A kind of disk spring damper that can adjust early stage rigidity
The present invention relates to damping device, more particularly to the damper using disk spring.
Damper is a kind of to provide the damping device that the resistance of movement carrys out depletion kinergety.Using damper come energy-absorbing
Damping is a kind of conventional art for being widely used in space flight, aviation, military project, firearms and automobile and other industries.From twentieth century
Since the seventies, the technology using damper energy-absorbing damping is applied to building, bridge, railway etc. that people start progressively are tied
In structure engineering.And disk spring damper is with its impact resistance is high, cost is low, good damping effect characteristic is widely used in
In the anti-seismic structure of various buildings.
Design of the people for the anti-seismic structure of building especially skyscraper is pursued a kind of " anti-" and is combined with " consumption "
Synthesis anti-seismic performance, i.e., anti-seismic structure can provide extra additional for building main body under the action of weak wind shake and small earthquake
Rigidity resists the effect of external load, and the integrality of retainer body structure, avoids main structure body from internal injury occur, and strong
Anti-seismic structure then starts yield deformation under the action of wind shake and violent earthquake, by the damping action of the damper in anti-seismic structure come
Dissipation external energy, makes main structure body shake in high wind and be unlikely to be seriously damaged in violent earthquake or even collapse, ensures people's
Safety of life and property.This just requires that rigidity can be kept under the action of exterior weak load applied to anti-seismic structure, does not become
Shape, energy consumption can be then deformed under the action of exterior intense loading lotus.But existing spring-damper can not also meet above-mentioned antidetonation need
Ask, any spring-damper can produce more or less elastic deformation under the action of external load.Therefore above-mentioned people institute
The performance of the Antiseismic building structure of pursuit is difficult to realize.
In addition, the effect of seismic wave is in multidirectional randomness, i.e. the size direction and frequency for acting on power on building are all
Random, thus be accordingly used in the damper of antidetonation need to meet following two requirements：First, the characteristic frequency of damper is defeated with earthquake
The resonance frequency domain for entering excitation staggers, second, the characteristic frequency of damper will stagger with building or the characteristic frequency of building structure.
According to《Analysis of Basic Characteristic Parameters of Disk Springs》The theory analysis of author Yi Xianzhong, the natural frequency of vibration of monolithic disk spring(in formula, KpFor rigidity, msFor the quality of disk spring, m is the quality of object of being connected with disk spring, ξ
For equivalent quality transformation ratio) [see,《Petroleum machinery》Magazine, the phase the 10th of volume 23 the 3rd nineteen ninety-five to wait page 22], it is seen then that when
After the quality of disk spring and the Quality Design for the object that is connected with disk spring determine, the disk spring natural frequency of vibration square with it is upper
The rigidity of disk spring is directly proportional.
The application for a patent for invention of Publication No. CN1932324A discloses a kind of " adjustable disc-shape spring mechanical damping resistance
Buddhist nun's device ", which includes shell, sets load connecting rod and two groups of disk springs inside the shell, described, the load connection
The middle part of bar is equipped with adjustment gear connected therewith, is respectively equipped with the load connecting rod of the adjustment gear both sides and connects with load
The left-handed nut of extension bar thread fitting and right-handed nut, two groups of disk springs are respectively provided at the left-handed nut and dextrorotation spiral shell
Female outside, and be clamped in respectively between the left-handed nut or right-handed nut and the sealing plate of outer casing end.It is described adjustable
Disc-shape spring mechanical damper, only needs the adjustment gear in switch load connecting rod, makes the left-handed nut and dextrorotation
Nut is mutually drawn close or away from the pretightning force of two groups of disk springs is adjusted so as to adjust the damped coefficient of damper, to meet
The use demand of different frequency and various amplitude.But the invention still has following deficiency：
1st, the load connecting rod is that balance is kept under the collective effect of two groups of disk springs, two groups of disk springs
Although pretightning force can be adjusted, adjust anyway, two groups of disk springs are all one group to the active force of load connecting rod
Equal in magnitude, the opposite power in direction, only need to apply any external force in load connecting rod can all destroy this balance, make two groups of dish
Shape spring deforms, so the damper can not preset early stage rigidity；
2nd, by changing the damped coefficient of disk spring to two groups of disk spring precompressed, it is this change it is extremely limited, this
Cause the equivalent stiffness adjustable range of damper small, can not often meet requirement of the architectural vibration-insulation for frequency；
3rd, two groups of disk springs must be used cooperatively in the invention, could all be provided when damper is pressed or draws load
Damping, this not only causes certain waste, also so that the length of damper greatly adds, is not suitable for some installation spaces
Compact occasion uses.
The application for a patent for invention of Publication No. CN101457553A discloses one kind, and " spring stiffness adjustable tuning quality subtracts
Shake device ", which is a kind of composite buffer, changes its characteristic frequency by varying the thickness of mass block, by varying viscous
The flow of the working media of stagnant damper changes its damping ratio, changes its rigidity by varying effective active length of spring, its
The means of the middle effective active length for changing spring have three kinds, first, using curing materials by spring positioned at one section cured in cylinder
Cure, second, toward constraint block, and the two interference fit is filled in the center of helical spring, make the one section of spring contacted with constraint block
Failure, third, setting helical raised on constraint block surface, between helical raised is stuck in spring wire, makes to block between spring wire
There is one section of spring failure of helical raised.It can be seen from the above that although the spring in the patent application scheme can change rigidity, institute
Not only effective active length is obviously shortened the spring stated, but also can only compress passive energy dissipation, it is impossible to stretches passive energy dissipation.
The content of the invention
The technical problems to be solved by the invention are to provide a kind of disk spring damper that can adjust early stage rigidity, should
Disk spring damper not only maintains effective active length of disk spring, but also not only compressible passive energy dissipation, but also stretchable
Passive energy dissipation.
The present invention solve above-mentioned technical problem technical solution be：
A kind of disk spring damper that can adjust early stage rigidity, the disk spring damper include two end plates, institute
It is equipped with disk spring group between the two end plates stated, one of end plate is equipped with guide rod, and the guide rod is along the dish-shaped bullet
The centre bore of spring group is pierced by another end plate；The disk spring group is made of one group of disk spring overlapping；It is characterized in that,
Backpressure device is additionally provided between the two end plates, which includes two that quantity is at least three respectively
The wire tensioner of precompressed cable wire, two pieces of floating platens and quantity for the sum of two groups of precompressed cable wire quantity is organized, wherein,
Two pieces of floating platens are respectively sleeved on one piece of guide rod between end plate and disk spring group；
Two groups of precompressed cable wires are symmetrically distributed in the disk spring rotating around the axis of guide rod with linear state
The surrounding of group, and, one of each group of precompressed cable wire is separately fixed on one piece of floating platen, and other end is each passed through another piece
Floating platen is fixed on the end plate adjacent with the floating platen；
The through hole for wearing the precompressed cable wire is respectively equipped with the floating platen in the position through the precompressed cable wire,
The aperture of the through hole is more than the diameter of worn precompressed cable wire；
The wire tensioner concatenates the middle part of the precompressed cable wire；
Two groups of precompressed cable wires are tensioned, make the distance between two pieces of floating platens default early equal to disk spring group is compressed to
The length of phase rigidity.
In such scheme, the precompressed cable wire can be steel wire rope or prestressing force steel hinge line.
The disk spring damper of the present invention that early stage rigidity can be adjusted, wherein described precompressed cable wire two can
Anchored using conventional method, also can use similar to lifting bolt or fixation is connect by the U-shaped component system of bar bending.
To prevent from dust and other debris from falling in disk spring group influencing the normal work of damper, of the invention one
A improvement project is：Bag is equipped with the protective case of one layer of rubber on the outside of the backpressure device, two of the protective case respectively with two pieces
The outer circumferential surface of floating platen bonds together.
Damper of the present invention can be widely used for various one-dimensional shock insulation fields, e.g., mechanical equipment internal vibration every
From, Equipment Foundations shock insulation, the seismic hardening of building structure, isolation seism building base etc..
Damping device of the present invention has the advantages that：
(1) one group of disk spring is only needed to make the no matter suffered axial force of damper to be positive or reverse, it is described
Disk spring group can produce elastic compression deformation and consume energy, and not only save one group of disk spring, and greatly shorten
The length of damper.
(2) when dynamic loading is more than the resilience of early stage rigidity set by damper, bidirectional elastic deformation is symmetrical, because in addition
The effect that the change of the positive negative direction of power load does not influence its compression and consumes energy.
(3) length of the precompressed cable wire can be changed by adjusting wire tensioner, and then change the early stage of whole damper
Rigidity, when early stage rigidity be more than zero when, external force can not be deformed damper before the early stage rigidity is overcome, thus by its
During for building structure aseismatic, predeterminable earthquake protection grade, significantly reduces shock insulation cost.
(4) default early stage rigidity is reasonably selected using the characteristic of disk spring, and then selects the characteristic frequency domain of damper
Scope, avoids the intrinsic frequency domain of building structure and the vertically frequency domain of seismic wave, prevents from resonating.
(5) length, that is, predeterminable damper early stage rigidity of the precompressed cable wire is preset, and in the disk spring group
There is no a piece of disk spring to fail, i.e., effective active length is constant, will not change the original characterisitic parameter of disk spring group.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1~6 are the structure diagram of a specific embodiment of damper of the present invention, wherein, Fig. 1 is front view
(section view), Fig. 2 are the A-A sectional views of Fig. 1, and Fig. 3 is the B-B sectional views of Fig. 1, and Fig. 4 is bottom view, and Fig. 5 is local I in Fig. 1
Enlarged drawing, Fig. 6 are in Fig. 2 local II enlarged drawing；In order to facilitate observation of, wire tensioner is concealed in Fig. 3.
Fig. 7~10 are the structure diagram of second specific embodiment of damper of the present invention, wherein, based on Fig. 7
View (section view), Fig. 8 are the C-C sectional views of Fig. 7, and Fig. 9 is the D-D sectional views of Fig. 7, and Figure 10 is bottom view；In order to facilitate observation of, scheme
Protective case is concealed in 8~10, wire tensioner is concealed in Fig. 9.
Figure 11~13 are the structure diagram of 3rd specific embodiment of damper of the present invention, wherein, based on Figure 11
View (section view), Figure 12 are the E-E sectional views of Figure 11, and Figure 13 is the F-F sectional views of Figure 11；In order to facilitate observation of, in Figure 12~13
Protective case is concealed, wire tensioner is concealed in Figure 13.
Referring to Fig. 1 and 4, the disk spring damper that early stage rigidity can be adjusted in this example is that one kind can be used for building structure
The damper of seismic hardening, the damper include discoid upper head plate 2 and bottom plate 3, dish-shaped bullet are equipped between upper and lower end plate
Spring group 4, wherein upper head plate 2 are equipped with guide rod 1, which is pierced by bottom plate 3 down along the centre bore of disk spring group 4；
The disk spring group 4 is made of 16 pieces of disk spring overlappings, the bottom plate 3 and the dynamic cooperation of the guide rod 1.
Referring to Fig. 1 and 4, the upper surface of the upper head plate 2 and the lower surface of bottom plate 3 are respectively equipped with two band hinge holes 12
Connection otic placode 11.And the distance of the hinge hole 12 on bottom plate 3 in set connection otic placode 11 and bottom plate 3 is more than the guiding
1 end of bar is pierced by the length of 3 lower surface of bottom plate, is formed between two hinge hole 12 and the lower surface of bottom plate 3 for being oriented to
The activity space that 1 end of bar is stretched.
Referring to Fig. 1~6, backpressure device is equipped between the upper head plate 2 and bottom plate 3, the backpressure device is pre- including two groups
Compressed steel rope, two pieces of floating platens and eight wire tensioners 14；Wherein, two groups of precompressed cable wires are by five precompressed cable wires
First group of precompressed cable wire 8 of composition and second group of precompressed cable wire 7 being made of three precompressed cable wires；Two pieces of floating platens
For the first floating platen 6 being set on the guide rod between the bottom plate 3 and disk spring group 4 and it is set in upper head plate 2
The second floating platen 5 on guide rod between disk spring group 4.
Referring to Fig. 1~6, two groups of precompressed cable wires are distributed in described with linear state around 1 axisymmetrical of guide rod respectively
The surrounding of disk spring group 4, each precompressed cable wire is each parallel to 1 axis of guide rod, and first group of precompressed cable wire 8 is away from guide rod
The distance of axis is equal to second group of precompressed cable wire 7 away from the distance for being oriented to rod axis；Wherein, first group of precompressed cable wire 8 is upper
Head is fixed on the second floating platen 5 by lifting bolt 13 respectively, and following is each passed through the first floating platen 6 by lifting bolt 13
It is fixed on the bottom plate 3；The following of second group of precompressed cable wire 7 is fixed on the first floating pressure by lifting bolt 13 respectively
On plate 6, top is fixed on upper head plate 2 through the second floating platen 5 by lifting bolt 13；On first floating platen 6
The position that each first group of precompressed cable wire 8 passes through is equipped with the first through hole 10 passed through for it, and the aperture of the first through hole 10 is big
In the diameter of first group of precompressed cable wire 8；Passed through on second floating platen 5 in each second group of precompressed cable wire 7
Position is equipped with the second through hole 9 passed through for it, and the aperture of second through hole 9 is more than the diameter of second group of precompressed cable wire 7；Institute
The method that the two for the precompressed cable wire stated is fixed on by lifting bolt in respective members is：Lifting bolt 13 is fixed on accordingly
It is then to be connected on the hanging ring of lifting bolt by one of precompressed cable wire on component, and it is solid by rope cramp (being not drawn into figure)
Fig. 1 is participated in, described eight wire tensioners 14 are serially connected in the middle part of each precompressed cable wire, series-mounting respectively
For：Each precompressed cable wire is blocked from middle part, two formed fag end systems then will be blocked and is connected on corresponding wire tensioner
In the connection ring at 14 two, and it is fixed with rope cramp (being to draw in figure).
The precompressed cable wire in this example can be steel wire rope or prestressing force steel hinge line, when it is implemented, can
Voluntarily choose according to the actual requirements.
The adjusting method of the early stage rigidity of damper described in this example is as described below：(1) resistance as described in Fig. 1~6 by this example
Buddhist nun's device assembles；(2) pressure is applied to two of the damper obtained by step (1), compresses the disk spring group 4, at the same time
The distance between two pieces of floating platens of detection；(3) disk spring group 4 is compressed to when the distance between two pieces of floating platens are equal to
Meet that (this length according to the characterisitic parameter of disk spring group 4 and can need default early stage Rigidity Calculation for the length of early stage rigidity
Obtain) when adjust wire tensioner 14, make the tensioning of each precompressed cable wire, then cancel the pressure applied in step (2), institute
State two groups of precompressed cable wires the disk spring group 4 will be clamped in all the time the first floating platen 6 and the second floating platen 5 it
Referring to Fig. 1, two groups of precompressed cable wires pull two pieces of floating platens compression disk spring groups 4 respectively to be come for it
Precompression is provided, the size of precompression can be changed by varying the length of precompressed cable wire, and then preset its early rigidity
Purpose.Referring to Fig. 1, when damper is subject to axial external load, no matter external load is pressure or pulling force, as long as its is small
In above-mentioned precompression, disk spring group 4 will not continue to deformation.When external load is more than the precompression, if exterior carry
Lotus is pressure, and the bottom plate 3 promotes first floating platen 6 to continue to compress the generation elastic deformation energy consumption of disk spring group 4,
If external load is pulling force, two groups of precompressed cable wires pull two pieces of floating platen relative movement compression disk spring groups 4 respectively
Produce elastic deformation energy consumption.Because no matter the dynamic loading suffered by damper is pulling force or pressure, the deformation finally produced is same
The compression of one group of disk spring, so the bidirectional elastic deformation of damper is necessarily symmetrical.
Referring to Fig. 7~10, this example mainly has following difference compared with example 1：
1st, first group of precompressed cable wire 8 and second group of precompressed cable wire 7 are formed by 3 precompressed cable wires；The rigging spiral shell
The quantity of spinner 14 is kept to six, and is serially connected in the middle part of each precompressed cable wire respectively.
2nd, the normal work of damper is influenced to prevent dust and other debris from falling in disk spring group 4, in back-pressure
The protective case 15 of one layer of rubber of parcel on the outside of device, two of the protective case 15 are floated with the first floating platen 6 and second respectively
The outer circumferential surface of pressing plate 5 bonds together.The length of the sheath 15 is more than between 3 lower surface of 2 upper surface of upper head plate and bottom plate
Distance, in order to avoid influence damper work.
This example implementation other than the above is same as Example 1.
Referring to Figure 11~13, the disk spring damper that can adjust early stage rigidity in this example can be used for building to be a kind of
The isolation mounting (also referred to as shock isolating pedestal) of thing vertical earthquake isolating, this example mainly have following difference compared with example 2：
1st, as shock isolating pedestal, for ease of installation, connection otic placode set on upper head plate 2 in example 2 is eliminated in this example, and
The edge of upper head plate 2 is extended radially outwards, and link bolt hole 17 is uniformly arranged in edge.
2nd, the connection otic placode set by the outside of bottom plate 3 in example 2 is eliminated, and by bottom plate 3 since elder generation edge to lower axle
Extend radially outwards the base to form damper again to extension, and link bolt hole 17 is uniformly arranged in edge；Wherein to lower axle
It is more than 1 end of guide rod to the length of extension and is pierced by what the length on the outside of dynamic pressure plate 3 was stretched to be formed for 1 end of guide rod
Activity space 16.
3rd, first group of precompressed cable wire 8 and second group of precompressed cable wire 7 are formed by 5 precompressed cable wires；The rigging spiral shell
The quantity increase of spinner 14 is ten, and is serially connected in the middle part of each precompressed cable wire respectively.
This example other embodiment other than the above is same as Example 2.