CN106374496A - Frequency modulation characteristic control policy for doubly-fed wind turbine generator-energy storage system by simulating synchronous machine - Google Patents

Frequency modulation characteristic control policy for doubly-fed wind turbine generator-energy storage system by simulating synchronous machine Download PDF

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CN106374496A
CN106374496A CN201610820932.XA CN201610820932A CN106374496A CN 106374496 A CN106374496 A CN 106374496A CN 201610820932 A CN201610820932 A CN 201610820932A CN 106374496 A CN106374496 A CN 106374496A
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energy
frequency
storage
power
wind
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CN106374496B (en
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李军徽
严干贵
赵伟哲
穆钢
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东北电力大学
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/02Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks using a single network for simultaneous distribution of power at different frequencies; using a single network for simultaneous distribution of ac power and of dc power
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/28Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy
    • H02J3/32Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy using batteries with converting means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • H02J3/382Dispersed generators the generators exploiting renewable energy
    • H02J3/386Wind energy
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J2203/00Indexing scheme relating to details of circuit arrangements for AC mains or AC distribution networks
    • H02J2203/20Simulating, e g planning, reliability check, modelling or computer assisted design [CAD]
    • Y02E10/763
    • Y02E10/766
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E70/00Other energy conversion or management systems reducing GHG emissions
    • Y02E70/30Systems combining energy storage with energy generation of non-fossil origin

Abstract

The invention discloses a frequency modulation characteristic control policy for a doubly-fed wind turbine generator-energy storage system by simulating a synchronous machine. The control policy is characterized by comprising the steps of establishing the doubly-fed wind turbine generator-energy storage system considering self wind power frequency modulation capacity; enabling the doubly-fed wind turbine generator-energy storage system to simulate capacity configuration of the frequency modulation characteristic of the synchronous machine, and enabling the doubly-fed wind turbine generator-energy storage system to perform frequency modulation control policy analysis and the like; establishing the doubly-fed wind turbine generator-energy storage system by analysis of the frequency modulation requirement of the system, combination of the self frequency modulation capacity of the doubly-fed wind turbine generator, and reasonable configuration of the energy storage capacity; reasonably allocating the power modulation capacity according to different frequency response time of the wind turbine generator and the energy storage system to endow the doubly-fed wind turbine generator-energy storage system with frequency response capability which is similar to that of a conventional synchronous generator so as to realize bidirectional frequency modulation; and by fully utilizing the complementary advantages of the wind turbine generator and the energy storage system under different air speeds in the aspects of frequency response speed, available frequency modulation energy and the like, lowering the energy storage configuration cost. The control policy has the advantages of scientific and reasonable property, high applicability, excellent effect and the like.

Description

Double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system simulation synchrodrive frequency modulation characteristic control strategy

Technical field

The present invention relates to technical field of new energy power generation, it is that a kind of double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system simulation synchrodrive is adjusted Frequency Characteristics Control strategy.

Background technology

Low-carbon electric power promotes wind-powered electricity generation extensive development, and wind-powered electricity generation accounting dramatically increases;Wind turbines output has at random The features such as property, intermittence and undulatory property, being continuously increased to including power system frequency stability of wind capacity integrated into grid Safe operation of power system problem brings new challenge;It is known that synchronous generator rotating speed and power system frequency direct-coupling, Quick response system frequency can change, possess the ability of damping system frequency fluctuation;And include double-fed induction wind driven generator Group accesses electrical network in interior wind power generating set through four quadrant convertor, when running of wind generating set is in maximal power tracing During (maximum power pointtracking, mppt) pattern, running of wind generating set state with system phase " isolation " it is impossible to Response system frequency changes, and system frequency modulation is no contributed, is degrading system operation safety;

Chinese scholars are studied respectively in terms of following two: 1) improve running of wind generating set control strategy so as to have The ability of standby response system frequency change;2) collocation energy-storage system is that wind energy turbine set participates in system frequency control;But the former studies Middle rotor speed is possible to cause that system frequency is secondary to be fallen in recovery process, and not the moment requires wind energy turbine set for power system simultaneously Frequency modulation energy is provided, causes wind energy turbine set non-firm power utilization rate low, reduce wind energy turbine set economic benefit;The latter have ignored wind turbine Group rotor rotating speed control ability, leads to propeller pitch angle frequent movement, accelerates mechanical wear, indirectly increased frequency modulation cost.

Content of the invention

The technical problem to be solved is to provide a kind of scientific and reasonable, strong applicability, the good double-fed fan motor of effect Unit-energy-storage system simulates the control strategy of synchrodrive frequency modulation characteristic.

The scheme solving the employing of its technical problem is that a kind of double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system simulation synchrodrive frequency modulation is special Property control strategy, is characterized in that, it includes herein below:

1) double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system

In double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system, energy-storage system is connected to Wind turbines and enters at network interface, and double-fed fan motor unit- Energy-storage system participates in power grid frequency modulation and starts with from single unit aspect, and analysis designs stored energy capacitance and its control strategy;

During Power Systems unbalanced supply-demand, system frequency will be changed with certain speed, that is, down or up, and frequency Pace of change is affected by system inertia: system inertia is weaker, and frequency changes faster, power system average inertia constant hsysBy institute The synchronous generator having access system together decides on:

h s y s = σ i = 1 n h i s i σ i = 1 n s i - - - ( 1 )

Wherein, hiFor the inertia constant of i-th synchrodrive, with siIt is respectively the rated capacity of i-th synchrodrive;

Because synchronous generator rotor rotating speed and power system frequency are coupled, after system frequency fluctuation, synchronous generator Rotating speed can quick response frequency change, and stores or release rotor kinetic energy, provides certain supporting role to system frequency, until frequency Rate of change df/dt is 0;This is synchronous generator inertial response process, is in own reaction in it, by equation of rotor motion control System:

2 h dω r d t = t m - t e - - - ( 2 )

Wherein, tmFor machine torque;teFor electromagnetic torque;H is electromotor inertia constant;ωrTurn for electric generating set rotor Speed;

After the primary frequency modulation process of synchronous generator is defined as system occurrence frequency change a period of time, Synchronous generator Speed regulator action, changes prime mover output, active power output changes therewith, until system frequency is stable;

In order that can stably share primary frequency modulation between multiple stage Multi-generator system group exerting oneself, same often through adjusting Step machine difference coefficient σ controls unit frequency modulation to exert oneself:

σ = - δ f δp g - - - ( 3 )

Be expressed as a percentage for:

σ % = - δfp n g f n δp g × 100 - - - ( 4 )

Synchrodrive Primary frequency control ability can more intuitively show as the inverse of difference coefficient, unit power regulation kgFor mark Will and is changed with system frequency, the number of generator output change:

k g = 1 σ = p n g f n σ % × 100 - - - ( 5 )

In formula (3)~(5), δ f is system frequency changing value, fnFor rated frequency, δ pgExert oneself for synchrodrive frequency modulation, png For rated power,

Synchronous generator rotating speed and system frequency are coupled, with frequency change, actual rotor rotational speed omegarSame reference rotation velocity ωrefCompare, error signal changes δ y with difference coefficient σ % co- controlling valve location, adjust the steam of injection steam turbine Amount, is finally reached the purpose changing electromotor active power of output,

Accordingly, it is considered to synchrodrive frequency regulation capacity credibility higher it is easy to scheduling, by building synchronous wind unit and storage Energy system, designs frequency modulation control strategy, makes double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system possess the frequency modulation characteristic of synchrodrive in proportion;

2) double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system simulates the capacity configuration of synchrodrive frequency modulation characteristic

Energy storage involves great expense, and constrains its large-scale application, thus, on the basis of considering wind-powered electricity generation itself fm capacity, close Reason using the complementarity of the frequency modulation means of Wind turbines-energy-storage system, exerted oneself with energy storage frequency modulation, can either drop by flexible allocation wind-powered electricity generation Low energy-storage system deployment cost, also can make wind energy turbine set be provided with frequency response ability under different operating modes,

When frequency changes, change, instantaneous relase or the storage of Synchronous generator rotor active response system frequency Part kinetic energy is with the change of suppression system frequency;This process can be weighed with inertia constant h, and it is defined as follows:

h = e k r p n = jω r 2 2 p n - - - ( 6 )

Obtained by formula (6), when generating set runs, the rotor kinetic energy of storage is:

e k r = 1 2 jω r 2 = 1 2 p n t j - - - ( 7 )

In formula: ekrFor electric generating set rotor kinetic energy;J is generating set rotary inertia;ωrFor electric generating set rotor rotating speed; pnRated power for generating set;tj=2h is inertia time constant,

During general safe operation of power system, frequency change can not exceed 2hz, takes under system frequency during inertial response It is reduced to example, that is, the rotating speed perunit value excursion of synchronous generator is 0.96~1, and synchronous generator can discharge or store Greater trochanter kinetic energy is:

δe k r = 1 2 j ( 1 - 0.96 2 ) ω r 2 = 0.0392 jω r 2 - - - ( 8 )

Set joint frequency modulation system in time tweInterior release and synchronous generator identical inertial response energy, then have:

δewe=δ ekr=pwe·twe=0.0392pnwttj(9)

Synchronous generator relies on the time that inertia participates in FREQUENCY CONTROL to be about second level it is assumed that double-fed fan motor unit-energy storage system Unite, i.e. t consistent with the inertia time constant of synchronous generatorwe=tj, then the inertial response work(of double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system Rate demand is:

pwe=0.0392pnwt(10)

Obtained by formula (10): as long as control strategy is rationally, double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system retains about wind-powered electricity generation rated power 3.92% spare capacity it becomes possible to provide the inertial response ability similar to synchronous generator,

According to synchronous generator primary frequency modulation principle, defining double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system difference coefficient is:

σ w e = - δ f δp w e - - - ( 11 )

Be expressed as a percentage for:

σ w e % = - δfp n w t f n δp w e × 100 - - - ( 12 )

Now, double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system with the frequency frequency modulation that need to provide of change exert oneself for:

δp w e = - δfp n w t f n σ w e % × 100 - - - ( 13 )

Wherein, σweFor double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system difference coefficient, δ f is system frequency changing value, δ pweFor double Feedback Wind turbines-energy-storage system primary frequency modulation is exerted oneself, pnwtFor wind-powered electricity generation rated power,

Double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system unit power regulation kweFor:

k w e = 1 σ w e = p n w e f n σ w e % × 100 - - - ( 14 )

When power system normally runs, frequency change is less than ± 0.2hz, takes δ f=± 0.2hz, substitute into formula (13)~ (14):

k w e = 1 σ w e = 2 σ w e % p n w e - - - ( 16 )

For making double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system have and synchronous generator identical primary frequency modulation effect, adjust both Difference coefficient is consistent, σwe%=5, substitutes into formula (15)~(16) and obtains, and using reasonable control strategy, retains about Wind turbines specified The spare capacity of power 8% just can make the primary frequency modulation effect of Wind turbines offer and the difference coefficients such as synchronous generator, now, Double-fed fan motor unit and energy-storage system unit power regulation are about 0.4pnwe(kw/hz);

3) double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system frequency modulation control analysis of strategies

Wind energy conversion system Wind energy extraction principle is as follows:

p m = 1 2 ρπr 2 v w 3 c p ( λ , β ) - - - ( 17 )

c p = ( 0.44 - 0.0167 β ) s i n π ( λ - 3 ) 15 - 0.3 β - 0.00184 ( β - 3 ) - - - ( 18 )

λ = ω r r v w - - - ( 19 )

Wherein, pmFor wind energy conversion system mechanical output;cpFor power coefficient;ρ is atmospheric density;vwFor wind speed;λ is blade tip Speed ratio;β is propeller pitch angle;ωrFor rotor speed;R is pneumatic equipment bladess radius,

From formula (17)~(19), Wind turbines output is subject to wind speed, rotor speed, propeller pitch angle co- controlling, root According to running of wind generating set wind speed size, wind speed is divided into, incision wind speed area, powerinjected method area, power invariability area;

(1) Wind turbines are not yet grid-connected in incision wind speed area, do not consider;

(2) when powerinjected method area, its rotor speed is less than rated speed to running of wind generating set, and propeller pitch angle is 0 °, wind-powered electricity generation Unit rotor overspeed, can member-retaining portion power, i.e. rotor overspeed method off-load, fast response time, being capable of interior increase work(in short-term Rate exports, but its frequency modulation finite energy that can be provided by;

(3) power invariability area, now Wind turbines rotor speed be stable at rated speed, by increase wind energy conversion system pitch Angle, reduces Wind energy extraction, that is, become paddle method and realize Wind turbines off-load, but feather is subject to mechanical impact, response time is longer, But frequency modulation power can be provided by last longer;

Double-fed fan motor unit frequency modulation control device containing energy-storage system, specifically includes that Wind turbines pitch control device, rotor surpass Fast controller and energy storage controller, input quantity is wind speed vw, off-load percentage ratio d% and system frequency changing value δ f;Output is Pitch angle beta, rotor-side active power pωAnd energy accumulation current converter control signal;

Wherein, p0For wind energy conversion system reference power, δ pfFor active power shortage, pβref、pωref、pessrefBe respectively become oar, Speed change and the active reference value of energy storage, ωrefFor generator speed reference value;In pitch control device, ωrFor electromotor actual speed, βf、βrefIt is respectively propeller pitch angle frequency response values and reference value;βmax、βminFor propeller pitch angle maxima and minima, max-rate, Min-rate is pitch rate upper and lower bound;In rotor overspeed controller, prefFor value and power reference, psFor stator side Active power, irq、irdFor rotor current dq axle component, irqref、urqrefFor rotor current, voltage q axle component reference value, urq、 usqFor rotor, stator voltage q axle component;

After given wind speed, off-load pattern is selected according to wind speed discrimination module, after off-load, power is determined by off-load percentage ratio, meter Calculate formula as follows:

p0=(1-d%) pm(20)

Powerinjected method area, exceed the speed limit control module output rotor speed reference " ωref", through pi controller output Reference value pref, generator electromagnetic power tracking prefRealize Wind turbines rotor overspeed off-load to run, during power invariability area, rotor Speed reference " ωref" obtain propeller pitch angle reference value beta through pi controllerrefIncrease propeller pitch angle, reduce Wind energy extraction, thus realizing becoming Oar off-load runs;

With the change of pull-in frequency signal, system power vacancy δ p signal enters different controllers according to wind speed difference, The final Wind turbines active power that increases exports,

Energy-storage system accesses Wind turbines through inverter, realizes it to system frequency response energy by controlling pwm inverter Power, i.e. the change of the active power auto response system frequency of energy-storage system;

For enabling energy-storage system auto response system frequency to change, simulate synchronous generator droop control, generate storage Energy active power reference value, meanwhile, for reducing the interference to system voltage frequency for the load variations, introduces points of common connection pcc (point of common coupling) place's voltage and current feedovers;

Energy-storage system response quickly, schedulability is high, therefore adds delays time to control module to control energy storage active power of output Time coordination Wind turbines participate in system frequency modulation;

Dfig rotor overspeed method controls advantage to be than virtual inertia, and virtual inertia controls the change of short response time frequency After will enter rotating speed recover state, be likely to result in the secondary mutation of frequency, and pass through rotor overspeed method participate in frequency modulation when rotor speed It is down near the mppt range of speeds, hypervelocity off-load can be re-started again after system frequency is stable;

Frequency modulation control strategy is combined using dfig with synchronous generator as follows:

(1) low wind speed, rotor overspeed is run, and benefits from rotor speed response quickly, can interior increase power output in short-term, Inertial response ability similar to synchrodrive is provided, improves system frequency minimum point, system frequency is fallen certain resistance is provided Buddhist nun acts on, and therefore, provides the inertial response process of frequency by controlling rotor speed, then coordinates energy-storage system to meet primary frequency modulation Power;

(2) high wind speed, propeller pitch angle is affected by mechanical performance, and response time is longer, but can last longer provide Primary frequency modulation energy, reduces system and enters frequency departure after stable state;Now the characteristic relying on energy-storage system response quickly is realized System inertia response process:

(3) Wind turbines inertial response demand is δ pwt=3.92% × pnwt, primary frequency modulation demand is δ pwt=8% × pnwt, energy storage configuration larger capacity, i.e. pess=4.08% × pnwt.

The double-fed fan motor unit of the present invention-energy-storage system simulation synchrodrive frequency modulation characteristic control strategy, by analysis system Frequency modulation demand, in conjunction with itself fm capacity of double-fed induction Wind turbines, reasonable disposition stored energy capacitance, build double-fed fan motor unit- Energy-storage system;According to Wind turbines and energy-storage system different frequency response time, reasonable distribution fm capacity, make double-fed fan motor Unit-energy-storage system possesses the frequency response ability similar to conventional synchronization electromotor, is capable of frequency two-ways regulation;Its In, dfig is according to operating mode using different off-load strategies, member-retaining portion power backup;Make full use of under different wind speed Wind turbines with Energy-storage system, in the complementary advantage of the aspects such as frequency response speed, available frequency modulation energy, reduces energy storage deployment cost, realizes double-fed Wind turbines-energy-storage system provides frequency " upwards " with a high credibility, " downward " responding ability;There is scientific and reasonable, the suitability By force, the advantages of effect is good.

Brief description

Fig. 1 double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system schematic diagram;

Fig. 2 Synchronous generator speed regulator principle schematic;

P under Fig. 3 difference wind speedmrCurve synoptic diagram;

Fig. 4 double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system frequency modulation control device schematic diagram;

Fig. 5 frequency dropping simulation curve (vw=7m/s) schematic diagram;

Fig. 6 frequency jumps simulation curve (vw=7m/s) schematic diagram;

Fig. 7 frequency dropping simulation curve (vw=16m/s) schematic diagram;

Fig. 8 frequency jumps simulation curve (vw=16m/s) schematic diagram.

Specific embodiment

Below with double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system simulation synchrodrive frequency modulation characteristic to the present invention for the drawings and Examples Control strategy is described further.

A kind of double-fed fan motor unit of the present invention-energy-storage system simulation synchrodrive frequency modulation characteristic control strategy, including following Content:

1) double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system

In double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system, energy-storage system is connected to Wind turbines and enters at network interface, and double-fed fan motor unit- Energy-storage system participates in power grid frequency modulation and starts with from single unit aspect, and analysis designs stored energy capacitance and its control strategy, double-fed fan motor Unit-energy-storage system is as shown in Figure 1;

During Power Systems unbalanced supply-demand, system frequency will be changed with certain speed, that is, down or up, and frequency Pace of change is affected by system inertia: system inertia is weaker, and frequency changes faster, power system average inertia constant hsysBy institute The synchronous generator having access system together decides on:

h s y s = σ i = 1 n h i s i σ i = 1 n s i - - - ( 1 )

Wherein, hiFor the inertia constant of i-th synchrodrive, with siIt is respectively the rated capacity of i-th synchrodrive;

Because synchronous generator rotor rotating speed and power system frequency are coupled, after system frequency fluctuation, synchronous generator Rotating speed can quick response frequency change, and stores or release rotor kinetic energy, provides certain supporting role to system frequency, until frequency Rate of change df/dt is 0;This is synchronous generator inertial response process, is in own reaction in it, by equation of rotor motion control System:

2 h dω r d t = t m - t e - - - ( 2 )

Wherein, tmFor machine torque;teFor electromagnetic torque;H is electromotor inertia constant;ωrTurn for electric generating set rotor Speed;

After the primary frequency modulation process of synchronous generator is defined as system occurrence frequency change a period of time, Synchronous generator Speed regulator action, changes prime mover output, active power output changes therewith, until system frequency is stable;

In order that can stably share primary frequency modulation between multiple stage Multi-generator system group exerting oneself, same often through adjusting Step machine difference coefficient σ controls unit frequency modulation to exert oneself:

σ = - δ f δp g - - - ( 3 )

Be expressed as a percentage for:

σ % = - δfp n g f n δp g × 100 - - - ( 4 )

Synchrodrive Primary frequency control ability can more intuitively show as the inverse of difference coefficient, unit power regulation kgFor mark Will and is changed with system frequency, the number of generator output change:

k g = 1 σ = p n g f n σ % × 100 - - - ( 5 )

In formula (3)~(5), δ f is system frequency changing value, fnFor rated frequency, δ pgExert oneself for synchrodrive frequency modulation, png For rated power,

Synchronous generator primary frequency modulation process, as shown in Fig. 2 its rotor speed and system frequency are coupled, becomes with frequency Change, actual rotor rotational speed omegarWith reference rotation velocity ωrefCompare, error signal and difference coefficient σ % co- controlling valve location Change δ y, adjusts the quantity of steam of injection steam turbine, is finally reached the purpose changing electromotor active power of output,

Accordingly, it is considered to synchrodrive frequency regulation capacity credibility higher it is easy to scheduling, by building synchronous wind unit and storage Energy system, designs frequency modulation control strategy, makes double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system possess the frequency modulation characteristic of synchrodrive in proportion;

2) double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system simulates the capacity configuration of synchrodrive frequency modulation characteristic

Energy storage involves great expense, and constrains its large-scale application, thus, on the basis of considering wind-powered electricity generation itself fm capacity, close Reason is exerted oneself with energy storage frequency modulation using the complementarity of Wind turbines and the frequency modulation means of energy-storage system, flexible allocation wind-powered electricity generation, can either Reduce energy-storage system deployment cost, wind energy turbine set also can be made to be provided with frequency response ability under different operating modes,

When frequency changes, change, instantaneous relase or the storage of Synchronous generator rotor active response system frequency Part kinetic energy is with the change of suppression system frequency;This process can be weighed with inertia constant h, and it is defined as follows:

h = e k r p n = jω r 2 2 p n - - - ( 6 )

Obtained by formula (6), when generating set runs, the rotor kinetic energy of storage is:

e k r = 1 2 jω r 2 = 1 2 p n t j - - - ( 7 )

In formula: ekrFor electric generating set rotor kinetic energy;J is generating set rotary inertia;ωrFor electric generating set rotor rotating speed; pnRated power for generating set;tj=2h is inertia time constant,

During general safe operation of power system, frequency change can not exceed 2hz, takes under system frequency during inertial response It is reduced to example, that is, the rotating speed perunit value excursion of synchronous generator is 0.96~1, and synchronous generator can discharge or store Greater trochanter kinetic energy is:

δe k r = 1 2 j ( 1 - 0.96 2 ) ω r 2 = 0.0392 jω r 2 - - - ( 8 )

Set joint frequency modulation system in time tweInterior release and synchronous generator identical inertial response energy, then have:

δewe=δ ekr=pwe·twe=0.0392pnwttj(9)

Synchronous generator relies on the time that inertia participates in FREQUENCY CONTROL to be about second level it is assumed that double-fed fan motor unit-energy storage system Unite, i.e. t consistent with the inertia time constant of synchronous generatorwe=tj, then the inertial response work(of double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system Rate demand is:

pwe=0.0392pnwt(10)

Obtained by formula (10): as long as control strategy is rationally, double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system retains about wind-powered electricity generation rated power 3.92% spare capacity it becomes possible to provide the inertial response ability similar to synchronous generator,

According to synchronous generator primary frequency modulation principle, defining double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system difference coefficient is:

σ w e = - δ f δp w e - - - ( 11 )

Be expressed as a percentage for:

σ w e % = - δfp n w t f n δp w e × 100 - - - ( 12 )

Now, double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system with the frequency frequency modulation that need to provide of change exert oneself for:

δp w e = - δfp n w t f n σ w e % × 100 - - - ( 13 )

Wherein, σweFor double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system difference coefficient, δ f is system frequency changing value, δ pweFor double Feedback Wind turbines-energy-storage system primary frequency modulation is exerted oneself, pnwtFor wind-powered electricity generation rated power,

Double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system unit power regulation kweFor:

k w e = 1 σ w e = p n w e f n σ w e % × 100 - - - ( 14 )

When power system normally runs, frequency change is less than ± 0.2hz, takes δ f=± 0.2hz, substitute into formula (13)~ (14):

k w e = 1 σ w e = 2 σ w e % p n w e - - - ( 16 )

For making double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system have and synchronous generator identical primary frequency modulation effect, adjust both Difference coefficient is consistent, σwe%=5, substitutes into formula (15)~(16) and obtains, and using reasonable control strategy, retains about Wind turbines specified The spare capacity of power 8% just can make the primary frequency modulation effect of Wind turbines offer and the difference coefficients such as synchronous generator, now, Double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system unit power regulation is about 0.4pnwe

3) double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system frequency modulation control analysis of strategies

Wind energy conversion system Wind energy extraction principle is as follows:

p m = 1 2 ρπr 2 v w 3 c p ( λ , β ) - - - ( 17 )

c p = ( 0.44 - 0.0167 β ) s i n π ( λ - 3 ) 15 - 0.3 β - 0.00184 ( β - 3 ) - - - ( 18 )

λ = ω r r v w - - - ( 19 )

Wherein, pmFor wind energy conversion system mechanical output;cpFor power coefficient;ρ is atmospheric density;vwFor wind speed;λ is blade tip Speed ratio;β is propeller pitch angle;ωrFor rotor speed;R is pneumatic equipment bladess radius,

From formula (17)~(19), Wind turbines output is subject to wind speed, rotor speed, propeller pitch angle co- controlling, such as In Fig. 3, optimum pm curve abcd, according to running of wind generating set wind speed size, wind speed is divided into, incision wind speed area, powerinjected method Area, power invariability area;

(1) Wind turbines are not yet grid-connected in incision wind speed area, do not consider;

(2) when powerinjected method area, its rotor speed is less than rated speed to running of wind generating set, and propeller pitch angle is 0 °, wind-powered electricity generation When unit is exceeded the speed limit to point b' by optimized rotating speed point b, can member-retaining portion power backup δ p1, i.e. rotor overspeed method off-load, response speed Degree is fast, can interior increase power output in short-term, but its frequency modulation finite energy that can be provided by;

(3) power invariability area, now Wind turbines rotor speed be stable at rated speed, by adjust wind energy conversion system pitch Angle, realizes optimal power and follows the trail of, and Wind turbines, on the basis of point d operation, increase propeller pitch angle, reduce Wind energy extraction, run on Point d', that is, become paddle method and realize Wind turbines off-load, retain δ p2Power backup, propeller pitch angle is subject to mechanical impact, response time Longer, but frequency modulation power can be provided by last longer;

In summary, Wind turbines off-load operation reserve such as table 1:

Table 1dfig Load Shedding Control Strategy

Wind speed area Rotor overspeed Become oar Criterion < incision wind speed × × vw<vcut-in Powerinjected method area × ω0max Firm power area × ω0max

As shown in figure 4, the double-fed fan motor unit frequency modulation control device containing energy-storage system specifically includes that Wind turbines pitch control Device, rotor overspeed controller and energy storage controller, input quantity is wind speed vw, off-load percentage ratio d% and system frequency changing value δ f;Output is pitch angle beta, rotor-side active power pωAnd energy accumulation current converter control signal;

Wherein, p0For wind energy conversion system reference power, δ pfFor active power shortage, pβref、pωref、pessrefBe respectively become oar, Speed change and the active reference value of energy storage, ωrefFor generator speed reference value;In pitch control device, ωrFor electromotor actual speed, βf、βrefIt is respectively propeller pitch angle frequency response values and reference value;βmax、βminFor propeller pitch angle maxima and minima, max-rate, Min-rate is pitch rate upper and lower bound;In rotor overspeed controller, prefFor value and power reference, psFor stator side Active power, irq、irdFor rotor current dq axle component, irqref、urqrefFor rotor current, voltage q axle component reference value, urq、 usqFor rotor, stator voltage q axle component;

After given wind speed, off-load pattern is selected according to wind speed discrimination module, after off-load, power is determined by off-load percentage ratio, meter Calculate formula as follows:

p0=(1-d%) pm(20)

Powerinjected method area, exceed the speed limit control module output rotor speed reference " ωref", through pi controller output Reference value pref, generator electromagnetic power tracking prefRealize Wind turbines rotor overspeed off-load to run, during power invariability area, rotor Speed reference " ωref" obtain propeller pitch angle reference value beta through pi controllerrefIncrease propeller pitch angle, reduce Wind energy extraction, thus realizing becoming Oar off-load runs;

With the change of pull-in frequency signal, system power vacancy δ p signal enters different controllers according to wind speed difference, The final Wind turbines active power that increases exports;

Energy-storage system accesses Wind turbines through inverter, realizes it to system frequency response energy by controlling pwm inverter Power, i.e. the change of the active power auto response system frequency of energy-storage system;

For enabling energy-storage system auto response system frequency to change, simulate synchronous generator droop control, generate storage Energy active power reference value, meanwhile, for reducing the interference to system voltage frequency for the load variations, introduces points of common connection pcc (point of common coupling) place's voltage and current feedovers;

Energy-storage system response quickly, schedulability is high, therefore adds delays time to control module to control energy storage active power of output Time coordination Wind turbines participate in system frequency modulation;

Dfig rotor overspeed method controls advantage to be than virtual inertia, and virtual inertia controls the change of short response time frequency After will enter rotating speed recover state, be likely to result in the secondary mutation of frequency, and pass through rotor overspeed method participate in frequency modulation when rotor speed It is down near the mppt range of speeds, hypervelocity off-load can be re-started again after system frequency is stable;

Frequency modulation control strategy is combined using dfig with synchronous generator as follows:

(1) low wind speed, rotor overspeed is run, and benefits from rotor speed response quickly, can interior increase power output in short-term, Inertial response ability similar to synchrodrive is provided, improves system frequency minimum point, system frequency is fallen certain resistance is provided Buddhist nun acts on, and therefore, provides the inertial response process of frequency by controlling rotor speed, then coordinates energy-storage system to meet primary frequency modulation Power;

(2) high wind speed, propeller pitch angle is affected by mechanical performance, and response time is longer, but can last longer provide Primary frequency modulation energy, reduces system and enters frequency departure after stable state;Now the characteristic relying on energy-storage system response quickly is realized System inertia response process: concrete frequency response strategy such as table 2:

Table 2 double-fed fan motor units-energy-storage system frequency response strategy

According to analyzing above, Wind turbines inertial response demand is δ pwt=3.92% × pnwt, primary frequency modulation demand is δ pwt=8% × pnwt, energy storage configuration larger capacity, i.e. pess=4.08% × pnwt.

The double-fed fan motor unit of the present invention-energy-storage system simulation synchrodrive frequency modulation characteristic control strategy, by analysis system Frequency modulation demand, in conjunction with itself fm capacity of double-fed induction Wind turbines, reasonable disposition stored energy capacitance, build double-fed fan motor unit- Energy-storage system;According to Wind turbines and energy-storage system different frequency response time, reasonable distribution fm capacity, make double-fed fan motor Unit-energy-storage system possesses the frequency response ability similar to conventional synchronization electromotor, is capable of frequency two-ways regulation;Its In, dfig is according to operating mode using different off-load strategies, member-retaining portion power backup;Make full use of under different wind speed Wind turbines with Energy-storage system, in the complementary advantage of the aspects such as frequency response speed, available frequency modulation energy, reduces energy storage deployment cost, realizes double-fed Wind turbines-energy-storage system provides frequency " upwards " with a high credibility, " downward " responding ability;There is scientific and reasonable, the suitability By force, the advantages of effect is good.

In order to verify the effectiveness of this paper control strategy, based on pscad/emtdc simulation software, build double shown in Fig. 1 Feedback Wind turbines-energy-storage system;Wherein, blower fan adopts g58-850kw double-fed induction wind driven generator, Wind turbines rated power For 850kw, configuration energy storage rated power is 34.68kw.

Set running of wind generating set wind speed as 7m/s, during 5s, reduce Wind turbines value and power reference " pref" so as to off-load fortune OK;Difference raise/lower system frequency during 10s, simulation result is as shown in Figure 5, Figure 6.

Fig. 5, running of wind generating set carries out off-load in powerinjected method area, blower fan only with rotor overspeed method;Work as power reference It is worth when 5s declines, rotor overspeed operates, pitch angle beta is not operating, Wind turbines active power of output pwtOff-load about 33.32kw; During 10s, system frequency f is reduced to 49.8hz, the rapid action of Wind turbines, and rotor speed declines, and unit discharges non-firm power, this When, energy storage device is not operating;Postpone further over time, enter primary frequency modulation stage, now energy storage device action, output has Work(power pessAbout 34.68kw;During frequency is fallen, double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system is in inertial response and primary frequency modulation stage The synchronous generator identical energy being each provided with proportion supports.

In Fig. 6, during 10s, system frequency jumps to 50.2hz, and the dfig rotor speed under rotor overspeed off-load pattern is near Rated value, now energy storage absorbed power, simulate synchrodrive inertial response process;Meanwhile, wind energy conversion system propeller pitch angle increases, and reduces wind energy Capture, realizes secondary frequencies and adjusts.

Wind speed setting is the rated wind speed 16m/s of g58-850kw;Simulation curve is as shown in Figure 7, Figure 8.

In Fig. 7, in rated wind speed, after reducing active reference value, wind energy conversion system increases propeller pitch angle, reserve part to running of wind generating set Divide spare capacity;After system frequency is fallen, because Wind turbines pitch control response speed is slow, now defeated rapidly by energy-storage system Go out 33.32kw power;While energy storage output, Wind turbines start to become oar, and frequency falls rear 10s, Wind turbines Complete pitch process;Therefore, power output aspect, such as low wind conditions, double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system is in inertial response And the synchronous generator identical that the primary frequency modulation stage is each provided with proportion supports energy.

Shown in Fig. 8, after system frequency rises to 50.2hz, energy storage moment provides the inertial response energy of about 33.32kw, becomes Oar controls and starts simultaneously;The final active power output reducing about 68kw.

Design conditions in the embodiment of the present invention, legend, table etc. are only used for that the present invention is further illustrated, not thoroughly Lift, do not constitute the restriction to claims, the enlightenment that those skilled in the art obtain according to embodiments of the present invention, Would occur to other substantially equivalent replacements without creative work, all in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system simulation synchrodrive frequency modulation characteristic control strategy, is characterized in that, it includes following Content:
1) double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system
In double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system, energy-storage system is connected to Wind turbines and enters at network interface, synchronous wind unit-energy storage System participates in power grid frequency modulation and starts with from single unit aspect, and analysis designs stored energy capacitance and its control strategy;
During Power Systems unbalanced supply-demand, system frequency will be changed with certain speed, that is, down or up, and frequency change Speed is affected by system inertia: system inertia is weaker, and frequency changes faster, power system average inertia constant hsysConnect by all The synchronous generator entering system together decides on:
h s y s = &sigma; i = 1 n h i s i &sigma; i = 1 n s i - - - ( 1 )
Wherein, hiFor the inertia constant of i-th synchrodrive, with siIt is respectively the rated capacity of i-th synchrodrive;
Because synchronous generator rotor rotating speed and power system frequency are coupled, after system frequency fluctuation, synchronous generator rotating speed Quick response frequency can change, store or release rotor kinetic energy, provide certain supporting role to system frequency, until frequency change Rate df/dt is 0;This is synchronous generator inertial response process, is in own reaction in it, by equation of rotor motion control:
2 h d&omega; r d t = t m - t e - - - ( 2 )
Wherein, tmFor machine torque;teFor electromagnetic torque;H is electromotor inertia constant;ωrFor electric generating set rotor rotating speed;
After the primary frequency modulation process of synchronous generator is defined as system occurrence frequency change a period of time, Synchronous generator speed governing Device action, changes prime mover output, active power output changes therewith, until system frequency is stable;
In order that can stably share primary frequency modulation between multiple stage Multi-generator system group exerting oneself, often through synchrodrive of adjusting Difference coefficient σ controls unit frequency modulation to exert oneself:
&sigma; = - &delta; f &delta;p g - - - ( 3 )
Be expressed as a percentage for:
&sigma; % = - &delta;fp n g f n &delta;p g &times; 100 - - - ( 4 )
Synchrodrive Primary frequency control ability can more intuitively show as the inverse of difference coefficient, unit power regulation kgFor, indicate with System frequency change, the number of generator output change:
k g = 1 &sigma; = p n g f n &sigma; % &times; 100 - - - ( 5 )
In formula (3)~(5), δ f is system frequency changing value, fnFor rated frequency, δ pgExert oneself for synchrodrive frequency modulation, pngFor volume Determine power,
Synchronous generator rotating speed and system frequency are coupled, with frequency change, actual rotor rotational speed omegarWith reference rotation velocity ωref Compare, error signal changes δ y with difference coefficient σ % co- controlling valve location, adjust the quantity of steam of injection steam turbine, Reach the purpose changing electromotor active power of output eventually,
Accordingly, it is considered to synchrodrive frequency regulation capacity credibility higher it is easy to scheduling, by building synchronous wind unit and energy storage system System, designs frequency modulation control strategy, makes double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system possess the frequency modulation characteristic of synchrodrive in proportion;
2) double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system simulates the capacity configuration of synchrodrive frequency modulation characteristic
Energy storage involves great expense, and constrains its large-scale application, thus, on the basis of considering wind-powered electricity generation itself fm capacity, rationally profit With the complementarity of the frequency modulation means of Wind turbines-energy-storage system, flexible allocation wind-powered electricity generation is exerted oneself with energy storage frequency modulation, can either reduce storage Energy system configuration cost, also can make wind energy turbine set be provided with frequency response ability under different operating modes,
When frequency changes, the change of Synchronous generator rotor active response system frequency, instantaneous relase or storage part Kinetic energy is with the change of suppression system frequency;This process can be weighed with inertia constant h, and it is defined as follows:
h = e k r p n = j&omega; r 2 2 p n - - - ( 6 )
Obtained by formula (6), when generating set runs, the rotor kinetic energy of storage is:
e k r = 1 2 j&omega; r 2 = 1 2 p n t j - - - ( 7 )
In formula: ekrFor electric generating set rotor kinetic energy;J is generating set rotary inertia;ωrFor electric generating set rotor rotating speed;pnFor sending out The rated power of group of motors;tj=2h is inertia time constant,
During general safe operation of power system, frequency change can not exceed 2hz, takes system frequency to drop to during inertial response Example, that is, the rotating speed perunit value excursion of synchronous generator is 0.96~1, and synchronous generator can discharge or the maximum that stores turns Sub- kinetic energy is:
&delta;e k r = 1 2 j ( 1 - 0.96 2 ) &omega; r 2 = 0.0392 j&omega; r 2 - - - ( 8 )
Set joint frequency modulation system in time tweInterior release and synchronous generator identical inertial response energy, then have:
δewe=δ ekr=pwe·twe=0.0392pnwttj(9)
Synchronous generator rely on inertia participate in FREQUENCY CONTROL time be about second level it is assumed that double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system with The inertia time constant of synchronous generator is consistent, i.e. twe=tj, then the inertial response power of double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system need to Ask for:
pwe=0.0392pnwt(10)
Obtained by formula (10): as long as control strategy is rationally, double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system retains about wind-powered electricity generation rated power 3.92% spare capacity it becomes possible to provide the inertial response ability similar to synchronous generator,
According to synchronous generator primary frequency modulation principle, defining double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system difference coefficient is:
&sigma; w e = - &delta; f &delta;p w e - - - ( 11 )
Be expressed as a percentage for:
&sigma; w e % = - &delta;fp n w t f n &delta;p w e &times; 100 - - - ( 12 )
Now, double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system with the frequency frequency modulation that need to provide of change exert oneself for:
&delta;p w e = - &delta;fp n w t f n &sigma; w e % &times; 100 - - - ( 13 )
Wherein, σweFor double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system difference coefficient, δ f is system frequency changing value, δ pweFor double-fed fan motor Unit-energy-storage system primary frequency modulation is exerted oneself, pnwtFor wind-powered electricity generation rated power,
Double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system unit power regulation kweFor:
k w e = 1 &sigma; w e = p m v e f n &sigma; w e % &times; 100 - - - ( 14 )
When power system normally runs, frequency change is less than ± 0.2hz, takes δ f=± 0.2hz, substitutes into formula (13)~(14) :
k w e = 1 &sigma; w e = 2 &sigma; w e % p m v e - - - ( 16 )
For making double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system have and synchronous generator identical primary frequency modulation effect, adjusting, both adjust difference Coefficient is consistent, σwe%=5, substitutes into formula (15)~(16) and obtains, and using reasonable control strategy, retains about Wind turbines rated power 8% spare capacity just can make the primary frequency modulation effect of Wind turbines offer and the difference coefficients such as synchronous generator, now, double-fed Wind turbines and energy-storage system unit power regulation are about 0.4pnwe(kw/hz);
3) double-fed fan motor unit-energy-storage system frequency modulation control analysis of strategies
Wind energy conversion system Wind energy extraction principle is as follows:
p m = 1 2 &rho;&pi;r 2 v w 3 c p ( &lambda; , &beta; ) - - - ( 17 )
c p = ( 0.44 - 0.0167 &beta; ) s i n &pi; ( &lambda; - 3 ) 15 - 0.3 &beta; - 0.00184 ( &beta; - 3 ) - - - ( 18 )
&lambda; = &omega; r r v w - - - ( 19 )
Wherein, pmFor wind energy conversion system mechanical output;cpFor power coefficient;ρ is atmospheric density;vwFor wind speed;λ is tip speed ratio; β is propeller pitch angle;ωrFor rotor speed;R is pneumatic equipment bladess radius,
From formula (17)~(19), Wind turbines output is subject to wind speed, rotor speed, propeller pitch angle co- controlling, according to wind Group of motors operating air velocity size, wind speed is divided into, incision wind speed area, powerinjected method area, power invariability area;
(1) Wind turbines are not yet grid-connected in incision wind speed area, do not consider;
(2) when powerinjected method area, its rotor speed is less than rated speed to running of wind generating set, and propeller pitch angle is 0 °, Wind turbines Rotor overspeed run, can member-retaining portion power, i.e. rotor overspeed method off-load, fast response time, can in short-term interior increase power defeated Go out, but its frequency modulation finite energy that can be provided by;
(3) power invariability area, now Wind turbines rotor speed be stable at rated speed, by increase wind energy conversion system propeller pitch angle, subtract Few Wind energy extraction, that is, become paddle method and realize Wind turbines off-load, but feather is subject to mechanical impact, response time is longer, but energy Enough last longer provide frequency modulation power;
Double-fed fan motor unit frequency modulation control device containing energy-storage system, specifically includes that Wind turbines pitch control device, rotor overspeed control Device processed and energy storage controller, input quantity is wind speed vw, off-load percentage ratio d% and system frequency changing value δ f;Output is pitch Angle beta, rotor-side active power pωAnd energy accumulation current converter control signal;
Wherein, p0For wind energy conversion system reference power, δ pfFor active power shortage, pβref、pωref、pessrefIt is respectively and become oar, speed change And the active reference value of energy storage, ωrefFor generator speed reference value;In pitch control device, ωrFor electromotor actual speed, βf、 βrefIt is respectively propeller pitch angle frequency response values and reference value;βmax、βminFor propeller pitch angle maxima and minima, max-rate, min- Rate is pitch rate upper and lower bound;In rotor overspeed controller, prefFor value and power reference, psActive for stator side Power, irq、irdFor rotor current dq axle component, irqref、urqrefFor rotor current, voltage q axle component reference value, urq、usqFor Rotor, stator voltage q axle component;
After given wind speed, off-load pattern is selected according to wind speed discrimination module, after off-load, power is determined by off-load percentage ratio, calculate public Formula is as follows:
p0=(1-d%) pm(20)
Powerinjected method area, exceed the speed limit control module output rotor speed reference " ωref", through pi controller output reference Value pref, generator electromagnetic power tracking prefRealize Wind turbines rotor overspeed off-load to run, during power invariability area, rotor speed Reference value " ωref" obtain propeller pitch angle reference value beta through pi controllerrefIncrease propeller pitch angle, reduce Wind energy extraction, thus realize change oar subtracting Carrying row;
With the change of pull-in frequency signal, system power vacancy δ p signal enters different controllers according to wind speed difference, finally Increase the output of Wind turbines active power,
Energy-storage system accesses Wind turbines through inverter, realizes it to system frequency response ability by controlling pwm inverter, that is, The change of the active power auto response system frequency of energy-storage system;
For enabling energy-storage system auto response system frequency to change, simulate synchronous generator droop control, generating energy storage has Work(value and power reference, meanwhile, for reducing the interference to system voltage frequency for the load variations, introduces points of common connection pcc (point Of common coupling) feedforward of place's voltage and current;
Energy-storage system response quickly, schedulability is high, therefore add delays time to control module control energy storage active power of output when Between cooperation Wind turbines participate in system frequency modulation;
Dfig rotor overspeed method controls advantage to be than virtual inertia, and virtual inertia will after controlling the change of short response time frequency Enter rotating speed and recover state, be likely to result in the secondary mutation of frequency, and rotor speed during frequency modulation is participated in by rotor overspeed method and is down to Near the mppt range of speeds, hypervelocity off-load can be re-started again after system frequency is stable;
Frequency modulation control strategy is combined using dfig with synchronous generator as follows:
(1) low wind speed, rotor overspeed is run, and benefits from rotor speed response quickly, can interior increase power output in short-term, provide Similar to the inertial response ability of synchrodrive, improve system frequency minimum point, system frequency is fallen and provides certain damping to make With therefore, providing the inertial response process of frequency by controlling rotor speed, then coordinating energy-storage system to meet primary frequency modulation work( Rate;
(2) high wind speed, propeller pitch angle is affected by mechanical performance, and response time is longer, but can last longer provide once Frequency modulation energy, reduces system and enters frequency departure after stable state;Now the characteristic relying on energy-storage system response quickly is realized system Inertial response process:
(3) Wind turbines inertial response demand is δ pwt=3.92% × pnwt, primary frequency modulation demand is δ pwt=8% × pnwt, Energy storage configures larger capacity, i.e. pess=4.08% × pnwt.
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