CN106392216B - A kind of controllable electric processing method of micro hole tool-electrode rotary speed and governing system - Google Patents

A kind of controllable electric processing method of micro hole tool-electrode rotary speed and governing system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106392216B
CN106392216B CN201610908878.4A CN201610908878A CN106392216B CN 106392216 B CN106392216 B CN 106392216B CN 201610908878 A CN201610908878 A CN 201610908878A CN 106392216 B CN106392216 B CN 106392216B
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tool
electrode
speed
micro hole
electric processing
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CN106392216A (en
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黄绍服
张茜熙
李君�
张建翔
孙伦业
刘勇
张强
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Anhui University of Science and Technology
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Anhui University of Science and Technology
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23HWORKING OF METAL BY THE ACTION OF A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT ON A WORKPIECE USING AN ELECTRODE WHICH TAKES THE PLACE OF A TOOL; SUCH WORKING COMBINED WITH OTHER FORMS OF WORKING OF METAL
    • B23H5/00Combined machining
    • B23H5/02Electrical discharge machining combined with electrochemical machining
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23HWORKING OF METAL BY THE ACTION OF A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT ON A WORKPIECE USING AN ELECTRODE WHICH TAKES THE PLACE OF A TOOL; SUCH WORKING COMBINED WITH OTHER FORMS OF WORKING OF METAL
    • B23H9/00Machining specially adapted for treating particular metal objects or for obtaining special effects or results on metal objects
    • B23H9/14Making holes

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of controllable electric processing method of micro hole tool-electrode rotary speed and governing systems, belong to technical field.Using extremely low concentration neutral salt solution as electrolyte, apply corresponding voltage in two interpolars, by the control to tool-electrode rotary speed, adjusts tool-electrode surface film overcast state, when tool-electrode rotary speed is high, when reaching discharge effect Production conditions exoelectrical reaction occurs for film overcast state;Electrochemical reaction occurs when tool-electrode rotary speed is relatively low.By controlling the variation of tool-electrode rotary speed, the controllable compound of electrical-chemistry method and electro-discharge machining is realized.The present invention can obtain preferable machined surface quality and processing consistency.

Description

A kind of controllable electric processing method of micro hole tool-electrode rotary speed and governing system
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of controllable electric processing method of micro hole tool-electrode rotary speed and governing systems, belong to extraordinary Processing technique field.
Background technology
Recently the fast development of industry, it is higher and higher to the processing method requirement of various high-performance complex parts, especially It shows to add in the processing methods such as the miniature cooling hole, air film hole and precision die micro-hole of aero engine turbine blades Work difficult point is as follows:1. the requirements such as processing dimension, surface quality, form accuracy needed for meeting;2. meeting complicated and high intensity, height The processing request of performance and difficult-to-machine material;3. meeting the larger micro hole machining requirement of aspect ratio.Currently, the processing of micro hole Method mainly has machine drilling, laser boring, electrical discharge machining and electrical-chemistry method etc..
The Chinese patent on June 11st, 2014, Publication No. CN103846640A discloses a kind of plasma of micro hole Body electric discharge device and processing method, this method are to form plasma using the gas chamber of setting and the wire electrode of energization Electro-discharge machining belongs to noncontact procession method, avoids the damage of machining area surface layer and subsurface stratum, improves micro hole Processing quality, but the processing unit (plant) is more demanding to processing environment, is difficult to process the larger micro hole of aspect ratio, processing cost It is high.
On September 3rd, 2014, the Chinese patent of Publication No. CN104014881A disclose a kind of band countersunk head micro hole and swash Optical-electronic spark-electrolytic combination processing method and device, this method are to carry out leading to for countersunk head micro hole on workpiece using laser beam Hole preprocessing recycles tubulose copper electrode to carry out electrical discharge machining to the countersunk head of micro hole, finally recycling and electrical discharge machining The coaxial high speed hydrojet electrolyte beam of electrode carries out Electrolyzed Processing to entire band countersunk head micro hole.The invention overcomes previous single The various drawbacks that special process mode is brought, but this method when processing countersunk head micro hole high processing costs, to increase processing tired Count error.
On September 3rd, 2014, the Chinese patent of Publication No. CN104014880A disclose a kind of no recast layer micro hole Laser-electrolysis complex machining device and method are coplanar with by laser beam emitting head and Electrolyzed Processing cathode nozzle-axis, are come real The Compound Machining of existing laser-Electrolyzed Processing, the processing method is efficient, without recast layer etc., but this method laser has Decay Rate, And electrolyte has interference effect to laser, influences micro hole machining dimensional accuracy.
The Chinese patent on April 30th, 2015, Publication No. CN104923869A discloses a kind of small simple group hole vibration The controllable complex machining process method and device of electrode electric spark-electrolysis, this method use super low concentration neutral salt solution for work Liquid applies corresponding pulse voltage in two interpolars, electrode make along direction of feed it is of reciprocating vibration, by the vibration control to electrode, Two interpolar gap sizes are adjusted, when electrode forward direction is vibrated so that pole clearance is less than spark-discharge gap, generation electric spark reaction; When electrode negative sense vibrates, interpolar distance is more than discharging gap, and spark discharge is gradually converted into cell reaction;When interpolar is apart from mistake Greatly, cell reaction terminates, and working solution enters deionization state.The invention realizes electric spark and electrolysis by the optimization of vibration mode That processes is controllable compound, but this method increases processing stroke for the processing of reciprocating vibration of electrode, reduces processing efficiency, together When tool-electrode stability of reciprocating vibration directly affect the quality of micro hole machining.
The Chinese patent on December 4th, 2015, Publication No. CN103418987A discloses a kind of micro hole abrasive drilling technique, By adding diamond or cubic boron nitride to drill bit, the micro-bit that diameter is less than 1mm is formed, in the high-speed rotating work of main shaft Under, micro hole machining is carried out to rapidoprint.This method reduce the difficulty of processing in hole, shorten process time and processing matter Amount, for this method for being difficult to repair after bit wear, thermal deformation of drill bit etc. influences the processing quality of micro hole.
Invention content
The purpose of the present invention is the deficiencies for existing micro hole machining method, and providing one kind not only having improved machining accuracy but also carried A kind of controllable electric processing method of micro hole tool-electrode rotary speed and governing system of high hole machined quality.
The technical solution adopted by the present invention is:Using extremely low concentration neutral salt solution as electrolyte, apply in two interpolars corresponding Voltage, pass through the control to tool-electrode rotary speed, tool-electrode surface film overcast state adjusted, when film overcast shape When meeting discharge effect Production conditions exoelectrical reaction occurs for state, and electrochemical reaction occurs when tool-electrode rotary speed is relatively low. By the variation of rotary speed, the controllable compound of electrical-chemistry method and electro-discharge machining is realized.
Using a kind of above-mentioned controllable electric processing method of micro hole tool-electrode rotary speed, including:
1. the optimization of the speed-regulating mode includes:In acceleration, speed, Time constant, frequency and these parameters It is one or several kinds of.
2. the acceleration frequency, which is height, to be either low or is constant or is fluctuating acceleration.
3. the velocity wave form be sine wave either cosine wave or sawtooth wave or triangular wave etc. any one or A variety of combinations.
4. the extremely low concentration salting liquid or neutral solution are pure water, deionized water and super low concentration NaCl, NaClO3、 NaNO3One kind in solution.
5. realizing the controllable electric processing method of the micro hole tool-electrode rotary speed and tune the present invention also provides a kind of Speed system, including tool-electrode governing system and speed governing platform;Wherein tool-electrode governing system includes bidirectional speed governing throttle valve Connect bidirectional traffics pump and tool-electrode rotary speed adjustable electric processing unit (plant);Tool-electrode rotary speed adjustable electric processing unit (plant) Collet is installed in lower end, and with clamping device electrode, bidirectional speed governing throttle valve connects each speed regulation device to speed governing platform;Process work Part is fixed in electrolytic bath, and electrolytic bath is installed on speed governing platform.
6. the tool-electrode governing system is based on the turbine driven principle of tesla, cycle working fluid is sent out with rotor Raw fluid structure interaction, realizes rotary shaft high speed rotation.
7. bidirectional traffics pump provides flow forward or backwards to tool-electrode rotary speed adjustable electric processing unit (plant) Control, tool-electrode carry out speed adjustable rotary forward or backwards and move.
8. described passes through adjusting speed regulation throttle valve, the variation of implementation tool electrode rotary speed.
Compared with prior art, the present invention advantageous effect is:
1. the invention avoids the formation of micro hole machining recast layer, micro hole machining quality is improved.
2. the present invention, can effective control output end tool electricity by the regulation and control to box house cycle operation flow quantity The rotary speed of pole, and then realize effective control of micro hole electrochemical discharge process.
3. using the variation of tool-electrode rotating speed, the disturbance of machining area liquid may be implemented, avoid deep hole machining When be difficult to chip removal, the problems such as working solution is uneven, while improving machined surface quality.
4. using the endless form of working solution, realizes the recycling of resource and reduce processing cost, improve processing Efficiency.
5. being pumped using bidirectional speed governing throttle valve and bidirectional traffics, tool-electrode rotary speed adjustable electric processing unit (plant) is provided The control of flow forward or backwards, the movement forward or backwards when implementation tool electrode machining.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the general structure schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is inventive article electrode speed governing machining sketch chart;
Fig. 3 is the adjustable processing unit (plant) structural schematic diagram of inventive article electrode rotary speed;
Fig. 4 is cycle working fluid forward flow schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is cycle working fluid reverse flow schematic diagram of the present invention.
In figure:1 lathe bed, 2 cycle operation liquid baths, 3 working solutions, 4 filters, 5 bidirectional traffics pump, 6 overflow valves, 7 two-way tune Fast throttle valve, 8 babinet working solution forward flows, 9 tool-electrode rotary speed adjustable electric processing unit (plant)s (906 rotors, 907 rotors, Electric screw, 922 babinets, fluid-through port 923, fluid-through port 924 are drawn in 912 rotary shafts, 913 collets, 914 tool-electrodes, 919), 10 Column, the movement of 11 bottom and top feeds, 12 DC power supplies, 13 electrolyte, 14 rotary motions, 15 workpieces processings, 16 cushion blocks, 17 electrolyte Slot, 18 babinet working solution reverse flows, 19 flowmeters, 20 flowmeters, 21 check valves, 22 check valves, 23 filters.
Specific implementation mode
The present invention is made into an explanation below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings:
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of controllable electric processing method of micro hole tool-electrode rotary speed and governing system, including lathe bed 1, cycle operation liquid bath 2, working solution 3, filter 4, bidirectional traffics pump 5, overflow valve 6, bidirectional speed governing throttle valve 7, babinet work Liquid forward flow 8, tool-electrode rotary speed adjustable electric processing unit (plant) 9 (rotor 906, rotor 907, rotary shaft 912, spring clip First 913, tool-electrode 914, draw electric screw 919, babinet 922, fluid-through port 923, fluid-through port 924), column 10, bottom and top feed fortune Dynamic 11, DC power supply 12, electrolyte 13, rotary motion 14, workpieces processing 15, cushion block 16, electrolytic bath 17, babinet working solution are anti- To flowing 18, flowmeter 19, flowmeter 20, check valve 21, check valve 22, filter 23.Wherein, the bidirectional speed governing throttle valve 7 are connected with bidirectional traffics pump 5, flowmeter 19, and flowmeter 19 connects fluid-through port 923,924 connection traffic table 20 of fluid-through port, stream Scale 20 connects check valve 21, check valve 22, and check valve 21 accesses cycle operation liquid bath 2, and check valve 22 connects filter 23 and connects Enter cycle operation liquid bath 2;Rotor 906, rotor 907 are installed, collet is installed in 912 end of rotary shaft in the rotary shaft 912 913 clamping device electrodes 914;The workpieces processing 15 is mounted on cushion block 16 and is immersed in electrolyte 13;The tool-electrode Rotary speed adjustable electric processing unit (plant) 9 is installed on 10 guide rail of column;Electric screw 919, processing are drawn in the connection of the DC power supply 11 Workpiece 15.
As shown in Figure 1, the bidirectional speed governing throttle valve 7 controls 3 flow of working solution, into the work of babinet 922 With rotor 906, rotor 907 fluid structure interaction occurs for liquid 3, and rotor 906, rotor 907 drive rotary shaft 912 and rotary shaft 912 914 implementation tool electrode of tool-electrode, 914 high speed rotary motion that lower end connecting spring collet 913 is clamped.
As shown in Figure 1, when the bidirectional traffics pump 5 provides forward flow working solution 3, it is positive that filter 4 carries out working solution 3 Feed liquor filters, and when bidirectional traffics pump 5 provides reverse operation liquid 3, filter 23 carries out the filtering of 3 reversed feed liquor of working solution.
As shown in Fig. 1,4,5, the bidirectional speed governing throttle valve 7 connects bidirectional traffics pump 5 can with tool-electrode rotary speed Electric machining device 9, bidirectional speed governing throttle valve 7 is adjusted to pump 5 pairs of tool-electrode rotary speed adjustable electric processing unit (plant)s 9 to bidirectional traffics and carry For the control of flow forward or backwards, moved to which implementation tool electrode 914 carries out speed adjustable rotary forward or backwards.
As shown in Figure 1, described by adjusting speed regulation throttle valve, the variation of implementation tool electrode rotary speed.
As shown in Figure 1, 2, described draw electric screw 919, workpiece 15 connects DC power supply 12, connect cathode tool electrode 914, Anode workpiece 15, tool-electrode 914 are immersed in electrolyte 13 and form biphase gas and liquid flow, when 914 rotating speed of tool-electrode is higher, When reaching discharging condition exoelectrical reaction occurs for the air film state of 914 surface of tool-electrode covering, and electrochemistry occurs when rotating speed is relatively low Reaction.
As shown in Fig. 1,3,4,5,922 fluid-through port 923 of the babinet connects 3 fluid-through tube of working solution, 922 fluid-through port of babinet 924 connection 3 fluid-through tubes of working solution, when bidirectional traffics pump 5 provides forward flow working solution 3, working solution 3 is in device end through unidirectional Valve 21 flows into work tank 2, realizes 3 forward circulation of working solution;When bidirectional traffics pump 5 provides reverse flow working solution 3, working solution 3 flow through tool-electrode rotary speed adjustable electric processing unit (plant) 9, bidirectional speed governing throttle valve 7, bidirectional traffics pump 5, mistake through check valve 22 Filter 4 flows into work tank 2, realizes 3 recycled back of working solution.
Complex chart 1 is to Fig. 5, a kind of controllable electric machining processing method of micro hole tool-electrode rotary speed of the present invention For:The tool-electrode 914 of a diameter of 0.5mm is clamped to by collet 913 in rotary shaft 912, working solution 3 passes through Bidirectional traffics pump 5 is injected into 922 inner cavity of babinet, and bidirectional speed governing throttle valve 7 adjusts 3 uninterrupted of working solution, and bidirectional traffics pump 5 changes Become working solution 3 to be flowed forward or backwards, when 3 forward flow of working solution, display 922 fluid-through port 923 of babinet of flowmeter 19 into Flow quantity size, filter 4 carries out 3 forward filter of working solution, and when 3 reverse flow of working solution, flowmeter 20 shows that babinet 922 is logical 924 feed liquor uninterrupted of liquid mouth, filter 23 carry out 3 reverse filtration of working solution, and overflow valve 6 plays safety work, cycle working fluid 3 Fluid structure interaction occurs with rotor 906, rotor 907, rotary shaft 912 and its tool-electrode 914 of lower end clamping is driven to carry out Speed controllable rotating movement forward or backwards;To drawing application voltage between electric screw 919 and workpiece 15 and controlling tool-electrode 914 Movement clearance on vertical feed direction, tool-electrode 914 are immersed in electrolyte 13 and form biphase gas and liquid flow, when tool electricity When 914 rotating speed of pole is higher, when reaching discharging condition exoelectrical reaction, rotating speed occur for the air film state of 914 surface of tool-electrode covering Electrochemical reaction occurs when relatively low.To the controllable electric processing method of implementation tool electrode rotary speed and governing system.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of controllable micro hole electric processing method of tool-electrode rotating speed carries out workpiece (15) with rod-like instrument electrode (914) Micro hole machining, uses extremely low concentration salting liquid or neutral solution for electrolyte (13), and workpiece (15) is immersed in electrolyte (13) Under liquid level, apply corresponding machining voltage between tool-electrode (914) and workpiece (15), it is characterised in that:Speed regulation device control Tool-electrode (914) rotary speed processed adjusts tool-electrode (914) rotary speed change tool-electrode (914) surface air film and covers Lid state, when the air film state of tool-electrode (914) rotary speed height, the covering of tool-electrode (914) surface reaches discharging condition When, exoelectrical reaction occurs;Electrochemical reaction occurs when tool-electrode (914) rotary speed is relatively low;Pass through the excellent of speed-regulating mode Change the controllable processing for realizing electrochemical reaction and exoelectrical reaction.
2. the controllable micro hole electric processing method of a kind of tool-electrode rotating speed according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:It is described The optimization of speed-regulating mode include:One or several kinds in acceleration, speed, Time constant, frequency and these parameters.
3. the controllable micro hole electric processing method of a kind of tool-electrode rotating speed according to claim 2, it is characterised in that:It is described Acceleration be that height is either low or is constant or is fluctuating acceleration.
4. the controllable micro hole electric processing method of a kind of tool-electrode rotating speed according to claim 2, it is characterised in that:It is described Velocity wave form be sine wave either any one or a variety of combinations of cosine wave or sawtooth wave or triangular wave.
5. the controllable micro hole electric processing method of a kind of tool-electrode rotating speed according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:It is described Extremely low concentration salting liquid or neutral solution are pure water, deionized water and super low concentration NaCl, NaClO3、NaNO3One in solution Kind.
6. the controllable micro hole electric processing method of a kind of tool-electrode rotating speed according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Including Tool-electrode governing system and speed governing platform;Tool-electrode governing system includes bidirectional speed governing throttle valve (7), bidirectional traffics pump , and the bidirectional speed governing throttle valve (7) connection bidirectional traffics pump (5) and tool-electrode rotary speed adjustable electric processing unit (plant) (9) (5) with tool-electrode rotary speed adjustable electric processing unit (plant) (9), working solution (3) is controlled by adjusting bidirectional speed governing throttle valve (7) Uninterrupted;It is flowed forward or backwards by adjusting bidirectional traffics pump (5) control working solution (3);Tool-electrode rotary speed can Electric machining device (9) lower end installation collet (913) is adjusted, with clamping device electrode (914);Speed governing platform connects each speed governing dress It sets;Workpiece (15) is fixed in electrolytic bath (17), and electrolytic bath (17) is installed on speed governing platform.
7. the controllable micro hole electric processing method of a kind of tool-electrode rotating speed according to claim 6, it is characterised in that:It is described Tool-electrode governing system be based on the turbine driven principle of tesla, fluid structurecoupling occurs for cycle working fluid (3) and rotor Rotary shaft (912) high speed rotation is realized in effect.
8. the controllable micro hole electric processing method of a kind of tool-electrode rotating speed according to claim 6, it is characterised in that:It is described Bidirectional speed governing throttle valve (7) and bidirectional traffics pump (5) tool-electrode rotary speed adjustable electric processing unit (plant) (9) is provided it is positive Or the control of reverse flow, it is moved to which implementation tool electrode (914) carries out speed adjustable rotary forward or backwards.
9. the controllable micro hole electric processing method of a kind of tool-electrode rotating speed according to claim 6, it is characterised in that:It is described Pass through adjust speed regulation throttle valve (7), the variation of implementation tool electrode (914) rotary speed.
CN201610908878.4A 2016-10-18 2016-10-18 A kind of controllable electric processing method of micro hole tool-electrode rotary speed and governing system Active CN106392216B (en)

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US8652307B2 (en) * 2009-03-27 2014-02-18 National Central University Apparatus and method for magnetic field assisted electrochemical discharge machining
CN104923869A (en) * 2015-04-30 2015-09-23 南京航空航天大学 Controllable vibrating electrode electric spark and electrolytic combined machining method for micro holes and vibrating system

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CN104923869A (en) * 2015-04-30 2015-09-23 南京航空航天大学 Controllable vibrating electrode electric spark and electrolytic combined machining method for micro holes and vibrating system

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