist During summer, liquid temp to more than 100 DEG C will be gone out, then by driving absorption refrigeration or organic Rankine cycle power generation system reality The utilization that now heat energy that collects is freezed or generated electricity, improves the conversion ratio of the heat energy collected by heat collector.
The step of heat supply being realized using the thermal-arrest liquid control method of the present invention is specially:After start, control unit is according to collection The parameter (such as including the size of heat collector, the size of capillary endothermic tube 2, size of CPC4 etc.) of hot device and service data are (as ring Border temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, thermal-arrest liquid out temperature, pressure drop and flow etc.), the target letter to current collection heat pattern Number is optimized, and in the case of object function optimal value, collects determined by the on off state of its each electrically operated valve 5 corresponding The flow process of hot liquid is theoretic optimal flow process.After thermal-arrest liquid flows out heat collector through the optimal flow process, by first Heating cycle or the second heating cycle provide thermal source to the heat donor fluid of hot water storage tank 17.The main points that the present invention includes mainly are wrapped Include:
1) pass through with capillary tube heat sucker 2 as heat absorbing member, heat pipe or conventional endothermic tube is instead of, processing is simple, low cost Honest and clean, and as a kind of preferred, the external diameter≤4mm (preferably 1~4mm, more preferably 2~4mm) of capillary tube heat sucker 2, and By with CPC4 as beam condensing unit, and as a kind of preferred, the intercepting of CPC4 is 0~4/5, it is possible to use 3D printing etc. than scope Processing technique molding, effectively increases the endothermic heat flow density of capillary tube heat sucker 2, reduces area of dissipation, can make CPC4 Size (highly be less than or equal to 50mm) suitable with conventional panel heat collector and vacuum tube collector, and with routine heat collector 2 ~5 times even as high as 10 times of focusing ratio;And according to practical situation and demand, can with single capillary heat extractor 2 right How with capillary tube heat sucker 2 simultaneously the heat collection unit that answers is used as basic heat absorbing units, it is also possible to will using two grades of liquor separators Connection is used as basic heat absorbing units;And whole heat collector is connected by metal tubes, therefore there is certain pressure-bearing energy Power, while have frost-cracking-preventing ability in the winter time.
2) adjusting thermal-arrest liquid by the on off state of electrically operated valve 5 (can be aforesaid liquid or gaseous collection Thermal medium) flow path, and the on off state of electrically operated valve 5 can pass through control unit according to design temperature, ambient temperature, wind Speed, intensity of solar radiation, thermal-arrest fluid flow and/or turnover flow pressure drop etc. parameter are determining so that current collection thermal environment Under the collecting efficiency of whole machine can farthest cater to the demand of application scenario.According to different needs, by adjusting electricity The on off state of movable valve 5, can also be by the aperture of flow control valve 9 adjusting the flow process of the thermal-arrest liquid for entering heat collector To be adjusted into the flow of the thermal-arrest liquid of heat collector such that it is able to realize the collection that different operation of heat pump are required to the full extent Hot temperature, so as to meet heat demand.
Above in association with accompanying drawing, embodiments of the invention are explained, accompanying drawing herein is used to provide to this That invented further understands.Obviously, the present invention preferably specific embodiment the foregoing is only, but protection scope of the present invention Be not limited thereto, any be to one skilled in the art can readily occur in, essentially without depart from the present invention Change or replacement, are also all contained within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of direct-expansion type heat pump assembly, it is characterised in that the direct-expansion type heat pump assembly includes:
Heat pump cycle branch road, which includes tie point and second road;
Wherein, the tie point includes the compressor being sequentially connected and condenser;
Wherein, second branch road includes heat exchanger;
Wherein, and the condenser and the heat exchanger are placed in holding in the hot water storage tank of heat donor fluid;
And solar thermal collector, which includes housing and the thermal-arrest portion being placed in the housing;
Wherein, the thermal-arrest portion include feed liquor separating tube, go out liquid collector tube and be placed in therebetween, collection that several are arranged side by side Hot cell;
Wherein, each described heat collection unit includes compound parabolic concentrator and is placed on the compound parabolic concentrator across column Capillary tube heat sucker, the thermal-arrest liquid absorption in the capillary tube heat sucker too can by what the compound parabolic concentrator reflected Radiation energy, the thermal-arrest liquid the feed liquor separating tube, described go out liquid collector tube and at least a portion capillary tube heat absorption Flow path is formed between device;And on the premise of with physical significance, the flowing can be accessed by adjustable mode The number of the capillary tube heat sucker in path;
By by the tie point and second branch road be respectively incorporated into the feed liquor separating tube and described go out liquid collector tube it Between, the first heating cycle and the second heating cycle can be formed with.
2. direct-expansion type heat pump assembly according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the feed liquor separating tube and described go out liquid collection Several electrically operated valves are distributed with liquid pipe, by adjusting the on off state of each electrically operated valve, in the electricity of open state Movable valve enable to thermal-arrest liquid the feed liquor separating tube, described go out shape between liquid collector tube and the capillary tube heat sucker Become the flow path of adjustable, multistage capillary tube heat sucker heat absorption;
Wherein, the direction that the direction in downstream is incremented by as the heat absorption series of capillary tube heat sucker is swum over to on feed liquor separating tube, then level The capillary tube heat sucker of the endotherm area of the capillary tube heat sucker of the higher high-temperature level of number >=in the relatively low low-temperature level of series Endotherm area.
3. direct-expansion type heat pump assembly according to claim 2, it is characterised in that also include control unit, which is electronic with each Valve is electrical connection, for adjusting the on off state of each electrically operated valve;
And for the flow path that the on off state for adjusting each electrically operated valve through the control unit is formed, in capillary Tube heat sucker heat absorption series be incremented by direction on, when capillary tube heat sucker total heat absorption series be odd number when, located at described enter The electrically operated valve of the most downstream on liquid separating tube should be closed, located at described go out liquid collector tube on most downstream electrically operated valve should When opening;When the heat absorption series of capillary tube heat sucker is even number, otherwise.
4. direct-expansion type heat pump assembly according to claim 3, it is characterised in that be additionally provided with regulation on the feed liquor separating tube Flow control valve, adjusts the aperture for adjusting flow control valve by the control unit, adjusts thermal-arrest liquid in the stream Flow in dynamic path.
5. direct-expansion type heat pump assembly according to claim 3, it is characterised in that also include sensor group, which includes:
First sensor group, which is located at the upstream of the feed liquor separating tube, for detecting feature ginseng of the thermal-arrest liquid in entrance Number;
Second sensor group, its be located at described go out liquid collector tube downstream, for detecting that feature of the thermal-arrest liquid in exit join Number;
3rd sensor group, which is located in the environment residing for the solar thermal collector, for detecting ambient parameter;And heat supply Temperature sensor, which is located at the heat supply exit of the hot water storage tank, for detecting the heat supply temperature in the heat supply exit;
Above-mentioned (first, second, third) sensor group and the heat supply temperature sensor are electrically connected with the control unit respectively, For providing the basic parameter for adjusting the on off state of each electrically operated valve to the control unit.
6. the direct-expansion type heat pump assembly according to any one of Claims 1 to 5, it is characterised in that absorbed heat with the capillary The axial direction of device is length direction, and the compound parabolic concentrator and the capillary heat extractor are in the size phase of the length direction Adapt to, and the scope of the intercepting ratio of the compound parabolic concentrator is 0~4/5.
7. the direct-expansion type heat pump assembly according to any one of Claims 1 to 5, it is characterised in that the capillary tube heat absorption Device is placed on the focal circle of the compound parabolic concentrator along its length, and the caliber≤4mm of the capillary tube heat sucker.
8. the direct-expansion type heat pump assembly according to any one of Claims 1 to 5, it is characterised in that by the two-way and with On the capillary tube heat sucker in parallel form capillary tube group, the both sides of the capillary tube group are respectively by two grades of liquor separators and institute State feed liquor separating tube with described go out liquid collector tube connect.
9. a kind of flow control method of thermal-arrest liquid, it is characterised in that the flow control method includes:
The parameter and service data of control unit collection solar thermal collector, the also heat supply in the heat supply exit of collection hot water storage tank Temperature;
Control unit is based on the parameter, the service data and the heat supply temperature, to right under selected current heat pump mode The object function of the solar thermal collector that answers is optimized;
Control unit obtains object function and for the corresponding feed liquor separating tube located at solar thermal collector during optimal value and goes out liquid liquid collecting The target switch state of each electrically operated valve on pipe;
Wherein, the optimal value is the minimum pump work under given temperature and flow;
The on off state of electrically operated valve is adjusted to target switch state by control unit so that the thermal-arrest liquid of solar thermal collector exists Feed liquor separating tube, go out between liquid collector tube, capillary tube heat sucker and the tie point or second branch road to be formed adjustable Whole flow path.
10. flow control method according to claim 9, it is characterised in that the flow control method also includes:
Control unit shows the heat supply temperature and the information for drawing according to parameter and service data, including:
The turnover liquid temp of thermal-arrest liquid, flow and pressure reduction;Current ambient parameter;And each electrically operated valve is current On off state;
The parameter and service data of storage direct-expansion type heat pump assembly, for subsequently recalling.
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Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS5993149A (en) * 1982-11-16 1984-05-29 Sanyo Electric Co Ltd Solar heat collector
CN2888357Y (en) * 2006-04-13 2007-04-11 肖正广 Multifunctional solar air conditioner
CN203375751U (en) * 2013-08-07 2014-01-01 宜昌三峡太阳能研究所有限公司 Device allowing solar energy centralized heating engineering scale to be adjusted
CN103954048A (en) * 2014-05-23 2014-07-30 中国石油大学(华东) Solar heat collecting and transporting device
CN104006574A (en) * 2014-05-23 2014-08-27 清华大学 Compound solar air source heat pump
CN105698146A (en) * 2016-03-24 2016-06-22 王顺滔 Solar steam boiler

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS5993149A (en) * 1982-11-16 1984-05-29 Sanyo Electric Co Ltd Solar heat collector
CN2888357Y (en) * 2006-04-13 2007-04-11 肖正广 Multifunctional solar air conditioner
CN203375751U (en) * 2013-08-07 2014-01-01 宜昌三峡太阳能研究所有限公司 Device allowing solar energy centralized heating engineering scale to be adjusted
CN103954048A (en) * 2014-05-23 2014-07-30 中国石油大学(华东) Solar heat collecting and transporting device
CN104006574A (en) * 2014-05-23 2014-08-27 清华大学 Compound solar air source heat pump
CN105698146A (en) * 2016-03-24 2016-06-22 王顺滔 Solar steam boiler

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