CN106367673A - Self-lubricating low-temperature-rise harmonic reducer and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Self-lubricating low-temperature-rise harmonic reducer and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106367673A
CN106367673A CN201610793399.2A CN201610793399A CN106367673A CN 106367673 A CN106367673 A CN 106367673A CN 201610793399 A CN201610793399 A CN 201610793399A CN 106367673 A CN106367673 A CN 106367673A
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self
rise
speed reducer
graphite
temperature
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CN106367673B (en
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许旸
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The prosperous intelligent machine Science and Technology Ltd. that opens up of Dongguan City
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XIANYANG RAMBLER MACHINERY CO Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C37/00Cast-iron alloys
    • C22C37/10Cast-iron alloys containing aluminium or silicon
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D11/00Continuous casting of metals, i.e. casting in indefinite lengths
    • B22D11/04Continuous casting of metals, i.e. casting in indefinite lengths into open-ended moulds
    • B22D11/055Cooling the moulds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D1/00General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering
    • C21D1/18Hardening; Quenching with or without subsequent tempering
    • C21D1/19Hardening; Quenching with or without subsequent tempering by interrupted quenching
    • C21D1/20Isothermal quenching, e.g. bainitic hardening
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D1/00General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering
    • C21D1/26Methods of annealing
    • C21D1/32Soft annealing, e.g. spheroidising
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D9/00Heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering, adapted for particular articles; Furnaces therefor
    • C21D9/34Heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering, adapted for particular articles; Furnaces therefor for tyres; for rims
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D9/00Heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering, adapted for particular articles; Furnaces therefor
    • C21D9/40Heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering, adapted for particular articles; Furnaces therefor for rings; for bearing races
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H1/00Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion
    • F16H1/28Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with gears having orbital motion

Abstract

The invention discloses a self-lubricating low-temperature-rise harmonic reducer composed of three major parts including an internal tooth rigid gear, a flexible gear and a flexible bearing. Each of the internal tooth rigid gear, the flexible gear and the flexible bearing is made of an austempering ductile iron material (ADI) and has an ultrafine matrix structure and a graphite form. The graphite nodule diameter at the tooth part of the internal tooth rigid gear is smaller than or equal to 0.03mm, and the graphite nodule density is larger than or equal to 200/mm<2>; the graphite nodule diameters of the flexible gear and a bearing ring are smaller than or equal to 0.02mm, the graphite nodule density is larger than or equal to 400/mm<2>, and the matrix structure can be clearly observed under a metallurgical microscopy with the magnification of more than 500. The harmonic reducer disclosed by the invention has an excellent self-lubricating function, so that injecting lubricating grease is thoroughly avoided; and the life is prolonged, and meanwhile, the self-lubricating low-temperature-rise harmonic reducer has the advantages of low temperature rise, low noise, light weight, large torque, high rigidity as well as high acceleration torque and transient acceleration torque.

Description

A kind of harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The invention belongs to mechanized equipment manufacturing technology field is and in particular to a kind of harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise, The invention still further relates to the preparation method of this harmonic speed reducer.
Background technology
The critical component that mechanical action realized by industrial robot is rv decelerator harmonic decelerator.Harmonic gear reducer It is a kind of precision optical machinery device being made up of internal tooth rigid wheel, flexbile gear and flexible bearing three-major-items, compare with common decelerator, tool Have the advantages that small volume, transmission efficiency, speed reducing ratio wide ranges, rotating accuracy are accurate, along with the material being used will lack 50%, volume and weight at least reduce 1/3, so being particularly well-suited among industrial robot.One six-joint robot, generally needs 3-4 harmonic speed reducer to be used increases the deceleration to realize 3-6 level joint turns round function, and market capacity is very big.
In April, 2016, national Ministry of Industry and Information, the Committee of Development and Reform and the Ministry of Finance combine " the Robot industry development plan of issue (2016-2020) " propose: by development of high strength high-abrasive material technology, processing optimisation technique, high-speed lubrication technology, reliability And the exploration of life tests technology and Novel transmission mechanism, development is suitable for the high efficiency of robot application, low weight, exempts from for a long time The seriation decelerator safeguarded.At present, the performance indications of harmonic speed reducer and life-span are that maximum in industrial robot part is short Plate: its performance and the analysis of causes are as follows:
1 because of the needs of elastic deformation, and the wall thickness of flexbile gear only has 1-2mm, and the limit to hardness because of tool for cutting machining System, the hardness of flexbile gear and internal circular spline only has hrc28-32, and intensity is relatively low, and limited by torsion, the life-span is shorter.
The modulus of the tooth of 2 flexbile gears and internal tooth rigid wheel is only 0.1-0.3, and slightly wearing and tearing can skid scraps.
3 harmonic drive mainly lean on the radial deformation of flexbile gear to realize, flexbile gear and internal circular spline high speed is engaging-in nibble out when, Slip between the flank of tooth is higher than the slippage that ordinary gear is driven several times, and lubricating oil film has been broken in sliding friction, causes dry friction, makes Tooth surface abrasion.
4 in order to increase lubricant effect, prevents from again revealing, the 50-70% in harmonic speed reducer intracavity space is filled with viscous Thick lubricant grease.These oils and fatss prevent heat to distribute, and cause temperature rise to improve 45-60 DEG C, act as resisting medium simultaneously again, Forward and reverse motion switching of slow gear and bearing is so that two important performance indexes acceleration of harmonic speed reducer turn Square and instantaneous acceleration torque are difficult to improve.
5 in terms of material selection, and flexbile gear has been used up low-alloy carbon steel or spring steel, and flexible bearing adopts bearing steel. And to internal circular spline, originally adopt ordinary carbon steel or low-alloy carbon steel, several years ago the harmonic drive (hd) of Japan and Xin Bao company, and harmonic drive ag (hdag) company of Germany used spheroidal graphite cast-iron instead, some enterprises of China Attempt using ductile iron material it is therefore an objective to be improved the life-span using the self-lubricating and abrasion resistance of magnesium iron, and protection is played to flexbile gear Effect.But it is because just taking turns thicker, the as-cast structure at internal tooth position is difficult fine and closely woven, causes the graphite nodule of its teeth portion very big, density Very little, about 50/mm2., it is easy to cause to collapse tooth, self-lubricating effect is also limited for so big and dilute graphite nodule.
Content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise, there is self-lubricating function, need not add Note lubricant grease.
It is a further object to provide a kind of preparation method of the harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise.
The technical solution adopted in the present invention is, a kind of harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise, by internal tooth rigid wheel, soft Wheel and flexible bearing three-major-items composition, internal tooth rigid wheel, flexbile gear and flexible bearing, composed of the following components by mass percentage: C:3.4%-3.7%, si:2.7%-2.9%, mn:0.3%-0.5%, cr:0.3%-0.5%, s≤0.05%, p≤ 0.05%, residual content of magnesium 0.03%-0.045%, fe are surplus, and said components mass percent sum is 100%.
Another technical scheme of the present invention is, a kind of preparation side of the harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise Method, specifically implements according to following steps:
Step 1, configures material with the bread pig iron, steel scrap and ferroalloy and melts molten iron, mass percent component is as follows: c: 3.4%-3.7%, si:1.5%-1.7%, mn:0.3%-0.5%, cr:0.3%-0.5%, s≤0.05%, p≤0.05%, Fe and other impurities are surplus, and above each constituent mass percentage ratio summation is 100%, then makes molten iron by breeding with spheroidising Whole silicon amount be 2.7%-2.9%, residual content of magnesium 0.03%-0.045%;
Step 2, the molten iron in step 1 is passed through vertical continuous casting method, is drawn into hollow profile and solid bar respectively;
Step 3, hollow profile and the metallographic structure of solid bar that detecting step 2 obtains;
Step 4, the length according to part and the needs of turnery processing, hollow profile or solid bar are sawed into section, slightly Car is semi-finished product, carries out spheroidizing process;
Step 5, makees rough turn to the blank after step 4 annealing;
Step 6, carries out means of isothermal quenching to step 5 rough turned piece, is then finish-machined to internal tooth rigid wheel, cup type respectively Flexbile gear and flexible bearing lasso;
Step 7, conventionally assembles flexible bearing;
Step 8, the other parts of processing harmonic speed reducer, traditionally assemble harmonic speed reducer, then carry out performance Detection and decelerator surface antirust treatment.
The feature of the present invention also resides in,
The crystallizer adopting in vertical continuous casting method in step 2 is the water mold of Double helix Two In and Two Out, its structure For: include the mutually inner barrel of socket and outer cylinder body, the top of inner barrel and outer cylinder body is connected with upper flange plate, and inner barrel is with outward The bottom of cylinder is connected with lower flange, and the top of outer cylinder body is respectively equipped with water inlet tap i and water inlet tap ii, the lower part of outer cylinder body It is not provided with faucet i and faucet ii, the cylindrical Double helix gusset of having got on the bus out of inner barrel, after inside and outside cylinder suit, define Double-helical water stream channel.
The metallographic structure detection of hollow profile in step 3: to making the hollow profile of internal tooth rigid wheel it is ensured that away from surface Graphite nodule rate >=90% in as-cast structure at 15-20mm layer depth, diameter of graphite ball≤0.03mm, graphite nodule density >= 200/mm2, graphite area occupation ratio ≈ 15%;With making bearing within the 6mm top layer of continuous casting solid bar of making cup type flexbile gear Within the 10mm top layer of the continuous casting hollow profile of lasso, graphite nodule rate >=90% in its as-cast structure, diameter of graphite ball≤ 0.02mm, graphite nodule density >=400/mm2, graphite area occupation ratio ≈ 20%.
In step 4, spheroidizing processes and includes:
A. base material is warming up in well formula or box heat treatment furnace eutectoid ac1+ 50 DEG C, it is incubated 55- 65min;
B. the magnesium iron base material stove processing step a is cooled to eutectoid ac1- 50 DEG C, it is incubated 55-65min;
C. repeat step a and step b are continued;
D. the magnesium iron tubing stove processing step c is cooled to 595-605 DEG C, switchs to air cooling up to room temperature.
In step 6, isothermal hardening includes:
For internal tooth rigid wheel: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 880-900 DEG C, is incubated 40-50min;It is then immersed in In 390-400 DEG C of isothermal nitrate groove, keep 40-50min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds to flushing surface salting in Rinsing Area;
For flexbile gear: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 880-900 DEG C, is incubated 40-50min;It is then immersed in 350-360 DEG C isothermal nitrate groove in, keep 40-50min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds to flushing surface salting in Rinsing Area;
For flexible bearing lasso: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 880-900 DEG C, is incubated 40-50min;It is then immersed in In 230-240 DEG C of isothermal nitrate groove, keep 40-50min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds to flushing surface salting in Rinsing Area.
In step 6, for cup type flexbile gear, during polish, the thickness at cup bottom is remained into 4-6mm, be screwed during assembling On the end face of reducer output shaft.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows, the present invention is a kind of harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise, flexbile gear, internal tooth rigidity Wheel and flexible bearing all use adi material manufacture, and harmonic speed reducer is just provided with excellent self-lubricating function, thus thoroughly avoiding adding Note grease;While extending the life-span, it is provided with that temperature rise is low, noise is little, lightweight, torsion is big, good, the acceleration torque of rigidity The advantage high with instantaneous acceleration torque.
Brief description
Fig. 1 is in the preparation method of harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise of the present invention, ties in vertical continuous casting former The schematic diagram of brilliant device spiral inner barrel;
Fig. 2 is in the preparation method of harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise of the present invention, ties in vertical continuous casting former The schematic diagram of brilliant device assembling structure;
Fig. 3 be self-lubricating low-temperature-rise of the present invention the preparation method of harmonic speed reducer in spheroidizing process curve figure;
Fig. 4 is internal tooth rigid wheel isothermal quenching technique curve chart;
Fig. 5 is flexbile gear isothermal quenching technique curve chart;
Fig. 6 is flexible bearing inner and outer ring isothermal quenching technique curve chart;
The installation diagram of cup type flexbile gear in Fig. 7 present invention;
The graphite form figure of internal tooth rigid wheel in Fig. 8 present invention;
Fig. 9 is the graphite form figure of flexbile gear and flexible bearing lasso in the present invention;
Figure 10 is the metallographic structure figure of flexible bearing lasso in the present invention;
Figure 11 is the qualified bainite structure figure in industry standard.
In figure, 1. inner barrel, 2. outer cylinder body, 3. upper flange plate, 4. lower flange, 5. water inlet tap i, 6. water inlet tap ii, 7. Faucet i, 8. faucet ii, 9. Double helix gusset, 10. cup type flexbile gear, 11. trip bolts, 12. output shafts.
Specific embodiment
The present invention is described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and detailed description.
The harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise of the present invention, is made up of internal tooth rigid wheel, flexbile gear and flexible bearing three-major-items, Internal tooth rigid wheel, flexbile gear and flexible bearing lasso are made by austempering ductile iron material (adi), the quality hundred of its composition Point ratio is: c:3.4%-3.7%, si:2.7%-2.9%, mn:0.3%-0.5%, cr:0.3%-0.5%, s≤0.05%, p ≤ 0.05%, residual content of magnesium 0.03%-0.045%, fe are surplus, and said components mass percent sum is 100%.In operation Avoid the incorporation of rare earth and titanium, to obtain highest Oxygen potential as far as possible.
The present invention also provides the preparation method of above-mentioned harmonic speed reducer, and this preparation method is in patent " inductile metal hollow The continuous casting former of section bar " (patent No.: zl200710018928.2, publication number: 101134231, publication date: 2008-03- 05) upper enforcement.It is with original device difference, the crystallizer in original device is differed with the structure of crystallizer in the present invention, As shown in Fig. 1~2, its structure is: includes the mutually inner barrel 1 of socket and outer cylinder body 2, the top of inner barrel 1 and outer cylinder body 2 is even It is connected to upper flange plate 3, the bottom of inner barrel 1 and outer cylinder body 2 is connected with lower flange 4, and the top of outer cylinder body 2 is respectively equipped with into water Mouth i5 and water inlet tap ii6, the bottom of outer cylinder body 2 is respectively equipped with faucet i7 and faucet ii8, and the cylindrical of inner barrel 1 is got on the bus out Double helix gusset 9, after inside and outside cylinder suit, defines double-helical water stream channel.Double helix water channel is bigger cold by providing But ability.Inlay graphite sleeve in the endoporus of inner barrel, be the high temperature resistant assembly with molten iron directly contact, for making molten steel solidification Forming material, and enable section bar to be drawn out crystallizer using its self-lubricating property.
A kind of preparation method of the harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise, specifically implements according to following steps:
Step 1, using the bread pig iron, steel scrap and ferroalloy materials, according to mass percent configuration molten iron component: c: 3.4%-3.7%, si:1.5%-1.7%, mn:0.3%-0.5%, cr:0.3%-0.5%, s≤0.05%, p≤0.05%, Fe is surplus, and above each constituent mass percentage ratio summation is 100%, and above melt material is molten iron, by breeding and ball It is 2.7%-2.9%, residual content of magnesium 0.03%-0.045% that change process makes the whole silicon amount of molten iron;
Step 2, the molten iron in step 1 is passed through vertical continuous casting method, is drawn into hollow profile and solid bar respectively;
Step 3, hollow profile and the metallographic structure of solid bar that detecting step 2 obtains;
To the hollow profile making internal tooth rigid wheel it is ensured that stone in the as-cast structure at the 15-20mm layer depth of surface Tampon rate >=90%, diameter of graphite ball≤0.03mm, graphite nodule density >=200/mm2, graphite area occupation ratio ≈ 15%;Make Within the 6mm top layer of the continuous casting solid bar of cup type flexbile gear and make bearing ring continuous casting hollow profile 10mm top layer with Interior, in its as-cast structure graphite nodule rate >=90%, diameter of graphite ball≤0.02mm, graphite nodule density >=400/mm2, stone Black area occupation ratio ≈ 20%;
Step 4, the length according to part and the needs of turnery processing, hollow profile or solid bar are sawed into section, enter Row spheroidizing is processed;
As shown in figure 3, spheroidizing is processed including:
A. base material is warming up in well formula or batch-type furnace eutectoid ac1+ 50 DEG C, it is incubated 55-65min;
B. the base material stove processing step a is cooled to eutectoid ac1- 50 DEG C, it is incubated 55-65min;
C. repeat step a and step b are continued;
D. the magnesium iron base material stove processing step c is cooled to 595-605 DEG C, switchs to air cooling up to room temperature;
Step 5, makees rough turn to the blank after step 4 annealing;
Step 6, carries out means of isothermal quenching to step 5 rough turned piece, is then finish-machined to internal tooth rigid wheel, cup type respectively Flexbile gear and flexible bearing lasso;For cup type flexbile gear, during polish, the thickness at cup bottom is remained into 4-6mm;
Isothermal hardening includes:
As shown in figure 4, for internal tooth rigid wheel: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 880-900 DEG C, is incubated 40-50min; It is then immersed in 390-400 DEG C of isothermal nitrate groove, keep 40-50min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds in Rinsing Area and rinses Surface salting;
As shown in figure 5, for flexbile gear: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 880-900 DEG C, is incubated 40-50min;Then soak Enter in 350-360 DEG C of isothermal nitrate groove, keep 40-50min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds to flushing surface salt in Rinsing Area Stain;
As shown in fig. 6, for flexible bearing lasso: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 880-900 DEG C, is incubated 40- 50min;It is then immersed in 230-240 DEG C of isothermal nitrate groove, keep 40-50min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds to Rinsing Area Middle flushing surface salting;
Step 7, conventionally assembles flexible bearing;
Step 8, the other parts of processing harmonic speed reducer, traditionally assemble harmonic speed reducer, as shown in fig. 7, cup Type flexbile gear 10 assembling when be fixed on the end face of reducer output shaft 12 with trip bolt 11, then carry out performance detection and Decelerator surface derusting is processed.
With traditional hardness requirement (internal tooth rigid wheel and flexbile gear: hrc28-32;Bearing ring: hrc60-63) different, this Inventing hardness range to be reached is respectively: internal tooth rigid wheel hrc30-34, flexbile gear hrc32-36, bearing ring hrc45- 50, the hardness of flexbile gear improves hrc4 degree than traditional flexbile gear, it will so that its anti-shearing deformability is increased it is allowed to torsional load Significantly improve, life.
Special instruction: the adi material of the forming hollow profile of cast iron of continuously casting and its isothermal hardening, due to containing extremely fine and closely woven Graphite nodule, hardening is in mutually tiny herring-bone form and Dispersed precipitate, thus substantially reduces front part of blade in machining The width of extrusion shearing band, cutting resistance die-offs, and shows excellent cutting ability.The permission hardness that machining can be made compares steel Improve about hrc4 degree.
For cup type flexbile gear, its raw material is the solid bar of continuously casting, is shaped as cup type before isothermal hardening, essence During processing, the thickness at cup bottom is remained into 4-6mm, with the cup base thickness degree only 1mm of traditional flexbile gear about compared with, intensity increases, in It is just can to punch thereon, be fixed on the end face of reducer output shaft with trip bolt during assembling, eliminate in traditional fabrication Riveting or gland, more convenient and reliable.
The harmonic speed reducer that the present invention is assembled, does not fill lubricant grease.Because flexbile gear is containing graphite nodule with firm wheel Adi material, although slip is still very big during engaged transmission, can be with self-lubricating, it is to avoid because lubricating oil film is destroyed And the dry friction causing.The profile of tooth very little of two kinds of parts, movement velocity is very high, but the bending fatigue strength of adi material is higher, has Extend service life to effect.Equally, the graphite in the inner and outer ring of flexible bearing also ensure that the self-lubricating of bearing.In high frequency In the rolling extrusion of rate (1,500 3000 revs/min), the austenite in roller table surface layer is changed into strain-induced martensite, and hardness carries Height, wearability increases.Pit extremely small and dispersed caused by the exposed graphite nodule of roller table surface, does not reduce connecing of bearing ring Tactile strength.Adi as a kind of cast iron materials, the capacity of heat transmission than steel big by about one time, there is no lubricant grease along with die cavity Insulation effect, the temperature rise of this kind of decelerator will substantially reduce.The sound-absorbing vibration-absorbing function of cast iron materials, will make the work of decelerator Lower noise.Foundry goods proportion is lighter, accordingly alleviates decelerator weight.
For industrial robot, continually action back and forth, and need to be accurately positioned, thus with other machineries Decelerator in device is compared, many two indices in the performance requirement of harmonic speed reducer: acceleration torque and instantaneous acceleration Torque.Such as the research objective that National Development and Reform Committee's " 2015 industry development program for tackling key problems in science and technology " lists for harmonic speed reducer, just exists Outside several conventional performance indications, the special technical specification proposing acceleration torque and instantaneous acceleration torque.In order to reach this One index, conventional measure is the power of enlarging moment motor, but brings other negative effects therefrom.The harmonic wave of the present invention subtracts Fast device is not due to needing to fill sticky lubricant grease, it is to avoid viscous dampings to bearing and flexbile gear high-speed motion for the oils and fatss, just Inherently ensure that acceleration torque and the raising of instantaneous acceleration torque.
The present invention makes internal circular spline with ultra-dense adi material, final hardness can be brought up to hrc32-35.Teeth portion Graphite nodule density can reach 200-300/mm2More than, see Fig. 8.
The present invention makes flexbile gear with ultra-dense adi material, final hardness can be brought up to hrc34-36.Flexbile gear teeth portion Graphite nodule density can reach 500-600/mm2More than, see Fig. 9.Hardness hrc28- making with traditional 42crmo quenched and tempered steel 32 flexbile gear is compared, and the increase of Fracture of Material can make that the permission torsion of flexbile gear is bigger, and the life-span is longer.
The present invention makes the inner and outer ring of flexible bearing with ultra-dense adi material, and graphite nodule density can reach 500-600 Individual/mm2Above (see Fig. 9), the fine and closely woven degree (Figure 10, the metallograph of 500 times of amplifications) as the ferrum tissue difficult to understand of matrix and axle Hold the Bainitic hardening tissue of steel quite, see Figure 11 (being also the metallograph of 500 times of amplifications).Although hardness hrc45-50 it Between, but because of meeting induced deformation martensite when by rolling extrusion, therefore its wearability is suitable with plain bearing steel or more preferable.
Embodiment 1
Step 1, using the bread pig iron, steel scrap and ferroalloy materials, according to mass percent configuration molten iron component: c: 3.4%-3.7%, si:1.5%-1.7%, mn:0.3%-0.5%, cr:0.3%-0.5%, s≤0.05%, p≤0.05%, Fe is surplus, and above each constituent mass percentage ratio summation is 100%, and above melt material is molten iron, by breeding and ball It is 2.7%-2.9%, residual content of magnesium 0.03%-0.045% that change process makes the whole silicon amount of molten iron;
Step 2, the molten iron in step 1 is passed through vertical continuous casting method, is drawn into hollow profile and solid bar respectively;
Step 3, hollow profile and the metallographic structure of solid bar that detecting step 2 obtains;
To the hollow profile making internal tooth rigid wheel it is ensured that stone in the as-cast structure at the 15-20mm layer depth of surface Tampon rate >=90%, diameter of graphite ball≤0.03mm, graphite nodule density >=200/mm2, graphite area occupation ratio ≈ 15%;Make Within the 6mm top layer of the continuous casting solid bar of cup type flexbile gear and make bearing ring continuous casting hollow profile 10mm top layer with Interior, in its as-cast structure graphite nodule rate >=90%, diameter of graphite ball≤0.02mm, graphite nodule density >=400/mm2, stone Black area occupation ratio ≈ 20%;
Step 4, the length according to part and the needs of turnery processing, hollow profile or solid bar are sawed into section, enter Row spheroidizing is processed;
Spheroidizing processes and includes:
A. base material is warming up in well formula or box heat treatment furnace 780 DEG C of eutectoid, is incubated 55min;
B. the magnesium iron tubing stove processing step a is cooled to 680 DEG C of eutectoid, is incubated 55min;
C. repeat step a and step b are continued;
D. the magnesium iron tubing stove processing step c is cooled to 605 DEG C, continues to be air cooled to room temperature;
Step 5, makees rough turn to the blank after step 4 annealing;
Step 6, carries out means of isothermal quenching to step 5 rough turned piece, is then finish-machined to internal tooth rigid wheel, cup type respectively Flexbile gear and flexible bearing snare;For cup type flexbile gear, during polish, the thickness at cup bottom is remained into 4-6mm;
Isothermal hardening includes:
For internal tooth rigid wheel: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 890 DEG C, is incubated 50min;Be then immersed in 400 DEG C etc. In warm nitrate groove, keep 50min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds to flushing surface salt material in Rinsing Area;
For flexbile gear: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 890 DEG C, is incubated 45min;It is then immersed in 355 DEG C of isothermal salt made from earth containing a comparatively high percentage of sodium chloride In groove, keep 45min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds to flushing surface salt material in Rinsing Area;
For flexible bearing snare: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 900 DEG C, is incubated 40min;It is then immersed in 230 DEG C In isothermal nitrate groove, keep 40min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds to flushing surface salting in Rinsing Area;
Step 7, conventionally assembles bearing;
Step 8, the other parts of processing harmonic speed reducer, traditionally assemble harmonic speed reducer, then carry out performance Detection and decelerator surface derusting are processed.
Embodiment 2
Step 1, using the bread pig iron, steel scrap and ferroalloy materials, according to mass percent configuration molten iron component: c: 3.4%-3.7%, si:1.5%-1.7%, mn:0.3%-0.5%, cr:0.3%-0.5%, s≤0.05%, p≤0.05%, Fe is surplus, and above each constituent mass percentage ratio summation is 100%, and above melt material is molten iron, by breeding and ball It is 2.7%-2.9%, residual content of magnesium 0.03%-0.045% that change process makes the whole silicon amount of molten iron;
Step 2, the molten iron in step 1 is passed through vertical continuous casting method, is drawn into hollow profile and solid bar respectively;
Step 3, hollow profile and the metallographic structure of solid bar that detecting step 2 obtains;
To the hollow profile making internal tooth rigid wheel it is ensured that stone in the as-cast structure at the 15-20mm layer depth of surface Tampon rate >=90%, diameter of graphite ball≤0.03mm, graphite nodule density >=200/mm2, graphite area occupation ratio ≈ 15%;Make Within the 6mm top layer of the continuous casting solid bar of cup type flexbile gear and make bearing ring continuous casting hollow profile 10mm top layer with Interior, in its as-cast structure graphite nodule rate >=90%, diameter of graphite ball≤0.02mm, graphite nodule density >=400/mm2, stone Black area occupation ratio ≈ 20%;
Step 4, the length according to part and the needs of turnery processing, hollow profile or solid bar are sawed into section, enter Row spheroidizing is processed;
Spheroidizing processes and includes:
A. base material is warming up in well formula or box heat treatment furnace 790 DEG C of eutectoid, is incubated 60min;
B. the magnesium iron tubing stove processing step a is cooled to 680 DEG C of eutectoid, is incubated 60min;
C. repeat step a and step b are continued;
D. the magnesium iron tubing stove processing step c is cooled to 600 DEG C, continues to be air cooled to room temperature;
Step 5, makees rough turn to the blank after step 4 annealing;
Step 6, carries out means of isothermal quenching to step 5 rough turned piece, is then finish-machined to internal tooth rigid wheel, cup type respectively Flexbile gear and flexible bearing snare;For cup type flexbile gear, during polish, the thickness at cup bottom is remained into 4-6mm;
Isothermal hardening includes:
For internal tooth rigid wheel: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 880 DEG C, is incubated 50min;Be then immersed in 390 DEG C etc. In warm nitrate groove, keep 45min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds to flushing surface salt material in Rinsing Area;
For flexbile gear: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 880 DEG C, is incubated 45min;It is then immersed in 360 DEG C of isothermal salt made from earth containing a comparatively high percentage of sodium chloride In groove, keep 40min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds to flushing surface salt material in Rinsing Area;
For flexible bearing snare: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 880 DEG C, is incubated 40min;It is then immersed in 235 DEG C In isothermal nitrate groove, keep 45min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds to flushing surface salt material in Rinsing Area;
Step 7, conventionally assembles bearing;
Step 8, the other parts of processing harmonic speed reducer, traditionally assemble harmonic speed reducer, then carry out performance Detection and decelerator surface derusting are processed.
Embodiment 3
Step 1, using the bread pig iron, steel scrap and ferroalloy materials, according to mass percent configuration molten iron component: c: 3.4%-3.7%, si:1.5%-1.7%, mn:0.3%-0.5%, cr:0.3%-0.5%, s≤0.05%, p≤0.05%, Fe is surplus, and above each constituent mass percentage ratio summation is 100%, and above melt material is molten iron, by breeding and ball It is 2.7%-2.9%, residual content of magnesium 0.03%-0.045% that change process makes the whole silicon amount of molten iron;
Step 2, the molten iron in step 1 is passed through vertical continuous casting method, is drawn into hollow profile and solid bar respectively;
Step 3, hollow profile and the metallographic structure of solid bar that detecting step 2 obtains;
To the hollow profile making internal tooth rigid wheel it is ensured that stone in the as-cast structure at the 15-20mm layer depth of surface Tampon rate >=90%, diameter of graphite ball≤0.03mm, graphite nodule density >=200/mm2, graphite area occupation ratio ≈ 15%;Make Within the 6mm top layer of the continuous casting solid bar of cup type flexbile gear and make bearing ring continuous casting hollow profile 10mm top layer with Interior, in its as-cast structure graphite nodule rate >=90%, diameter of graphite ball≤0.02mm, graphite nodule density >=400/mm2, stone Black area occupation ratio ≈ 20%;
Step 4, the length according to part and the needs of turnery processing, hollow profile or solid bar are sawed into section, enter Row spheroidizing is processed;
Spheroidizing processes and includes:
A. base material is warming up in well formula or box heat treatment furnace 785 DEG C of eutectoid, is incubated 65min;
B. the magnesium iron tubing stove processing step a is cooled to 675 DEG C of eutectoid, is incubated 65min;
C. repeat step a and step b are continued;
D. the magnesium iron tubing stove processing step c is cooled to 595 DEG C, continues to be air cooled to room temperature;
Step 5, makees rough turn to the blank after step 4 annealing;
Step 6, carries out means of isothermal quenching to step 5 rough turned piece, is then finish-machined to internal tooth rigid wheel, cup type respectively Flexbile gear and flexible bearing snare;For cup type flexbile gear, during polish, the thickness at cup bottom is remained into 4-6mm;
Isothermal hardening includes:
For internal tooth rigid wheel: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 900 DEG C, is incubated 50min;Be then immersed in 395 DEG C etc. In warm nitrate groove, keep 40min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds to flushing surface salting in Rinsing Area;
For flexbile gear: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 900 DEG C, is incubated 45min;It is then immersed in 350 DEG C of isothermal salt made from earth containing a comparatively high percentage of sodium chloride In groove, keep 50min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds to flushing surface salting in Rinsing Area;
For flexible bearing snare: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 890 DEG C, is incubated 40min;It is then immersed in 240 DEG C In isothermal nitrate groove, keep 50min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds to flushing surface salting in Rinsing Area;
Step 7, conventionally assembles bearing;
Step 8, the other parts of processing harmonic speed reducer, traditionally assemble harmonic speed reducer, then carry out performance Detection and decelerator surface derusting are processed.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise is it is characterised in that big by internal tooth rigid wheel, flexbile gear and flexible bearing three Part forms, and internal tooth rigid wheel, flexbile gear and flexible bearing inner and outer ring are made by auctile iron isothermal quenching material (adi), its The mass percent of composition is: c:3.4%-3.7%, si:2.7%-2.9%, mn:0.3%-0.5%, cr:0.3%- 0.5%, s≤0.05%, p≤0.05%, residual content of magnesium 0.03%-0.045%, fe are surplus, above each constituent mass percentage It is 100% than summation.
2. a kind of preparation method of the harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise is it is characterised in that specifically implement according to following steps:
Step 1, configures material with the bread pig iron, steel scrap and ferroalloy and melts molten iron, mass percent component is as follows: c: 3.4%-3.7%, si:1.5%-1.7%, mn:0.3%-0.5%, cr:0.3%-0.5%, s≤0.05%, p≤0.05%, Fe and other impurities are surplus, and above each constituent mass percentage ratio summation is 100%, then makes molten iron by breeding with spheroidising Whole silicon amount be 2.7%-2.9%, residual content of magnesium 0.03%-0.045%;
Step 2, the molten iron in step 1 is passed through vertical continuous casting method, is drawn into hollow profile and solid bar respectively;
Step 3, hollow profile and the metallographic structure of solid bar that detecting step 2 obtains;
Step 4, the length according to part and the needs of turnery processing, hollow profile or solid bar are sawed into section, carry out ball Annealing is processed;
Step 5, makees rough turn to the blank after step 4 annealing;
Step 6, carries out means of isothermal quenching to step 5 rough turned piece, is then finish-machined to internal tooth rigid wheel, cup type flexbile gear respectively With flexible bearing lasso;
Step 7, conventionally assembles bearing;
Step 8, the other parts of processing harmonic speed reducer, traditionally assemble harmonic speed reducer, then carry out performance detection And decelerator surface derusting is processed.
3. the preparation method of the harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise according to claim 2 is it is characterised in that step 2 The crystallizer adopting in middle vertical continuous casting method is the water mold of Double helix Two In and Two Out, and its structure is: includes mutually covering The inner barrel (1) connecing and outer cylinder body (2), the top of described inner barrel (1) and outer cylinder body (2) is connected with upper flange plate (3), described The bottom of inner barrel (1) and outer cylinder body (2) is connected with lower flange (4), and the top of described outer cylinder body (2) is respectively equipped with water inlet tap I (5) and water inlet tap ii (6), the bottom of described outer cylinder body (2) is respectively equipped with faucet i (7) and faucet ii (8), described inner core The cylindrical Double helix gusset (9) of having got on the bus out of body (1), after inside and outside cylinder suit, defines double-helical water stream channel.
4. the preparation method of the harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise according to claim 2 is it is characterised in that step 3 The metallographic structure detection of middle hollow profile: to making the hollow profile of internal tooth rigid wheel it is ensured that at the 15-20mm layer depth of surface As-cast structure in graphite nodule rate >=90%, diameter of graphite ball≤0.03mm, graphite nodule density >=200/mm2, graphite Area occupation ratio ≈ 15%;Hollow with the continuous casting making bearing ring within the 6mm top layer of continuous casting solid bar of making cup type flexbile gear Within the 10mm top layer of section bar, graphite nodule rate >=90% in its as-cast structure, diameter of graphite ball≤0.02mm, graphite nodule is close >=400/mm of degree2, graphite area occupation ratio ≈ 20%.
5. the preparation method of the harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise according to claim 2 is it is characterised in that step 4 Middle spheroidizing processes and includes:
A. base material is warming up in well formula or box heat treatment furnace eutectoid ac1+ 50 DEG C, it is incubated 55-65min;Then Stove is cooled to eutectoid ac1- 50 DEG C, it is incubated 55-65min;
B. continue repeat step a;
C. the magnesium iron base material stove processing step b is cooled to 600 DEG C, switchs to air cooling up to room temperature.
6. the preparation method of the harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise according to claim 2 is it is characterised in that step 6 Middle isothermal quenching technique is:
For internal tooth rigid wheel: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 880-900 DEG C, is incubated 40-50min;It is then immersed in 390- In 400 DEG C of isothermal nitrate groove, keep 40-50min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds to flushing surface salting in Rinsing Area;
For flexbile gear: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 880-900 DEG C, is incubated 40-50min;It is then immersed in 350-360 DEG C In isothermal nitrate groove, keep 40-50min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds to flushing surface salting in Rinsing Area;
For flexible bearing lasso: step 5 rough turned piece is heated to 880-900 DEG C, is incubated 40-50min;It is then immersed in 230- In 250 DEG C of isothermal nitrate groove, keep 40-50min;Taking-up is air cooled to room temperature, proceeds to flushing surface salting in Rinsing Area.
7. the preparation method of the harmonic speed reducer of self-lubricating low-temperature-rise according to claim 2 or 6 is it is characterised in that walk In rapid 6, for cup type flexbile gear, during polish, the thickness at cup bottom is remained into 4-6mm, be screwed in decelerator during assembling defeated On the end face of shaft.
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CN109877550A (en) * 2019-02-22 2019-06-14 西安理工大学 A kind of low-noise, self-lubricated medium and small modulus cylindrical gear and preparation method

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CN109207679A (en) * 2018-11-13 2019-01-15 东莞市国森科精密工业有限公司 A kind of heat treatment method improving the harmonic reducer flexible wheel service life
CN109877550A (en) * 2019-02-22 2019-06-14 西安理工大学 A kind of low-noise, self-lubricated medium and small modulus cylindrical gear and preparation method
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