CN106404017B - High-precision multi-parameter optical fiber microcavity sensing system and demodulation method thereof - Google Patents

High-precision multi-parameter optical fiber microcavity sensing system and demodulation method thereof Download PDF

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CN106404017B
CN106404017B CN201610780701.0A CN201610780701A CN106404017B CN 106404017 B CN106404017 B CN 106404017B CN 201610780701 A CN201610780701 A CN 201610780701A CN 106404017 B CN106404017 B CN 106404017B
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王建强
张永臣
孙忠周
史云飞
姜昌海
沙文广
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Northeast Part Of China Weihai Optoelectronic Information Technical Concern Co
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01DMEASURING NOT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR A SPECIFIC VARIABLE; ARRANGEMENTS FOR MEASURING TWO OR MORE VARIABLES NOT COVERED IN A SINGLE OTHER SUBCLASS; TARIFF METERING APPARATUS; MEASURING OR TESTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01D5/00Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable
    • G01D5/26Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable characterised by optical transfer means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light
    • G01D5/32Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable characterised by optical transfer means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light with attenuation or whole or partial obturation of beams of light
    • G01D5/34Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable characterised by optical transfer means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light with attenuation or whole or partial obturation of beams of light the beams of light being detected by photocells
    • G01D5/353Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable characterised by optical transfer means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light with attenuation or whole or partial obturation of beams of light the beams of light being detected by photocells influencing the transmission properties of an optical fibre

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of optical fiber sensing, in particular to a high-precision multi-parameter optical fiber microcavity sensing system and a demodulation method thereof, which are characterized by comprising a broadband light source, a tunable filter, a 1 x 2 optical coupler with a splitting ratio of 1:9, a circulator, a multi-path optical switch, a PIN detector, a control circuit, a trigger source, a DAQ module and a signal processing circuit, wherein an optical signal output by the broadband light source is processed by the tunable filter and then sent to the 1 x 2 optical coupler with the splitting ratio of 1:9, an output optical signal of the tunable filter is divided into two beams by the coupler, wherein an optical signal with a smaller ratio is directly detected by the PIN, an optical signal with a larger ratio passes through the circulator and the multi-path optical switch and acts on a sensor connected with the output end of the multi-path optical switch in a time-sharing manner, and the multi-path physical parameters are rapidly demodulated, and compared with a method for acquiring the spectrum of the sensor by using a spectrometer, the practicability is improved.

Description

High-precision multi-parameter optical fiber microcavity sensing system and demodulation method thereof
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of optical fiber sensing, and particularly relates to a high-precision multi-parameter optical fiber microcavity sensing system and a demodulation method thereof, wherein the high-precision multi-parameter optical fiber microcavity sensing system is suitable for multi-parameter detection of marine environment, such as temperature, salinity, pressure intensity, flow velocity, pollution source and the like of seawater, and has great scientific research significance and application value.
Technical background:
the optical fiber sensor is a novel sensor which is developed rapidly and is applied to actual life more and more widely. The optical fiber sensor directly uses optical fibers as sensing media, can simultaneously realize sensing and transmission of signals, and has the excellent characteristics of small volume, strong concealment, electromagnetic interference resistance, corrosion resistance and the like.
The optical fiber microcavity sensor realizes sensing of external physical quantity by etching a microcavity structure with a certain shape on an optical fiber. The microcavity sensors packaged differently can realize measurement of different physical parameters (temperature, salinity, pressure, speed, etc.) while avoiding cross sensitivity. The sensing of external physical quantity can be realized by an intensity demodulation method and a phase demodulation method, wherein the intensity demodulation method is easily influenced by external environment and light intensity fluctuation of a light source, the stability is poor, the sensitivity of the phase demodulation method is high, and the sensing is realized by measuring the spectrum of a sensor.
To acquire the spectral data of the sensor, a spectrometer is usually used in a laboratory, so that the measurement speed is greatly reduced, and the acquisition of the spectral data of the sensor is realized by using a scanning light source in an environment with a high requirement on measurement time.
The data processing method of the microcavity sensor mainly comprises two parts, wherein the first part is used for acquiring the central wavelength, and after the central wavelength is acquired, the external physical quantity of the second part is detected.
There are several methods for obtaining the center wavelength of the spectral data, the simplest is to directly search the peak of the spectral data, and this method uses the valley (peak) in a certain wavelength range as the position of the center wavelength. And when the central wavelength is searched by using a Lorentz fitting method, one of the parameters in the fitting result is used as the central wavelength of the spectral data.
The peak searching method has the advantages of rapidness and simplicity, and has the defects that the influence of noise is large, the noise around a valley value (peak value) can greatly influence the found central wavelength value, so that detection errors are caused, even if data smoothing is carried out by a certain denoising technology, when the signal-to-noise ratio of an acquired signal is low, the large detection errors exist, and the peak searching method is generally selected only when the signal-to-noise ratio of the signal is high; the method for obtaining the central wavelength by Lorentz fitting has low noise sensitivity, but has high requirement on the initial value of the fitting parameter, and when the initial value is not properly selected, the fitting error is increased, even the fitting fails, because the local optimal solution is trapped in the parameter space searching process instead of the global optimal solution.
The invention content is as follows:
aiming at the defects and shortcomings in the prior art, the invention provides a high-precision multi-parameter optical fiber microcavity sensing system which is suitable for multi-parameter detection of marine environment, such as temperature, salinity, pressure, flow velocity, pollution source and the like of seawater, and has great scientific research significance and application value, and a demodulation method thereof.
The invention can be achieved by the following measures:
a high-precision multi-parameter optical fiber microcavity sensing system is characterized by being provided with a broadband light source, a tunable filter, a 1 x 2 optical coupler with a splitting ratio of 1:9, a circulator, a multi-path optical switch, a PIN detector, a control circuit, a trigger source, a DAQ module and a signal processing circuit, wherein an optical signal output by the broadband light source is processed by the tunable filter and then sent to the 1 x 2 optical coupler with the splitting ratio of 1:9, an output optical signal of the tunable filter is divided into two beams by the coupler, the optical signal with a smaller ratio is directly detected by the PIN, and the optical signal with a larger ratio passes through the circulator and the multi-path optical switch and acts on a sensor connected with the output end of the multi-path optical switch in a time-sharing mode.
The coverage range of the broadband light source wavelength is 1500 nm-1600 nm, the wavelength range of the tunable filter corresponds to the wavelength range, and the trigger frequency of the filter is 200 Hz-400 Hz and is adjustable.
According to the invention, two PINs are used for simultaneously detecting the light source spectrum and the sensor spectrum, after data acquisition is carried out, the data is subjected to logarithm taking operation, then the light source spectrum is used as a reference signal, and the light source spectrum is subtracted from the sensor spectrum so as to eliminate the influence of light source spectrum fluctuation on the sensor spectrum.
The invention also provides a demodulation method of the high-precision multi-parameter optical fiber microcavity sensing system, which is characterized in that when spectrum data of a plurality of sensors are acquired, a time division multiplexing mode is adopted, continuous light emitted by a broadband light source is output after passing through a tunable filter, and then is divided into two parts by an optical coupler, wherein one path of light with a small occupation ratio directly enters a PIN detector, one path of light with a large occupation ratio is transmitted to the sensors through a circulator and a multi-path optical switch, the spectrum data of the sensors are returned through the multi-path optical switch and the circulator and reach the PIN detector, two paths of optical signals are respectively taken as signal light and reference light to be acquired by an acquisition card DAQ module, and the next step of signal processing work is carried out; the synchronous signal during time division multiplexing is generated by a control circuit, a trigger enabling signal is sent to a trigger source while the control circuit switches a multi-path optical switch, the trigger signal controls the tuning frequency of a tunable filter, and an external trigger source required by a signal acquisition card is generated at the same time; the acquisition card acquires sensor spectrum data at a corresponding position once every time the multi-path optical switch is switched once, and if the switching frequency of the optical switch is f, when n sensors are connected, one complete acquisition comprises all n sensors, and the time consumption is (n/f) seconds.
The method uses two PINs to simultaneously detect the light source spectrum and the sensor spectrum, after data acquisition is carried out, logarithm operation is carried out on the data, then the light source spectrum is used as a reference signal, and the light source spectrum is subtracted from the sensor spectrum, so that the influence of light source spectrum fluctuation on the sensor spectrum is eliminated.
The invention adopts a central wavelength acquisition method combining a peak searching method and a Lorentz fitting method, takes the peak searching method as a basis, combines the actual physical meaning of a Lorentz curve and the expression form of acquired data, and provides a generalized parameter initial value and boundary setting method, which comprises the following specific steps:
setting a curve 1 as a certain collected spectrum curve, wherein the whole curve is approximately symmetrically distributed in a mode that the two sides are high and the middle is low by taking the central wavelength as a symmetry axis;
the straight line 2 is the maximum position of the spectral curve and is parallel to the x axis;
the straight line 3 is the position where the light intensity is 0 and is parallel to the x-axis;
the straight line 4 is the initial wavelength position of the spectral curve, is parallel to the y axis, and is intersected with the straight line 3 at the upper part and the straight line 2 at the lower part;
the straight line 5 is the end wavelength position of the spectral curve, is parallel to the y axis, and is intersected with the straight line 3 at the upper part and the curve 1 at the lower part;
6 is the position of the curve wave trough;
according to the above description, the method for setting the limits and initial values of the parameters in the Lorentzian fitting is as follows:
the expression of the lorentz curve and its corresponding physical meaning:
the parameter to be fitted is y0、A、w、xcTheir physical meanings are respectively:
y0: an asymptote of the lorentz curve;
a is the area enclosed between the asymptote and the Lorentz curve;
w is the full width at half maximum of the Lorentz curve;
xcthe symmetry axis (center wavelength) of the lorentz curve.
According to the physical significance of each parameter, obtaining the following setting rules of parameter limits and initial values:
y0the upper limit of (A) is a straight line 3, the lower limit is a straight line 2, and the initial value is (upper limit + lower limit)/2; the upper limit of A is the area enclosed by the curve 1 and the straight line 2; the lower limit is the area enclosed by the curve 1 and the straight line 3; the initial value is (upper limit + lower limit)/2; the upper limit value of W is the transverse distance between the straight line 4 and the straight line 5, the lower limit value is 0, and the initial value is (upper limit + lower limit)/2; x is the number ofcThe upper limit value of (1) is the wavelength corresponding to the straight line 5, the lower limit value is the wavelength corresponding to the straight line 4, and the initial value is the position of the wave trough; the upper and lower limits of the parameter a are negative when solved using a definite integral, and therefore the area enclosed by the curve 1 and the straight line 2 is still the upper limit value of a although small.
The invention provides a method for setting initial values and upper and lower limits of four parameters in Lorentz fitting, and simultaneously, when a plurality of wave troughs appear in a sensor spectrum, a plurality of groups of Lorentz curves are fitted at the same time to obtain a plurality of groups of central wavelength values, and the central wavelengths correspond to the same external physical quantity, so that sensor parameters with different central wavelengths can be obtained by a method of fitting a plurality of groups of first-order polynomials, in the final use process, physical quantities corresponding to the central wavelengths are obtained after all the central wavelengths are detected at the same time, and then a plurality of groups of detection results are averaged to obtain a final detection result.
The method can realize the acquisition of the spectrum signals of the multi-channel microcavity sensor, quickly demodulates the multi-channel physical parameters by a time division multiplexing method, and improves the practicability compared with the method for acquiring the spectrum of the sensor by using a spectrometer. By combining the collected spectral data and the actual physical significance of the Lorentz curve, the initial value and the upper and lower limits of the fitting parameters are reasonably given, so that the probability of being trapped into local optimum is greatly reduced in the searching process of the parameter space.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a block diagram of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of the present invention for determining the range of parameters during Lorentzian fitting.
Fig. 3 is a lorentz fit of the once observed spectral data.
Fig. 4 is a result of a first order polynomial fitting of the center wavelength to an external physical quantity (pressure).
Fig. 5 is a result of a spectral curve varying with an external physical quantity (pressure) when there are a plurality of center wavelengths.
Fig. 6 is a result of first order polynomial fitting of the center wavelength to an external physical quantity at a plurality of center wavelengths.
Detailed Description
When spectrum data of a plurality of sensors are acquired, the invention adopts a time division multiplexing mode, as shown in a general architecture diagram shown in fig. 1, continuous light emitted by a broadband light source outputs light with a specific wavelength after passing through a tunable filter, and then is divided into two parts by a coupler, wherein one path of light with a small proportion directly enters a PIN detector, one path of light with a large proportion is transmitted to the sensors through a circulator and a multi-path optical switch, the spectrum data of the sensors are returned through the multi-path optical switch and the circulator and reach the PIN detector, two paths of optical signals are respectively taken as signal light and reference light to be acquired by an acquisition card, and the next step of signal processing work is carried out. The synchronous signal in time division multiplexing is generated by the control circuit, when the control circuit switches the multi-path optical switch, the trigger enable signal is sent to the trigger source, the trigger signal controls the tuning frequency of the tunable filter, and simultaneously, an external trigger source required by the signal acquisition card is generated. The acquisition card acquires sensor spectrum data at a corresponding position once every time the multi-path optical switch is switched once, and if the switching frequency of the optical switch is f, when n sensors are connected, one complete acquisition comprises all n sensors, and the time consumption is (n/f) seconds.
In general, a large number of noise signals are included in the spectral data, denoising processing can be performed by using a multiple accumulation method, at this time, n sensors need to be scanned completely for multiple times, and if the accumulation time is m, it takes (n · m/f) seconds to complete the acquisition of m accumulations. In data processing, it is assumed that the data has been accumulated.
The following describes a center wavelength acquisition method of spectral data. The invention combines the peak searching method and the central wavelength obtaining method of the Lorentz fitting method, not only solves the defect that the peak searching method is greatly influenced by noise, but also makes up the defect that the Lorentz fitting method is sensitive to the initial value of the parameter, and effectively solves the problem that the fitting method can meet in the practical system application.
In the fitting process of the nonlinear function, if no restrictive condition is given, the fitting algorithm searches parameters in the whole parameter space range, so that the efficiency is low, and the worse condition is that the fitting fails. The invention provides a generalized parameter initial value and boundary setting method based on a peak searching method and by combining the actual physical meaning of a Lorentz curve and the expression form of acquired data.
Fig. 2 shows a parameter setting method according to the present invention. The numbers in the figures are illustrated as follows:
the curve 1 is a certain collected spectrum curve, and the whole curve is approximately symmetrically distributed in a mode that the two sides are high and the middle is low by taking the central wavelength as a symmetry axis.
Line 2 is the position of the maximum of the spectral curve, parallel to the x-axis.
The line 3 is the position where the intensity is 0 and is parallel to the x-axis.
Line 4 is the starting wavelength position of the spectral curve, parallel to the y-axis, and intersects line 3 at the top and line 2 at the bottom.
Line 5 is the position of the end wavelength of the spectral curve, parallel to the y-axis, and intersects line 3 at the top and curve 1 at the bottom.
And 6 is the position of the trough of the curve.
According to the above description, the method for setting the limits and initial values of the parameters in the Lorentzian fitting is as follows:
firstly, an expression of a Lorentzian curve and a corresponding physical meaning thereof are given.
The parameter to be fitted is y0、A、w、xcTheir physical meanings are respectively:
y0: an asymptote of the lorentz curve;
a is the area enclosed between the asymptote and the Lorentz curve;
w is the full width at half maximum of the Lorentz curve;
xcthe symmetry axis (center wavelength) of the lorentz curve.
According to the physical significance of each parameter, obtaining the following parameter limit and initial value setting method:
note that the upper and lower limits of the parameter a are negative when solved using a definite integral, so the area enclosed by the curve 1 and the line 2 is still the upper limit value of a, although small.
Fig. 3 shows the fitting results using the above initial value setting method.
When the external physical quantity changes, the central wavelength also changes, and the change relationship of the central wavelength along with the external physical quantity is shown in fig. 4 (taking the pressure change as an example).
In the spectrum of the multi-center-wavelength (pressure) sensor shown in fig. 5, there are 12 different center wavelengths (corresponding to 12 positions of the troughs of the spectrum data), the black dots near the troughs in the spectrum represent the found positions of the center wavelengths, the center wavelengths produce red shift with the change of the pressure, and the change rule of all the 12 center wavelengths with the change of the pressure is shown in fig. 6.
The slopes and intercepts of the 12 lines in fig. 6 are different, illustrating the different sensitivity of the sensor at different center wavelengths. The sensitivity of the sensor is closely related to the manufacturing process thereof. In an actual system, after 12 central wavelengths are detected, the wavelength values are respectively substituted into the linear equations corresponding to the central wavelengths, so that the temperatures detected under 12 different central wavelengths can be obtained, and finally, the average value of the 12 temperature values is used as an actual detection value to be output.

Claims (2)

1. A demodulation method of a high-precision multi-parameter optical fiber microcavity sensing system is provided with a broadband light source, a tunable filter, a 1 x 2 optical coupler with a splitting ratio of 1:9, a circulator, a multi-path optical switch, a PIN detector, a control circuit, a trigger source, a DAQ module and a signal processing circuit, wherein an optical signal output by the broadband light source is processed by the tunable filter and then sent to the 1 x 2 optical coupler with the splitting ratio of 1:9, an output optical signal of the tunable filter is divided into two beams by the coupler, the optical signal with a smaller ratio is directly detected by the PIN detector, the optical signal with a larger ratio passes through the circulator and the multi-path optical switch and acts on a sensor connected with the output end of the multi-path optical switch in a time-sharing manner; the wavelength coverage range of the broadband light source is 1500 nm-1600 nm, the wavelength range of the tunable filter corresponds to the wavelength coverage range, and the trigger frequency of the filter is adjustable within 200-400 Hz;
the method comprises the steps that two PIN detectors are used for detecting a light source spectrum and a sensor spectrum at the same time, after data are collected, logarithm operation is carried out on the data, then the light source spectrum is used as a reference signal, the light source spectrum is subtracted from the sensor spectrum to eliminate the influence of light source spectrum fluctuation on the sensor spectrum, and the sensor spectrum is the spectrum without the influence of the light source spectrum;
the method is characterized in that when spectrum data of a plurality of sensors are obtained, a time division multiplexing mode is adopted, continuous light emitted by a broadband light source is output after passing through a tunable filter, then the continuous light is divided into two parts by an optical coupler, wherein one path of light with a small proportion directly enters a PIN detector, one path of light with a large proportion is transmitted to the sensors through a circulator and a multi-path optical switch, and the spectrum data of the sensors are transmitted to the sensors through a plurality of paths of optical switches
The optical switch and the circulator return to the PIN detector, two optical signals are respectively used as signal light and reference light to be collected by the DAQ module of the collection card, and the next signal processing work is carried out; the synchronous signal during time division multiplexing is generated by a control circuit, a trigger enabling signal is sent to a trigger source while the control circuit switches a multi-path optical switch, the trigger signal controls the tuning frequency of a tunable filter, and an external trigger source required by a signal acquisition card is generated at the same time; the acquisition card acquires sensor spectrum data at a corresponding position once every time the multi-path optical switch is switched once, and if the switching frequency of the optical switch is f, when n sensors are connected, one-time complete acquisition comprises all n sensors, and the consumed time is n/f seconds;
the method comprises the steps that two PIN detectors are used for detecting a light source spectrum and a sensor spectrum at the same time, after data are collected, logarithm operation is carried out on the data, then the light source spectrum is used as a reference signal, and the light source spectrum is subtracted from the sensor spectrum so as to eliminate the influence of light source spectrum fluctuation on the sensor spectrum;
a central wavelength acquisition method combining a peak searching method and a Lorentz fitting method is adopted, the peak searching method is used as a basis, the actual physical meaning of a Lorentz curve and the expression form of acquired data are combined, a generalized parameter initial value and boundary setting method is provided, and the method specifically comprises the following steps:
setting a curve 1 as a certain collected spectrum curve, wherein the whole curve is approximately symmetrically distributed in a mode that the two sides are high and the middle is low by taking the central wavelength as a symmetry axis;
the straight line 2 is the maximum position of the spectral curve and is parallel to the x axis;
the straight line 3 is the position where the light intensity is 0 and is parallel to the x-axis;
the straight line 4 is the initial wavelength position of the spectral curve, is parallel to the y axis, and is intersected with the straight line 3 at the upper part and the straight line 2 at the lower part;
the straight line 5 is the end wavelength position of the spectral curve, is parallel to the y axis, and is intersected with the straight line 3 at the upper part and the curve 1 at the lower part;
6 is the position of the curve wave trough;
according to the above description, the method for setting the limits and initial values of the parameters in the Lorentzian fitting is as follows:
the expression of the lorentz curve and its corresponding physical meaning:
the parameters to be fitted arey 0Awx cTheir physical meanings are respectively:
y 0: an asymptote of the lorentz curve;
Athe area enclosed between the asymptote and the Lorentz curve;
wfull width at half maximum of the lorentz curve;
x cthe symmetry axis and the center wavelength of the Lorentz curve;
according to the physical significance of each parameter, obtaining the following setting rules of parameter limits and initial values:
y 0the upper limit of (A) is a straight line 3, the lower limit is a straight line 2, and the initial value is (upper limit + lower limit)/2;Athe upper limit of (d) is the area enclosed by the curve 1 and the straight line 2; the lower limit is the area enclosed by the curve 1 and the straight line 3; the initial value is (upper limit + lower limit)/2;Wthe upper limit value of (a) is the transverse distance between the straight line 4 and the straight line 5, the lower limit value is 0, and the initial value is (upper limit + lower limit)/2;x cthe upper limit value of (1) is the wavelength corresponding to the straight line 5, the lower limit value is the wavelength corresponding to the straight line 4, and the initial value is the position of the wave trough; wherein the parametersASince the upper and lower limits of (2) are negative when solved using a definite integral, the area enclosed by the curve 1 and the line 2 is small but stillAThe upper limit value of (3).
2. The demodulation method of the high-precision multi-parameter optical fiber microcavity sensing system according to claim 1, wherein when a plurality of valleys appear in the sensor spectrum, a plurality of sets of lorentzian curves are fitted simultaneously to obtain a plurality of sets of central wavelength values, and the central wavelengths correspond to the same external physical quantity, so that sensor parameters with different central wavelengths can be obtained by fitting a plurality of sets of first-order polynomials, and in the final use process, physical quantities corresponding to the central wavelengths are obtained after all the central wavelengths are detected simultaneously, and then the plurality of sets of detection results are averaged to obtain the final detection result.
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