CN106404279A - Device calibrating sensor through random force - Google Patents

Device calibrating sensor through random force Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106404279A
CN106404279A CN201610739400.3A CN201610739400A CN106404279A CN 106404279 A CN106404279 A CN 106404279A CN 201610739400 A CN201610739400 A CN 201610739400A CN 106404279 A CN106404279 A CN 106404279A
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China
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force
mass
light
frequency
signal
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CN201610739400.3A
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CN106404279B (en
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张力
王宇
尹肖
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中国航空工业集团公司北京长城计量测试技术研究所
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L25/00Testing or calibrating of apparatus for measuring force, torque, work, mechanical power, or mechanical efficiency

Abstract

The invention relates to a device calibrating a sensor through random force and belongs to the metering test field. According to the device, a vibration stand is taken as an excitation source, a force sensor is mounted on a surface of the vibration stand, a mass block is mounted at the other end of the force sensor, and the sensor and the mass block are driven through the vibration stand to generate random force. Mass of the mass block can be directly measured, acceleration of the mass block is measured through employing a laser interferometer, and the random force is traced to an international system (SI) of units through an absolute method on the basis of mass and acceleration.

Description

A kind of device by random force calibration sensor
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of device calibrating force snesor by random force, belong to metrology and measurement field.
Background technology
With scientific and technical progress, the numerous areas pair such as Aero-Space, robot, automobile mechanical manufacture, testing of materials The requirement of the dynamic force measurement degree of accuracy improves constantly, and proposes urgent demand to dynamic force metering.Aircraft is entered using steering wheel Row flight controls, and dynamic force is important feedback quantity, and whether the amplitude of power and phase place are accurately directly connected to the essence that flight controls Degree.The dynamic force measurement degree of accuracy in Vehicle Structure Strength test has important meaning to the life and reliability of evaluation structure Justice.NC machining, Automatic manual transmission process need to carry out accurate measurements and control to dynamic force.In recent years, dynamic force meter One of study hotspot of Liang Shi international metering circle, but so far, dynamic force measuring system is not yet set up.In dynamic force measurement In, force snesor all in the dynamic use state of static demarcating (i.e. " quiet mark is employed "), leads to accuracy of measurement very low greatly.
Dynamic force metering is divided into absolute method, relative method and comparison method.Absolute method is directly to be traceable to using by dynamic force value The mode of the International System of Units (SI) sets up the simple standard of dynamic force (primary standard), has the Targets of highest ranking Energy.It is the basic skills that dynamic force is traceable to SI that dynamic force based on laser interferance method is calibrated, and it is based on Newton's second law, Power is equal to quality and acceleration is long-pending, and quality can be traceable to quality criteria, and acceleration can be traceable to by laser interferance method Length and time.Dynamic force collimation technique development in recent years is very fast, and German PTB be have studied and accelerated based on shake table and laser interference The sinusoidal force calibration method of degree measurement.
Content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of device by random force calibrated force sensor dynamic characteristic, this device can Using shake table as driving source, force snesor is arranged on vibration table surface, mass is arranged on the another of force snesor End, drives force snesor and mass to produce random force by shake table.The quality of mass can with direct measurement, mass Acceleration adopts laser interferometer measurement, by quality and acceleration, random force absolute method is traceable to the International System of Units (SI).
The present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions.
A kind of device by random force calibration sensor, including laser interferometer, computer, digital voltmeter, Gao Zhun Exactness data collecting system, Arbitrary Waveform Generator, high-speed data acquistion system, signal generator, amplifier, power amplifier, First frequency mixer, the second frequency mixer, the first wave filter, the second wave filter, two-dimension displacement mechanism, speculum, mass, power senses Device, shake table;
Produce dynamic force by the way of shake table drives force snesor and mass, force snesor is installed on shake table Table top, mass is installed on force snesor upper end.
Laser interferometer and displacement mechanism are arranged on a platform having support, and perforate in the middle part of this platform is so that light beam leads to Cross, its hole position is in the top of mass.The light beam of laser interferometer is refracted to the upper surface of mass by speculum.This light beam Reflected by mass top surface, reflected mirror return laser light interferometer.When mass moves, the light beam of return laser light interferometer Phase place will change therewith.Speculum is arranged on the mobile terminal of displacement mechanism, and the mobile terminal of computer controls displacement mechanism drives instead Penetrate mirror motion, to realize laser beam and reflex to the diverse location of mass top surface measuring, positional accuracy is better than 10 μ m.
The electric signal of the electric signal of photodetector output and signal source output is existed with signal generator output signal respectively First frequency mixer and the second frequency mixer are mixed, and the two paths of signals after mixing passes through the first wave filter and the second wave filter respectively Carry out LPF, then collection is synchronized by multi-Channel High-Speed Data Collection System, obtain after being processed through computer Displacement changes over signal.By high accuracy data collecting system sum after the output signal amplified device amplification of force snesor Word voltmeter measures, and obtains voltage and changes over signal.High-speed data acquistion system and high accuracy data acquisition system System controls synchronous acquisition by internal trigger system.Computer produces band-limited Gaussian Profile random signal, any ripple Random signal is converted into electric signal by generator, and electric signal drives shake table so as to produce random after power amplifier amplification Power;Casual acceleration measurement is carried out using laser interferometer.Random force is traceable to the International System of Units by quality and acceleration (SI).Dynamic force F being applied on force snesor is the coupling mechanism and power sensing between mass sensor and mass Dynamic force sum produced by the equivalent mass of device.By comparing dynamic force F being applied on force snesor and force snesor Output, realizes random force calibration.
Described laser interferometer is Heterodyne interferometry, mainly by laser instrument, the first polarization spectroscope, the second polarization Spectroscope, prism, bragg cell, spectroscope, signal source and photodetector are constituted.Laser instrument produces the laser of frequency stable, Its emergent light is divided into two-way by the first polarization spectroscope, and a road is measurement light, and another road is reference light.Measurement light is inclined through second Shake spectroscope, speculum to mass top surface carries out vibration measurement, and this light beam is reflected by mass top surface, and reflected mirror returns It is back to the second polarization spectroscope, the second polarization spectroscope is reflexed to spectroscope, is then incident to photodetector.Reference light Through prism to bragg cell, signal source drives bragg cell to make reference light produce frequency displacement f after bragg cellB, this light beam is through dividing It is incident to photodetector after light microscopic.Measurement light and reference light produce interference at photodetector, and photodetector is by its turn It is changed to electric signal.
Described force snesor mounting means on a vibration table is:Mass passes through force snesor and mass bindiny mechanism It is connected with force snesor.Force snesor is connected with force snesor connecting plate by force snesor mounting screw.Force snesor connects Plate is connected with vibration table surface by table top mounting screw.In installation process, using digital torque wrench, screw-down torque is entered Row measurement and control.
Random force calibration signal handling process is:Laser interferometer and data collecting system measurement analysis obtain mass Displacement signal and force snesor output voltage signal, by bandpass filtering, then convert it to frequency domain using DFT method.By displacement Frequency spectrum be multiplied by (j ω) in corresponding frequency2After be directly changed into acceleration spectrum, then be multiplied by quality m converting to force spectrum.To two-way Signal carries out bandpass filtering, then calculates it in the amplitude of each frequency and phase place.Two paths of signals is divided by each frequency amplitude, obtains The amplitude versus frequency characte of force snesor;Phase place is subtracted each other, and obtains the phase-frequency characteristic of force snesor.Repeat repeatedly to measure, in each frequency Carry out average, obtain force snesor in the amplitude versus frequency characte of each frequency and phase-frequency characteristic mean value.
Beneficial effect
Produce random force by the way of shake table drives force snesor and mass, accelerated by laser interferometer measurement Degree, random force value is traceable to the International System of Units (SI) by quality and acceleration.Compared with sine method calibration, this method has school Quasi- efficiency high, closer to force snesor actual measuring state the advantages of.
Brief description
Fig. 1 random force calibrating installation;
Wherein:1- laser instrument, 2- first polarization spectroscope, 3- second polarization spectroscope, 4- prism, 5- bragg cell, 6- Spectroscope, 7- signal source, 8- photodetector, 9- laser interferometer, 10- computer, 11- digital voltmeter, 12- high accuracy Data collecting system, 13- Arbitrary Waveform Generator, 14- high-speed data acquistion system, 15- signal generator, 16- amplifier, 17- Power amplifier, 18- first frequency mixer, 19- second frequency mixer, 20- first wave filter, 21- second wave filter, 22- Two-dimensional Position Telephone-moving structure, 23- speculum, 24- mass, 25- force snesor, 26- shake table
Fig. 2 force snesor and mass scheme of installation;
Wherein:27- vibration table surface, 28- force snesor connecting plate, 29- force snesor and mass bindiny mechanism, 30- Force snesor mounting screw, 31- table top mounting screw
Fig. 3 random force signal analysis method.
Specific embodiment
The invention will be further described with embodiment below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
Embodiment 1
The data acquistion and control system of random force calibrating installation can have similar function based on PXI bus instrument or other Instrument combine.Can be with synchronous acquisition, to keep phase place during kinetic measurement between each data acquisition module of system Uniformity.As shown in Figure 1, computer 10 produces band-limited Gaussian Profile random signal, and Arbitrary Waveform Generator 13 will It is converted into electric signal, drives shake table 26 so as to produce random force after amplifying through power amplifier 17.
Force snesor installation on a vibration table such as accompanying drawing 2 shows.Mass 24 is connected machine by force snesor with mass Structure 29 is connected with force snesor 25.Force snesor 25 is connected with force snesor connecting plate 28 by force snesor mounting screw 30. Force snesor connecting plate 28 is connected with vibration table surface 27 by table top mounting screw 31.In installation process, turned round using numeral Square spanner measures to screw-down torque and controls.
A kind of device by random force calibration sensor, as shown in Figure 1, including laser interferometer 9, computer 10, Digital voltmeter 11, high accuracy data collecting system 12, Arbitrary Waveform Generator 13, high-speed data acquistion system 14, signal is sent out Raw device 15, amplifier 16, power amplifier 17, the first frequency mixer 18, the second frequency mixer 19, the first wave filter 20, the second filtering Device 21, two-dimension displacement mechanism 22, speculum 23, mass 24, force snesor 25, shake table 26;Wherein laser interferometer 9 includes Laser instrument 1, the first polarization spectroscope 2, the second polarization spectroscope 3, prism 4, bragg cell 5, spectroscope 6, signal source 7 and photoelectricity Detector 8.
Laser interferometer 9 and displacement mechanism 22 are arranged on a platform having support, and perforate in the middle part of this platform is so that light Bundle passes through, and its hole position is in the top of mass 24.The light beam of laser interferometer 9 is refracted to the upper of mass 24 by speculum 23 Surface.This light beam is reflected by mass 24 upper surface, reflected mirror 23 return laser light interferometer 9.When mass 24 moves, return The beam phase returning laser interferometer 9 will change therewith.Speculum 23 is arranged on the mobile terminal of displacement mechanism 22, and computer 10 is controlled The mobile terminal of displacement mechanism 22 processed drives speculum 23 to move, to realize the different positions that laser beam reflexes to mass top surface Put and measure, positional accuracy is better than 10 μm.
Can be measured using multiple laser interferometer.Heterodyne interferometry 9 shown in accompanying drawing 1 is mainly by laser Device 1, the first polarization spectroscope 2, the second polarization spectroscope 3, prism 4, bragg cell 5, spectroscope 6, signal source 7 and photodetection Device 8 is constituted.Laser instrument 1 produces the laser of frequency stable, and its emergent light is divided into two-way by the first polarization spectroscope 2, and a road is to survey Amount light, another road is reference light.Measurement light is shaken to mass 24 upper surface through the second polarization spectroscope 3, speculum 23 Dynamic measurement, this light beam is reflected by mass 24 upper surface, and reflected mirror 23 is back to the second polarization spectroscope 3, the second polarization point Light microscopic 3 is reflexed to spectroscope 6, is then incident to photodetector 8.Reference light is through prism 4 to bragg cell 5, signal source 7 Bragg cell 5 is driven to make reference light produce frequency displacement f after bragg cell 5B, this light beam is incident to photodetection after spectroscope 6 Device 8.Measurement light and reference light produce interference at photodetector 8, and photodetector 8 is converted into electric signal.
The electric signal of the electric signal of photodetector 8 output and signal source 7 output exports letter with signal generator 15 respectively Number be mixed in the first frequency mixer 18 and the second frequency mixer 19, the two paths of signals after mixing pass through respectively the first wave filter 20 and Second wave filter 21 carries out LPF, then synchronizes collection by multi-Channel High-Speed Data Collection System 14, through computer Obtain displacement after being processed and change over signal.By high precision after the amplified device of output signal 16 amplification of force snesor 25 Degrees of data acquisition system 12 and digital voltmeter 11 measure, and obtain voltage and change over signal.High-speed data acquisition system System 14 and high accuracy data collecting system 12 control synchronous acquisition by internal trigger system.
Random force is traceable to the International System of Units (SI) by quality and acceleration.It is applied to dynamic force F on force snesor It is the dynamic force sum produced by equivalent mass of coupling mechanism between mass sensor and mass and force snesor (see formula 1), that is,:
In formula, m1It is the quality of mass;m2It is the quality of force snesor and mass bindiny mechanism;meIt is force snesor Equivalent mass;It is the average acceleration of mass top surface;k0It is the nondimensional acceleration correction factor.
Signal processing flow is shown in accompanying drawing 3.Displacement signal and the voltage signal difference of force snesor output that systematic survey arrives By bandpass filtering, the parameter of wave filter is identical, to ensure that it produces same shadow to the amplitude of displacement and voltage signal and phase place Ring.Frequency domain is converted a signal into respectively using DFT method.The frequency spectrum of displacement is multiplied by (j ω)2After be directly changed into acceleration Spectrum, then according to formula (1) converting to force spectrum.Bandpass filtering is carried out to power spectrum signal, then calculates its amplitude F in each frequency (ω) and phase thetaF(ω);Bandpass filtering is carried out to voltage spectrum signal, then calculates it in amplitude V (ω) of each frequency and phase place θV(ω).Two paths of signals is divided by each frequency amplitude and obtains the amplitude versus frequency characte of force snesorPhase place subtracts each other acquisition Phase-frequency characteristic Δ θ (the ω)=θ of force snesorF(ω)-θV(ω).Repeat repeatedly to measure, put down respectively in each frequency All, obtain the amplitude versus frequency characte mean value in each frequency for the force snesorWith phase-frequency characteristic mean value
Random force once can carry out full frequency band calibration in theory.In view of frequency range wide then each frequency power value relatively Little, thus lead to signal to noise ratio relatively low, thus random force calibration can be divided into multiple frequency ranges, carries out successively.In random force calibration, right Shake table can may also be employed the mode of closed-loop control in the way of using opened loop control.During closed-loop control, force snesor can be adopted Output or laser interferometer output as feedback signal, by the calculating of computer, produce control signal.

Claims (4)

1. a kind of device by random force calibration sensor it is characterised in that:Including laser interferometer (9), computer (10), Digital voltmeter (11), high accuracy data collecting system (12), Arbitrary Waveform Generator (13), high-speed data acquistion system (14), signal generator (15), amplifier (16), power amplifier (17), the first frequency mixer (18), the second frequency mixer (19), First wave filter (20), the second wave filter (21), two-dimension displacement mechanism (22), speculum (23), mass (24), force snesor (25), shake table (26);
Produce dynamic force by the way of shake table (26) drives force snesor (25) and mass (24), force snesor (25) is pacified It is loaded on the table top of shake table (26), mass (24) is installed on force snesor (25) upper end;
Laser interferometer (9) and displacement mechanism (22) are arranged on a platform having support, and perforate in the middle part of this platform is so that light Bundle passes through, and its hole position is in the top of mass (24);The light beam of laser interferometer (9) is refracted to mass by speculum (23) (24) upper surface;This light beam is reflected by mass (24) upper surface, reflected mirror (23) return laser light interferometer (9);Work as matter During gauge block (24) motion, the beam phase of return laser light interferometer (9) will change therewith;Speculum (23) is arranged on displacement mechanism (22) mobile terminal, the mobile terminal of computer (10) command displacement mechanism (22) drives speculum (23) motion, to realize laser The diverse location that light beam reflexes to mass top surface measures, and positional accuracy is better than 10 μm;
Electric signal that photodetector (8) exports and the electric signal that signal source (7) exports are exported with signal generator (15) respectively Signal is mixed in the first frequency mixer (18) and the second frequency mixer (19), and the two paths of signals after mixing passes through first respectively and filters Device (20) and the second wave filter (21) carry out LPF, are then synchronized by multi-Channel High-Speed Data Collection System (14) and adopt Collection, obtains displacement and changes over signal after being processed through computer;The amplified device of output signal of force snesor (25) (16) measured by high accuracy data collecting system (12) and digital voltmeter (11) after amplifying, obtain voltage anaplasia at any time Change signal;High-speed data acquistion system (14) and high accuracy data collecting system (12) control synchronous adopting by internal trigger system Collection data;Computer (10) produces band-limited Gaussian Profile random signal, and random signal is turned by Arbitrary Waveform Generator (13) Change electric signal into, electric signal drives shake table (26) so as to produce random force after power amplifier (17) amplification;Using laser Interferometer (9) carries out casual acceleration measurement;Random force is traceable to the International System of Units by quality and acceleration;The power that is applied to passes Dynamic force F on sensor is the equivalent mass institute of coupling mechanism between mass sensor and mass and force snesor The dynamic force sum producing;By comparing the output of dynamic force F being applied on force snesor and force snesor, realize random force Calibration.
2. as claimed in claim 1 a kind of device by random force calibration sensor it is characterised in that:Described laser interference Instrument (9) be Heterodyne interferometry, mainly by laser instrument (1), the first polarization spectroscope (2), the second polarization spectroscope (3), Prism (4), bragg cell (5), spectroscope (6), signal source (7) and photodetector (8) are constituted;Laser instrument (1) produces frequency Stable laser, its emergent light is divided into two-way by the first polarization spectroscope (2), and a road is measurement light, and another road is reference light;Survey Amount light carries out vibration measurement through the second polarization spectroscope (3), speculum (23) to mass (24) upper surface, and this light beam is by matter Gauge block (24) upper surface is reflected, and reflected mirror (23) is back to the second polarization spectroscope (3), the second polarization spectroscope (3) by its Reflex to spectroscope (6), be then incident to photodetector (8);Reference light is through prism (4) to bragg cell (5), signal source (7) bragg cell (5) is driven to make reference light produce frequency displacement f after bragg cell (5)B, this light beam is incident to after spectroscope (6) Photodetector (8);Measurement light and reference light produce at photodetector (8) place and interfere, and photodetector (8) is converted into Electric signal.
3. as claimed in claim 1 a kind of device by random force calibration sensor it is characterised in that:Described mass (24) it is connected with force snesor (25) with mass bindiny mechanism (30) by force snesor;Force snesor (25) is sensed by power Device mounting screw (30) is connected with force snesor connecting plate (28);Force snesor connecting plate (28) passes through table top mounting screw (31) It is connected with vibration table surface (27).
4. as claimed in claim 1 a kind of device by random force calibration sensor it is characterised in that:Described random force school Accurate signal processing is:Laser interferometer and data collecting system measure analysis obtain mass (24) displacement signal and Force snesor (25) output voltage signal, by bandpass filtering, then converts it to frequency domain using DFT method;Frequency spectrum by displacement It is multiplied by (j ω) in corresponding frequency2After be directly changed into acceleration spectrum, then be multiplied by quality m converting to force spectrum;Two paths of signals is entered Row bandpass filtering, then calculates it in the amplitude of each frequency and phase place;Two paths of signals is divided by each frequency amplitude, obtains power sensing The amplitude versus frequency characte of device;Phase place is subtracted each other, and obtains the phase-frequency characteristic of force snesor;Repeat repeatedly to measure, put down in each frequency All, obtain force snesor in the amplitude versus frequency characte of each frequency and phase-frequency characteristic mean value.
CN201610739400.3A 2016-06-20 2016-08-26 A kind of device for calibrating sensor by random force Active CN106404279B (en)

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Cited By (6)

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CN106840566A (en) * 2017-03-08 2017-06-13 南京理工大学常熟研究院有限公司 High speed reciprocating impact vibration coupling test fixture and quick response feed arrangement
CN107131984A (en) * 2017-05-31 2017-09-05 航天东方红卫星有限公司 A kind of random vibration test force measuring method
CN108458830A (en) * 2018-03-07 2018-08-28 上海理工大学 With the carbuncle type optical pressure sensing device for reviewing one's lessons by oneself orthofunction
CN109238561A (en) * 2018-09-14 2019-01-18 上海市计量测试技术研究院 A kind of measurement method of force snesor dynamic sensitivity
CN110207863A (en) * 2019-06-04 2019-09-06 北京化工大学 Improve the method and system of nanometer resistance-type mechanics sensor stability
CN110702303A (en) * 2019-09-27 2020-01-17 西安航天计量测试研究所 Sine dynamic force calibration system and method for tracing small force value sensor

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106840566A (en) * 2017-03-08 2017-06-13 南京理工大学常熟研究院有限公司 High speed reciprocating impact vibration coupling test fixture and quick response feed arrangement
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CN107131984A (en) * 2017-05-31 2017-09-05 航天东方红卫星有限公司 A kind of random vibration test force measuring method
CN108458830A (en) * 2018-03-07 2018-08-28 上海理工大学 With the carbuncle type optical pressure sensing device for reviewing one's lessons by oneself orthofunction
CN109238561A (en) * 2018-09-14 2019-01-18 上海市计量测试技术研究院 A kind of measurement method of force snesor dynamic sensitivity
CN110207863A (en) * 2019-06-04 2019-09-06 北京化工大学 Improve the method and system of nanometer resistance-type mechanics sensor stability
CN110702303A (en) * 2019-09-27 2020-01-17 西安航天计量测试研究所 Sine dynamic force calibration system and method for tracing small force value sensor

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