CN106358887B - Cultivation method of natural selenium-rich organic rice in subtropical hilly area - Google Patents

Cultivation method of natural selenium-rich organic rice in subtropical hilly area Download PDF

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CN106358887B
CN106358887B CN201610881433.1A CN201610881433A CN106358887B CN 106358887 B CN106358887 B CN 106358887B CN 201610881433 A CN201610881433 A CN 201610881433A CN 106358887 B CN106358887 B CN 106358887B
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rice
organic
days
transplanting
selenium
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CN106358887A (en
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肖和艾
梁中尧
李润东
陈郑金
李明德
朱芳平
吴金水
刘利
刘琼峰
李金明
薛洪远
郑粤辉
林益安
李文革
毛政国
谷雨
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Hunan Ruizhen Ecological Agriculture Co ltd
Guangxi Fuchuan Huafa Agricultural Science And Technology Co ltd
Institute of Subtropical Agriculture of CAS
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Hunan Ruizhen Ecological Agriculture Co ltd
Guangxi Fuchuan Huafa Agricultural Science And Technology Co ltd
Institute of Subtropical Agriculture of CAS
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/10Devices for affording protection against animals, birds or other pests
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/20Cereals
    • A01G22/22Rice
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K67/00Rearing or breeding animals, not otherwise provided for; New breeds of animals
    • A01K67/02Breeding vertebrates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B17/00Other phosphatic fertilisers, e.g. soft rock phosphates, bone meal

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for cultivating natural selenium-rich organic rice in subtropical hilly areas, which comprises the following steps: A. selecting land: the land for cultivating the natural selenium-rich organic rice has water sources which cannot be polluted by heavy metal; B. soil preparation, duck releasing and fertilization: firstly, cutting off grass on ridges by using a mower, and irrigating the field after cutting off the grass on the ridges; C. seedling raising: selecting rice varieties, and planting the rice varieties as late rice in subtropical regions; D. transplanting rice seedlings: before transplanting, the ducks placed in the field after digging the field are collected, and 5-6 effective seedlings are planted in each hole; E. placing the ducklings: putting ducklings into the field after transplanting rice seedlings; F. topdressing and weeding: applying organic fertilizer after transplanting, and applying in rice field; G. and (3) pest control: the rice field seedling diseases and insect pests reach the prevention and control index; H. harvesting and drying: and removing impurities after drying. The method is easy to implement, simple to operate, high in mechanization degree, low in production cost, good in quality of the selenium-rich organic rice, good in economic benefit and beneficial to agricultural ecological environment protection.

Description

Cultivation method of natural selenium-rich organic rice in subtropical hilly area
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of organic agriculture, in particular to a cultivation method of natural selenium-rich organic rice in subtropical hilly areas, which is suitable for demonstration, popularization and application in organic agricultural planting in the subtropical hilly areas and low mountain areas.
Background
With the rapid development of world agriculture and the wide use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, the problems of environmental pollution and the harm to human beings are increasingly serious. The thinking of organic agriculture was developed in the 70 s of the 20 th century, represented by the united states, and the world organic agriculture movement association (IFOAM) was established in germany in 1972. Organic agriculture starts to rise in China since the beginning of the 90 th century in 20 th century, the world organic agriculture sports alliance is added to the China green food development center in 1993, the earliest organic food certification product in China is tea in Zhejiang, organic rice is planted in small scale in the middle and later period of the 90 th century in 20 th century, and the planting of the organic rice in China is developed rapidly in the beginning of the 21 st century. By the end of 2013, more than 20 provinces are planted in the whole country, the production area reaches 17.1 million hectares, the total production area of the rice in the whole country is 0.6 percent, the total production of the organic rice reaches 106.3 million tons, and the certified production enterprises of the organic rice and organic rice products are nearly 1000 families with more than 1500 brands. With the requirements of agricultural ecological environment safety and food safety in China, organic rice is an important direction for rice production development in China in future. The 1993 world health organization indicated that selenium is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and the 1998 Chinese Nutrition institute listed selenium as one of the 15 dietary nutrients that must be ingested daily. Research has shown that selenium deficiency is one of the causes of many diseases such as tumor, cardiovascular disease, eye disease and diabetes. Therefore, in recent years, crops such as selenium-rich rice and the like are developed rapidly, and selenium-rich products are deeply sold by people.
The production of organic rice requires not only good production area environment but also strict technical specifications in the production process, and chemically synthesized fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators and the like cannot be used. China currently issues national standard GB/T19630-2011 organic products and national agricultural industry standard NY/T2410-2013 technical specifications for organic rice production quality control. In recent years, there are also many researches on organic rice cultivation techniques, Zyongkai et al (2014) propose an organic rice high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation technique in Fangzheng county of Songxiang plain in Heilongjiang province, the fertilizer is applied by turning over straw decomposition agent and straw in autumn, applying commercial organic fertilizer or decomposed farmyard manure in spring, controlling weeds by seedling and hydraulic pressure grass, and artificially weeding in the later district by jinggangmycin and waxThe bacillus cereus controls rice blast, kasugamycin and bacillus subtilis and controls banded sclerotial blight, and a solar insecticidal lamp and bacillus thuringiensis are adopted to control pests. The method is not known that the method is easy to cause serious diseases by adopting straw returning in the south, the effect of pressing grass by seedlings and pressing grass by water pressure in the south rice field is possibly poor, and the cost is higher due to manual weeding. The key technology of organic rice cultivation is provided in Huxi characters and the like (2014), commercial organic fertilizer and decomposed cake fertilizer are adopted for fertilizer application, diseases are controlled by reasonable close planting and water-fertilizer management or shenqinmycin, bacillus subtilis and the like, insect attraction lamps, a bacillus thuringiensis preparation, a matrine water solvent and rice and duck are adopted for co-cultivation for controlling insect pests, artificial weeding is adopted, grass pressing is carried out by seedlings, grass pressing and rice and duck co-cultivation are carried out for controlling grass damage, and the method also has the problems that the effect of grass pressing by seedlings and grass pressing in a rice field in the south is possibly poor, and the cost is high due to artificial weeding. The Wangzhezhao et al (2016) research on several key technologies for rice and duck crop-sharing organic rice production, think that the rice transplanting density is improved, the row spacing is 30 cm 12.8 cm or 30 cm 14.6 cm, which is beneficial to improving the yield of organic rice, and propose that the influence of high temperature on ducks is prevented by adopting 20 cm deep irrigation water, and the mode of alternately putting the ducks in the field for 2-3 days can ensure the normal growth of organic rice and ensure the movement space of ducks. The Fulin (2016) has reported the cultivation technology of organic rice in Yinjiao towns in the big rational market, and the technologies of seedling raising, transplanting, fertilizing, irrigating, field management, pest control and the like are introduced in more detail, but the technology has low mechanization degree, needs a large amount of labor and leads to high production cost of the organic rice. Dongguang et al (2016) studied the effect of organic fertilizer application on the yield and benefit of organic rice and pointed out the effective nutrient content (N + P) applied per mu2O5+K2O) 6% of organic fertilizer is 350 kg, the yield-input ratio and economic benefit of organic rice production are the most suitable, but the fertilizing amount is directed at a rice-rape-flue-cured tobacco-rape crop rotation mode, and the fertilizing amount is relatively low when the rice is planted due to the fact that the fertilizing amount is large when the flue-cured tobacco is planted. Zhang Xiang Long et al (2016) proposed the idea that the purpose of controlling diseases, pests and weeds of organic rice is to control the amount of diseases, pests and weeds, rather than to eliminate them, and proposed the use of Bacillus subtilis to control rice blast and false smutThe disease, validamycin controls sheath blight, and limewater seed soaking controls bakanae disease; pest control in rice field is achieved by using pest killing lamp, natural enemy (spider, parasitic wasp and frog), duck breeding in rice field, sex attractant, Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana, abamectin, azadirachtin, etc.; the method comprises the steps of inducing grass to turn over and weed, raising seedlings with a weed-free matrix soil, controlling grass, manually weeding, raising ducks and weeding before transplanting, and controlling weeds in a rice field by using hydraulic pressure grass for seedlings. Zhao Xiu Zheng et al (2015) compared 1875kg/hm for additional application at early tillering stage, high tillering stage, booting stage and full heading stage2The results of the commercial organic fertilizer on the yield and quality of the organic rice show that the yield is the highest when the top dressing is applied in the booting stage, but the influence of the top dressing treatment on the quality of the organic rice in each stage is not obvious. The cultivation of the selenium-rich rice has been reported at present, Yueshizhong et al (2015) analyze the research literature data of the selenium-rich rice in China for nearly 20 years, and the result shows that the application mode of producing the selenium-rich rice fertilizer is mainly foliar spraying, accounting for 92.8 percent, and the varieties of the selenium fertilizer comprise organic selenium fertilizer and inorganic selenium fertilizer. The method for applying the selenium fertilizer is not suitable for cultivating the selenium-rich organic rice, and the excessive use of the selenium fertilizer causes the selenium content of the rice to exceed the upper limit of 0.30 mg/kg in the national selenium-rich rice standard (GB/T22499-2008).
Chinese invention patent CN103493706B (2015) discloses a cultivation method of organic rice, which mainly adopts the steps of turning over and ploughing astragalus sinicus before transplanting rice, then applying fermented animal wastes, biogas residues and fermented rapeseed cakes as base fertilizers, and adopting the methods of putting frogs and installing moth-trapping lamps to control pests, but the method has the defects that the common animal wastes may contain harmful substances such as heavy metals and chemical disinfectants, and the frogs need to be put into purse nets and skynes, so that the cost investment is high. CN104823776A (2015) discloses an organic rice cultivation method, which comprises seed selection, seeding and transplanting, fertilization, irrigation, weeding, pest control and the like, but has the disadvantages that chicken manure, pig manure and cow manure compost are adopted for fertilization, and the manure of modern livestock and poultry breeding may contain antibiotics, heavy metals and the like, so that environmental pollution is caused. CN104381067A (2015) discloses a method for cultivating organic selenium rice, which mainly adopts organic selenium nutrient soil to raise the selenium content of rice, but adopts chemical pesticides and fertilizers, so that organic rice cultivation cannot be carried out. CN104488624A (2015) discloses a method for cultivating organic rice, which mainly adopts methods of high-density paper film covering prepared from plant fibers using straws as main raw materials, artificial weeding, duck feeding in rice fields and the like to control weeds in organic rice cultivation, but the paper film covering is not only high in cost, but also not suitable for mechanized operations such as rice transplanting and the like. CN102939878B (2014) discloses a cultivation method of rice, which adopts fermented organic fertilizer to improve soil, adopts rice chaff, corn straw powder, leaf powder, bean stalks, crushed corn and pyroligneous acid to weed and prevent insects, has a weeding effect of over 90 percent, low weeding cost and no pesticide residue, and is suitable for cultivation of organic rice. But this method is cumbersome. CN102715052B (2013) discloses an organic rice cultivation method using cultivated land and rice chaff for weeding, wherein before each cultivated land, water is drained, ungerminated weed seeds are washed away by the drainage, and rice chaff of 70-210 g/square meter is scattered 3-10 days after seedling transplantation to control weeds. CN100539827C (2009) discloses a rice cultivation method using straw powder mixture, straw powder mixture and preparation method thereof, wherein 1500-2500 kg of straw powder mixture is applied to each hectare 4-6 days after rice transplanting to control weeds, the mixture is composed of 95% -99.5% of rice straw powder and 0.5% -5% of rare earth, and the application amount of straw powder mixture is large, so that the method is not popularized and applied in production at present. CN1139315C (2004) discloses a method for cultivating rice, which adopts a method of sowing 120-150 g of ultra-thin seedlings per square meter, planting rows and rows with the density of 14.5 cm × 26.4 cm and planting 1-2 basic seedlings per hole to cultivate rice organically, but the method does not relate to specific methods of fertilizing and weeding for rice and the like. CN102726264B (2013) discloses a mechanical film-covering cultivation method for organic rice, which is mainly characterized in that a field is made into a furrow with the width of 1.2 meters, a mechanical film-covering transplanter is adopted for transplanting rice or artificial rice, the used film is a degradable film, the transplanting density is 20 centimeters multiplied by 30 centimeters, the row spacing of each hole is 3-4 seedlings, and pepper water is adopted to control the insect damage of the seedlings. CN102845270B (2014) discloses an organic rice cultivation method, which mainly adopts the technologies of removing soil heavy metal ions and chemical residues thereof by using microbial fertilizers, raising ducks and weeding, killing insects and killing insects by using lamps, and the like, but the action effects of the microbial fertilizers in different types of paddy field soil may be different. Many patents on selenium-enriched rice cultivation are disclosed, and CN104521645A (2015) discloses a high-yield planting method for organic selenium-enriched rice, wherein the seed is soaked in a sodium selenate solution and sprayed on leaf surfaces in a growth period, although bio-organic fertilizers are used as fertilizers and biological pesticides for controlling plant diseases and insect pests, the production rules of organic rice are not met. In addition, the cultivation methods of selenium-rich rice disclosed by CN105815165A (2016), CN105594532A (2016) and CN105532343A (2016) are not suitable for cultivation of natural selenium-rich organic rice because selenium fertilizer is applied to obtain the selenium-rich rice, and the selenium content of the rice exceeds the upper limit of 0.30 mg/kg in the national selenium-rich rice standard (GB/T22499-2008) when the selenium fertilizer is excessively applied. In addition, the production area, yield and authentication quantity of the organic rice in China are mainly distributed in northern rice areas of China, wherein the provinces (areas) such as Jilin, Liaoning, Heilongjiang, inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Henan and Shandong account for more than 60 percent. Therefore, the cultivation technology of the natural selenium-rich organic rice in the hilly areas of the subtropical zone in south China is yet to be further researched and discussed.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a cultivation method of natural selenium-rich organic rice in subtropical hilly areas, which completely does not use chemically synthesized fertilizers (including selenium fertilizers) and pesticides, does not cause any side effect on the ecological environment, and can produce high-quality natural selenium-rich organic rice without any pesticide residues. The natural selenium-rich organic rice cultivation method is easy to implement, simple to operate, high in mechanization degree, low in production cost, good in quality of the selenium-rich organic rice, good in economic benefit and beneficial to agricultural ecological environment protection.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical measures:
the technical conception is as follows: a method for cultivating natural selenium-rich organic rice in subtropical hilly areas includes such steps as using the medium-selenium or selenium-rich rice field soil obtained through field land regulation to plant the natural selenium-rich organic rice, applying organic fertilizer fermented from peanut cake, organic husk, rice bran, powdered rock phosphate and palm ash as base fertilizer and top dressing, cutting off the weeds in field ridge by mower, applying duck to control river snail and weeds in field, applying tea-oil cake powder to kill pests, transplanting by transplanter, applying duck, weeder and artificial method to control weeds, applying insecticide lamp, tea-oil cake powder and pyrethrin to control pests, applying jinggangmycin to control rice diseases, harvesting and baking. Realizing the coordinated development of ecological environment protection and the production of natural selenium-rich organic rice.
A cultivation method of natural selenium-rich organic rice in subtropical hilly areas comprises the following steps:
A. and (6) selecting the land. The land for cultivating the natural selenium-rich organic rice has water sources, high-quality and sufficient water sources, flat terrain, continuous land, convenient traffic and convenient mechanized cultivation, and the water sources cannot be polluted by heavy metals and the like; the natural selenium-rich organic rice can be planted in the rice field after organic certification is obtained by farmland land remediation without applying fertilizers and chemical pesticides for 3 years, wherein the soil selenium content is medium selenium (0.2-0.4 mg/kg) or selenium (0.4 mg/kg).
B. Soil preparation, duck placing and fertilization. Firstly cutting off grass on ridges by a mower, wherein the mower is GZ139F, the manufacturer is Jinma technology Limited in Pan-an county in Zhejiang, cutting off the ridges and then irrigating the fields, digging fields by a cultivator for the first time in 6 months and 8-12 days, the manufacturer is YT704, the manufacturer is Jifeng focused agricultural machinery Limited in Zhejiang, 0.75-0.85 kg of ducks are placed after the first digging fields, the ducks are mainly snails eating the fields, 15-20 days after the first digging fields, 75-85 kg of self-made organic fertilizer is manually scattered in every 666.7 square meters of the rice fields, the rice fields are formed by scattering peanut cakes, organic chaffs, rice bran (any one kind), phosphate rock powder (any kind), magnesium mineral powder, palm ash and the like through fermentation and stacking, wherein the palm ash comes from Nissan, then the tea-oil cake powder is manually scattered in every 666.7 square meters of the rice fields, 9-11 kg of the organic fertilizer is scattered in the rice fields, and the pests in Indian rice fields are killed, then the cultivator is adopted to do the second time of digging field. The duck is placed for 40-45 days from the first time of digging the field until the time of transplanting rice seedlings. (the organic fertilizer can be any one or other organic fertilizers, and other organic fertilizers which are subjected to organic certification can be used, but not self-made and not self-made)
An organic fertilizer is composed of the following raw materials in percentage by weight:
an organic fertilizer comprises the following raw materials in percentage by weight (preferred range):
an organic fertilizer comprises the following raw materials in percentage by weight (preferably ranges):
an organic fertilizer comprises the following raw materials in percentage by weight (optimal value):
the preparation steps are as follows:
and then uniformly mixing the peanut cake, the organic rice husk, the rice bran, the phosphate rock powder, the magnesium mineral powder and the palm ash in proportion to obtain the organic fertilizer.
C. And (5) seedling raising. Selecting high-quality rice variety with rice fragrance, breeding by Guangdong province academy of agricultural sciences, planting in subtropical zone as late rice with seeding period of 6 months 13-17 days, transplanting rice seedlings at 7 months 13-17 days, and harvesting at 10 months 7-10 days. The method is characterized in that a mechanical transplanting tray is adopted for manual seedling raising, the model of the mechanical transplanting tray is J216-YA, the width is multiplied by 60 cm, the manufacturer is Poohu plastic products limited company in Guangdong Zhongshan, firstly rice field thin mud is filled in the mechanical transplanting tray, the amount of the thin mud filled in each tray is about 4 kg of dry soil, then 70-80 g of self-made organic fertilizer is applied in each tray, rice seeds are soaked in 1% (weight ratio) of lime water for disinfection for 0.5-1.5 hours, and the rice seeds are sowed in the mechanical transplanting tray after germination acceleration, the sowing amount is 80-90 g per tray, which is equivalent to each hole, and 18-19 seedlings of the mechanical transplanting tray need to be prepared in each 666.7 square meters of field. According to the growth vigor of seedlings, self-made organic fertilizer solution is sprayed for 2 times on the 7 th to 10 th days and the 15 th to 20 th days of the seedling age respectively, the self-made organic fertilizer solution is prepared by putting about 20 kilograms of self-made organic fertilizer into a vat, adding about 60 kilograms of water, soaking for 7 to 10 days, taking 1.5 kilograms of filtrate, adding 15 to 20 kilograms of water for dilution, and spraying 0.4 to 0.5 kilogram of diluted self-made organic fertilizer solution every time.
The preparation process of the self-made organic fertilizer comprises the following steps: the method comprises the steps of crushing and uniformly stirring raw materials (peanut cakes, organic chaff, rice bran, ground phosphate rock, magnesium mineral powder and palm ash), adding a diluted microbial starter, adjusting the water content of the materials, and then fermenting, wherein the fermentation comprises main fermentation and after-ripening fermentation, the main fermentation period is 7-9 days, the after-ripening fermentation period is 6-8 days, the materials are stirred once every day in the main fermentation period and the after-ripening fermentation period, after the main fermentation is finished, the materials are turned and piled, then are subjected to the after-ripening fermentation, and after the after-ripening fermentation is finished, the materials are dehydrated, dried and screened, and then finished product inspection, metering and packaging are carried out.
D. And (5) transplanting rice seedlings. The ducks placed in the field after the field digging are taken back before the transplanting, and the ducks grow to 2.0-2.5 kilograms at the moment and can be sold. After harvesting ducks, transplanting seedlings by a transplanter about 7 months and 15 days, wherein the model of the transplanter is 2 ZGQ-6G (VP6G), the manufacturer is Maranganese agricultural machinery (China) Limited, the seedlings are transplanted according to the density of 15 centimeters by 30 centimeters of plant spacing by row spacing, and 5-6 effective seedlings are planted in each hole.
E. And (5) placing the ducklings. After 9-10 days after transplanting, ducklings with the seedling age of 15-30 days are placed in the field, 8-10 ducklings are placed in every 666.7 square meters of rice field, 1 duck shed is built in every 1.5-2.0 hectare of rice field, the area of the duck shed is 5-6 square meters, the height of the duck shed is 1.2-1.5 meters, the ducks are placed in the field in the daytime to eat weeds, pests, field snails and the like, organic rice bran is fed for the last year at night, the ducks are harvested in the rice booting period, the duck growing period is 75-90 days, each duck is fed with 1.6-2.0 kilograms of organic rice bran in the whole growing period of the ducks, and the weight of the ducks is 2.5-3.0 kilograms in the duck harvesting period. The duck is mainly used for controlling field weeds, pests, field snails and the like, meanwhile, the duck can play a role in intertillage and soil loosening, and the duck manure is also a good organic fertilizer.
F. Topdressing and weeding. And C, applying a self-made organic fertilizer in 6-8 days after transplanting, wherein the application amount of the self-made organic fertilizer in every 666.7 square meters of the rice field is 100-110 kilograms, and applying the self-made organic fertilizer again in about 40 days after transplanting (the same as the step B or the step C), wherein the application amount of the self-made organic fertilizer in every 666.7 square meters of the rice field is 50-60 kilograms. Intertillage weeding is carried out 20-22 days after rice transplanting by adopting a weeding machine, the model of the weeding machine is 3 GZC-2, a manufacturer is Jiangsu Yangchang Changchang auto parts Co Ltd, ridge weeds are cut off by adopting a mowing machine in the tillering stage and heading stage of rice, and large weeds such as barnyard grass are manually removed.
G. And (4) pest control. Every 1.5-2.0 hectare of rice field is provided with 1 solar insecticidal lamp, the bottom of the insecticidal lamp is 1.6 meters away from the ground, the model of the solar insecticidal lamp is FWS-SP 05-12/1, the manufacturer is Auricularia pest control science and technology Limited company in Shenzhen, and the solar insecticidal lamp has the function of killing pests in the environment of the rice field. If the diseases and pests of rice seedlings in the rice field reach the prevention and control indexes (the disease rate of the seedlings is 5-10%, and 10-20 insects exist in each seedling), the biological pesticide permitted by an organic certification institution is adopted for prevention and control, if the diseases and pests of the rice field occur, 1.5% (weight ratio) of pyrethrin is adopted for control, the pyrethrin is easy to decompose when the diseases and pests of the rice field occur, the pyrethrin is preferably sprayed at night and is a strong contact chemical agent, the effects can be achieved only by contacting with insects, and when the diseases and pests of the rice field occur, the biological pesticide such as validamycin is adopted for prevention and control.
H. Harvesting and drying. Draining water from the rice field 7-10 days before harvesting, harvesting rice by a harvester when the rice is mature in 8 days after 10 months, wherein the model of the harvester is AW82G (4 LZ-2.8A), and the manufacturer is Jinhuhui Huifeng agricultural machinery Co. The harvested paddy rice is transported indoors within 12 hours and dried by a dryer, the type of the dryer is CEL-1000, the manufacturer is Jinzi agricultural machinery tin-free company Limited, impurities are removed after drying, the yield of the organic paddy rice per 666.7 square meters of paddy rice is 300-325 kg dry weight, the rice yield of the organic paddy rice is 50-52 percent, and 150-169 kg of organic paddy rice per 666.7 square meters of paddy rice can be produced.
The organic rice cultivation method comprises the following steps: selecting land, preparing land, putting ducks and applying fertilizers, raising seedlings, transplanting seedlings, putting ducklings, topdressing and weeding, preventing and controlling plant diseases and insect pests, harvesting and drying.
The invention has the following advantages and effects:
1. according to the natural selenium-rich organic rice cultivation method, the natural selenium-rich organic rice is cultivated in the rice field which is subjected to land remediation and has the soil selenium content of medium selenium or selenium and passes organic certification, so that the influence of pesticide and the like in the soil of the rice field on the quality of rice can be effectively prevented, and the natural selenium-rich organic rice can be produced;
2. because the organic fertilizer is adopted for fertilization in the cultivation, and no chemical fertilizer is adopted, the pollution of the fertilization to the environment and the influence of the fertilization on the rice quality can be effectively prevented;
3. because the paddy field ridge is mowed by the mower, the field adopts a method of combining 2 times of duck laying and grass control, intertillage weeding by the weeder and artificial weeding, and the like, no weedicide is used in the rice production, and the pollution of the weedicide to the environment and the influence on the rice quality are effectively prevented;
4. because the rape cake powder, the solar insecticidal lamp, the duck placed in the rice field and the biological pesticide permitted by the organic certification authority are adopted to control the plant diseases and insect pests without using any chemical pesticide, the pollution of the chemical pesticide to the environment and the influence on the rice quality are effectively prevented;
5. because the mower is adopted to cut the weeds on the ridge, the cultivator is used to cultivate the field, the transplanter is used to transplant the seedlings, the weeder is used to intertill and weed, the harvester reaps and the dryer dries, the mechanization degree of the production process is high, and 30-40% of labor cost can be saved;
6. due to the adoption of a rice and duck symbiotic planting and breeding combined production mode, the land utilization rate is improved, and high-quality ducks can be produced while high-quality natural selenium-rich organic rice is produced;
7. the cultivation method of the natural selenium-rich organic rice has high degree of mechanization, easy control of operation procedures, labor cost saving, good product quality and high price, and the cultivation benefit of the organic rice is 5.7 to 6.5 times higher than that of common rice;
8. the method has wide practicability, is suitable for the base construction and demonstration popularization of natural selenium-rich organic rice cultivation in selenium or selenium-rich rice fields in subtropical hilly areas and low mountain areas in China, promotes the high-efficiency and safe development of regional agriculture, and protects the agricultural ecological environment.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a method for cultivating natural selenium-rich organic rice in subtropical hilly areas;
Detailed Description
Example 1:
a method for cultivating organic rice in subtropical hilly areas comprises the following steps:
A. and (5) selecting the place 1. The land for cultivating the organic rice has high-quality and sufficient water source, the water source cannot be polluted by heavy metal and the like, the terrain is flat, the land is continuous, the transportation is convenient, and the mechanized cultivation is convenient; the organic rice planting can be carried out after organic certification is obtained through farmland land remediation without applying fertilizers and pesticides for 3 years, wherein the soil selenium content is medium selenium (0.2-0.4 mg/kg) or selenium (0.4 mg/kg).
B. Soil preparation, duck placing and fertilization 2. Firstly cutting off grass on ridges by using a mower, wherein the mower is GZ139F, the manufacturer is Jinma technology Limited company in Pan-an county in Zhejiang, cutting off the grass on the ridges and then irrigating the fields, performing first field digging by using a cultivator within 6 months and 8-12 days (any day), the manufacturer is YT704, the manufacturer is Jifeng polymer agricultural machinery Limited company in Zhejiang, 0.75 or 0.78 or 0.8 or 0.83 or 0.85 kg of heavy ducks which are mainly snails and the like eaten off the fields after the first field digging, after 15-20 days (any day), 75 or 77 or 80 or 83 or 85 kg of self-made organic fertilizer is artificially applied to every 666.7 square meters of rice field, the organic fertilizer is prepared by fermenting peanut cakes, organic chaff, phosphate rock powder, magnesium ore powder, palm ash and the like, wherein the palm ash comes from Indian sub-Asia rice field, and then 666.7 square meters of western rice cake powder or 11 kg of organic fertilizer is applied to every 666.7 square meters of rice field, the function is to kill pests in the rice field, and then the cultivator is adopted to carry out the second field digging. The duck is placed for 40-45 days (any one day) from the first time of digging the field until the time of transplanting rice seedlings.
An organic fertilizer comprises the following raw materials in percentage by weight (optimal value):
the preparation steps are as follows:
and then uniformly mixing the peanut cake, the organic rice husk, the rice bran, the phosphate rock powder, the magnesium mineral powder and the palm ash in proportion to obtain the organic fertilizer.
C. And (3) seedling raising. Selecting a high-quality rice variety, wherein the variety is rice aroma, breeding by Guangdong provincial academy of agricultural sciences, and when the high-quality rice is planted as late rice in a subtropical area, the sowing period is 6 months 13-17 days (any one day), and the rice seedlings are harvested in 7 months 13-17 days (any one day) and 10 months 7-10 days (any one day). The method is characterized in that a mechanical seedling transplanting disc is adopted for manual seedling raising, the model of the mechanical seedling transplanting disc is J216-YA, the width is multiplied by 60 cm, the manufacturer is Poohio plastic products limited company in Guangdong Zhongshan, firstly rice field thin mud is filled into the mechanical seedling transplanting disc, the amount of the thin mud filled into each disc is equal to 4 kg of dry soil weight, then 70-80 g of self-made organic fertilizer is applied into each disc, rice seeds are soaked in 1% (weight ratio) of lime water for disinfection for 0.5, 0.8, 1, 1.3 or 1.5 hours, the rice seeds are sowed into the mechanical seedling transplanting disc after germination acceleration, the sowing amount is 80-90 g per disc, the rice seeds are equal to each hole, and 18 or 19 seedlings of the mechanical seedling transplanting disc are required to be prepared in each 666.7 square meters of a large field. According to the growth of seedlings, self-made organic fertilizer solution is sprayed for 2 times on the 7 th to 10 th days (any day) and the 15 th to 20 th days (any day) of the seedling age respectively, the self-made organic fertilizer solution is prepared by putting 20 kg of self-made organic fertilizer into a vat, adding 60 kg of water, soaking for 7 to 10 days (any day), taking 1.5 kg of filtrate, adding 15 kg, 17 kg, 18 kg or 20 kg of water for dilution, and spraying 0.4 kg, 0.45 kg or 0.5 kg of diluted self-made organic fertilizer solution every time.
The preparation process of the self-made organic fertilizer comprises the following steps: the method comprises the steps of crushing and uniformly stirring raw materials (peanut cakes, organic chaff, rice bran, ground phosphate rock, magnesium mineral powder and palm ash), adding a diluted microbial starter, adjusting the water content of the materials, and then fermenting, wherein the fermentation comprises main fermentation and after-ripening fermentation, the main fermentation period is 7-9 days, the after-ripening fermentation period is 6-8 days, the materials are stirred once every day in the main fermentation period and the after-ripening fermentation period, after the main fermentation is finished, the materials are turned and piled, then are subjected to the after-ripening fermentation, and after the after-ripening fermentation is finished, the materials are dehydrated, dried and screened, and then finished product inspection, metering and packaging are carried out.
D. And (4) transplanting rice seedlings. The ducks placed in the field after the field digging are taken back before the transplanting, and the ducks grow to 2.0-2.5 kilograms at the moment and can be sold. Transplanting the ducks by a rice transplanter 15 days after 7 months, wherein the model of the rice transplanter is 2 ZGQ-6G (VP6G), the manufacturer is Marangsie agricultural machinery (China) limited, the rice transplanter plants the ducks according to the density of 15 cm x 30 cm for the plant spacing x the row spacing, and 5 or 6 effective seedlings are planted in each hole.
E. And (5) placing the ducklings. Ducklings with the seedling age of 15 or 20 or 25 or 30 days are placed in the field 9 or 10 days after seedling transplanting, 8 or 10 ducklings are placed in every 666.7 square meters of rice field, 1 duck shed is built in every 1.5-2.0 hectare of rice field, the area of the duck shed is 5 or 6 square meters, the height of the duck shed is 1.2-1.5 meters (any height of the duck shed), the ducks are placed in the field in the daytime to eat weeds, pests, field snails and the like, the ducks are fed with organic rice bran for the last year at night, the ducks are harvested in the rice booting stage, the growing period of the ducks is 75 or 80 or 90 days, 1.6 or 1.8 or 2.0 kg of organic rice bran is fed to each duck in the whole growing period of the ducks, and the weight of the ducks is 2.5 or 2.8 or 3.0 kg when the ducks are harvested. The duck is mainly used for controlling field weeds, pests, field snails and the like, meanwhile, the duck can play a role in intertillage and soil loosening, and the duck manure is also a good organic fertilizer.
F. Topdressing and weeding 6. And (3) applying a self-prepared organic fertilizer 6-8 days after the rice seedlings are transplanted, wherein the application amount of the self-prepared organic fertilizer in every 666.7 square meters of the rice field is 100, 105 or 110 kilograms, and applying the self-prepared organic fertilizer again in the 40 th day after the rice seedlings are transplanted (the same as the step B or the step C), wherein the application amount of the self-prepared organic fertilizer in every 666.7 square meters of the rice field is 50, 54, 56, 58 or 60 kilograms. Intertillage weeding is carried out 20 or 21 or 22 days after rice transplanting by adopting a weeding machine, the model of the weeding machine is 3 GZC-2, the manufacturer is Jiangsu Yangchang Changchang auto parts Co Ltd, and the weeding machine is used for cutting off ridge weeds in the tillering stage and heading stage of rice and manually removing large weeds such as clamped barnyard grass and the like.
G. And (7) pest control. Every 1.5 or 2.0 hectare of rice field installs 1 solar pest killing lamp, and the bottom of pest killing lamp is 1.6 meters from ground, and the model of solar pest killing lamp is FWS-SP 05-12/1, and the producer is Auricularia pest control science and technology Limited company in Shenzhen city, and its effect is to kill the pest in the rice field environment. If the rice field seedling diseases and insect pests reach the prevention and control indexes, biological pesticides permitted by an organic certification institution are adopted for prevention and control, if the rice field diseases and insect pests occur, 1.5 percent (weight ratio) of pyrethrin is adopted for control, the pyrethrin is easy to decompose under the action of light, and is preferably sprayed at night, and is a strong contact pesticide, the pesticide is effective only when contacting with insect bodies, and when the rice diseases occur, the biological pesticides such as validamycin and the like are adopted for prevention and control.
H. Harvesting and drying 8. Draining water from rice field 7 or 8 or 9 or 10 days before harvesting, harvesting rice by using a harvester when the rice is mature in 10 months and 8 days, wherein the model of the harvester is AW82G (4 LZ-2.8A), and the manufacturer is Jinhuhui Huifeng agricultural machinery Co. The harvested paddy rice is transported indoors within 12 hours and dried by a dryer, the type of the dryer is CEL-1000, the manufacturer is Jinzi agricultural machinery tin-free company Limited, impurities are removed after drying, the yield of the organic paddy rice per 666.7 square meters of paddy rice is 300-325 kg dry weight, the rice yield of the organic paddy rice is 50-52 percent, and 150-169 kg of organic paddy rice per 666.7 square meters of paddy rice can be produced.
The following results (please see the test report) are about the situation and benefit analysis of the rich-Chuan natural selenium-rich organic rice production base and the rice detection:
situation and benefit analysis of rich-Chuan natural selenium-rich organic rice production base
The Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region is a typical subtropical zone in the autonomous county of the Fuchuan Yao nationality, and the interior is mainly in hills and low mountainous areas. 85.8 hectares of natural selenium-rich organic rice production base is established by Guangxi Fuchuan Huafa agricultural science and technology Limited company in ancient towns of autonomous counties of Fuchuan Yao nations, and organic certification is passed, the selenium content in the soil is 0.19 mg/kg after 12 months in 2014 of the base rice field, which indicates that the soil in the base is very close to the medium selenium content level (0.2-0.4 mg/kg). The organic fertilizer prepared from peanut cakes, organic chaff, rice bran, ground phosphate rock, magnesium mineral powder, palm ash and the like is used as a fertilizer, rice diseases, insect pests and weeds are prevented and controlled by biological and physical technologies such as rice and duck symbiosis, the production cost of natural selenium-rich organic rice per hectare is 5.7 ten thousand yuan, 2.5 tons of natural selenium-rich organic rice can be produced, the price per ton is 4.0 ten thousand yuan calculated according to the market price of the natural selenium-rich organic rice of 40 yuan/kg, 10 ten thousand yuan is income per hectare, 4.3 ten thousand yuan is profit, and 368.9 ten thousand yuan can be created per hectare for 85.8 hectare each year. The profit of the conventional rice planting method is 0.75 ten thousand yuan per hectare, and the economic benefit of the natural selenium-rich organic rice planting is 5.7 times higher than that of the conventional rice planting method. Rice detection results of natural selenium-rich organic rice production base
The Guangxi Fuchuan Huafa agricultural science and technology company sends the 'Fuxiang 100' rice samples produced by the base to the vegetable and fruit quality supervision, inspection and test center (Guangzhou) of Ministry of agriculture in 10 months 2014, the inspection results of the samples meet the technical requirements of the COFCC organic certification product risk detection item catalog (trial), the products are qualified in inspection, and the specific detection results are shown in Table 1. The company entrusts the Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region analysis and test research center with the '100' rich-fragrance rice produced in the base to detect in 2015 6 months, and the result shows that the selenium content of the rice is 0.062 mg/kg, the selenium content range which meets the national selenium-rich rice standard (GB/T22499-2008) is 0.04-0.3 mg/kg, and the base does not use any externally applied selenium fertilizer in production. The rice produced by the base is clarified to be natural selenium-rich organic rice.
TABLE 1 detection results of "Rich 100" rice pesticide and heavy metals in Fuchuan natural selenium-rich organic rice production base
Denotes the lower detection limit.

Claims (1)

1. A cultivation method of natural selenium-rich organic rice in subtropical hilly areas comprises the following steps:
A. selecting land: the land for cultivating the natural selenium-rich organic rice has water sources which cannot be polluted by heavy metal, is flat in topography, is continuous in land, is convenient to transport and is convenient for mechanized cultivation; the method comprises the following steps of (1) performing farmland land remediation without applying chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides for 3 years, wherein the soil selenium content is 0.2-0.4 mg/kg of medium selenium or more than 0.4 mg/kg of selenium, and performing natural selenium-enriched organic rice planting on the rice field after organic certification;
B. soil preparation, duck releasing and fertilization: firstly, cutting off grass on ridges by a mower, watering the field after cutting off the grass on the ridges, digging the field by a cultivator for the first time within 8-12 days of 6 months, putting 0.75-0.85 kg of ducks to eat the snails in the field after digging the field for the first time, manually spreading 75-85 kg of organic fertilizer in every 666.7 square meters of the field 15-20 days after digging the field for the first time, wherein the organic fertilizer is formed by fermenting and piling peanut cakes, organic chaff, rice bran, ground phosphate rock, magnesium mineral powder and palm ash, manually spreading 9-11 kg of camellia cake powder in every 666.7 square meters, then digging the field by the cultivator for the second time, and putting the ducks in the field from the first time of digging to the time of transplanting the seedlings, wherein the duck putting time is 40-45 days;
an organic fertilizer is composed of the following raw materials in percentage by weight:
the preparation steps are as follows:
then uniformly mixing the peanut cake, the organic rice husk, the rice bran, the ground phosphate rock, the magnesium mineral powder and the palm ash in proportion to obtain an organic fertilizer;
C. seedling raising: selecting rice varieties, wherein the varieties are rice spices, when the rice is planted as late rice in subtropical regions, the seeding period is 13-17 days in 6 months, the rice seedlings are harvested in 13-17 days in 7 months and 7-10 days in 10 months, manually raising the rice seedlings by using a mechanical seedling-transplanting disc, firstly filling rice field mud into the mechanical seedling-transplanting disc, filling mud into each disc, then applying 70-80 g of organic fertilizer into each disc, soaking and disinfecting the rice seeds for 0.5-1.5 hours by using 1% by weight of lime water, accelerating germination, then sowing the rice seeds into the mechanical seedling-transplanting disc, the seeding rate is 80-90 g per tray, 18-19 seedlings of mechanical transplanting trays are prepared per 666.7 square meters of field, spraying organic fertilizer solution for 2 times in the 7 th to 10 th days and the 15 th to 20 th days of the seedling age respectively, wherein the preparation method of the organic fertilizer solution comprises the following steps, 20 kg of organic fertilizer is put into a vat, 60 kg of water is added, the vat is soaked for 7 to 10 days, 1.5 kg of filtrate is taken and 15 to 20 kg of water is added for dilution, and 0.4 to 0.5 kg of diluted organic fertilizer solution is sprayed every time in each dish;
the preparation process of the organic fertilizer comprises the following steps: grinding and uniformly stirring peanut cakes, organic chaff, rice bran, ground phosphate rock, magnesium mineral powder and palm ash, then adding a diluted microbial starter, adjusting the water content of the materials, and then fermenting, wherein the fermentation comprises main fermentation and after-ripening fermentation, the main fermentation period is 7-9 days, the after-ripening fermentation period is 6-8 days, the materials are stirred once every day in the main fermentation period and the after-ripening fermentation period, after the main fermentation is finished, the materials are turned over and then subjected to the after-ripening fermentation, after the after-ripening fermentation is finished, the materials are dehydrated, dried and screened, and then finished product inspection, measurement and packaging are carried out;
D. transplanting rice seedlings: the ducks placed in the field after the field is beaten are collected before the rice transplanting, the ducks grow to 2.0-2.5 kg, the rice transplanting is carried out by a rice transplanting machine in 15 days after the ducks are collected, the rice transplanting is carried out according to the density of the row spacing and the plant spacing of 15 cm and 30 cm, and 5-6 effective seedlings are planted in each hole;
E. placing the ducklings: after 9-10 days of rice transplanting, ducklings with the seedling age of 15-30 days are placed in the field, 8-10 ducklings are placed in every 666.7 square meters of rice field, 1 duck shed is built in every 1.5-2.0 hectare of rice field, the area of the duck shed is 5-6 square meters, the height of the duck shed is 1.2-1.5 meters, the ducks are placed in the field in the daytime to eat weeds, pests and field snails, organic rice bran of the last year is fed at night, the ducks are harvested in the rice booting period, the duck growth period is 75-90 days, and each duck in the whole duck growth period is fed with 1.6-2.0 kilograms of organic rice bran;
F. topdressing and weeding: applying organic fertilizer 6-8 days after transplanting, wherein the application amount of each 666.7 square meters of rice field is 100-110 kilograms, applying organic fertilizer again 40 days after transplanting, the application amount of each 666.7 square meters of rice field is 50-60 kilograms, performing intertillage weeding 20-22 days after transplanting, cutting ridge weeds by a mower in a tillering stage and a heading stage of rice, and manually removing large weeds with barnyard grass;
G. and (3) pest control: 1 solar insecticidal lamp is installed in each 1.5-2.0 hectare of rice field, the bottom of the insecticidal lamp is 1.6 meters away from the ground, the pest and disease damage of rice field seedlings reaches the prevention and control index, the biological pesticide permitted by an organic certification institution is adopted for prevention and control, 1.5 percent by weight of pyrethrin is adopted for controlling the pest and disease damage of the rice field, the pyrethrin is easily decomposed by light, the insecticide is sprayed in the evening, and the jinggangmycin biological pesticide is adopted for prevention and control when the rice disease occurs;
H. harvesting and drying: draining water in the rice field 7-10 days before harvesting, harvesting rice by a harvester when the rice is mature in 10 months and 8 days, conveying the harvested rice to a room within 12 hours, drying by a dryer, and removing impurities after drying.
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