CN106332811A - Grouper breeding technology and method thereof - Google Patents

Grouper breeding technology and method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106332811A
CN106332811A CN201610733572.XA CN201610733572A CN106332811A CN 106332811 A CN106332811 A CN 106332811A CN 201610733572 A CN201610733572 A CN 201610733572A CN 106332811 A CN106332811 A CN 106332811A
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fish
water
pond
bait
grouper
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陈宁
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陈宁
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention discloses a grouper breeding technology and a grouper breeding method. The grouper breeding technology is characterized in that groupers are scientifically managed, a cultivation place is selected, and the groupers are artificially cultivated and bred and are healthily cultivated. The grouper breeding technology has the advantages that the environment is appropriate, the investment is less, the effect is quick, used materials are few, the groupers grow up quickly, the effects of great taste, tender meat, freshness, high price, good benefits, availability of sea beaches, quick breeding, large individuals, easiness for mastering technology, simplicity in operation, less investment, quick effect and high economic value are achieved, and the grouper breeding technology is worthy of popularization.

Description

A kind of grouper raising technology and its method
Technical field
The invention belongs to fishery cultivating field, especially a kind of grouper raising technology and its method.
Background technology
In section Epinephelus, its species has more than 100 kinds to Epinephelus, and warm water marine site in the world is all distributed.China The grouper producing there are about kind more than twenty, is mainly distributed on the East Sea and the South Sea, common are green hata, Epinephlus fario, red stone Spot fish etc..Grouper is carnivorous, bottom dwelling property fish, inhabits the torrid zone and the marine site of the many cays of temperate zone substrate more, carries out the depth Dry up trip, but scope of activities be very little, likes eat fish and shrimps, have growth fast, individual big, the features such as meat is tender, its madder is supported Abundant, economic worth is high, and body colour is beautiful, is deeply welcome by domestic and international market, is considered the thing of luckiness in Hong Kong and Macao, enjoys first-class The laudatory title of delicacies.At present, in Hong Kong, the grouper price weighing 600 grams about reaches 200 yuan of Hongkong dollars, if meeting tradition vacation red-letter day, sells Valency is higher, is a kind of stronger kind of earning foreign exchange of competitiveness.The current level of production is seen, although Grouper cultivating is invested relatively Greatly, but productivity effect is high, general input-output ratio is 1:4, and when ask short, produce effects fast, a kind of grouper that technology is easily mastered Raising technology and its method.
Content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of build easily, ecologic breeding, healthy aquaculture, environment is suitable, and small investment takes effect Hurry up, materials save, fish is long big soon soon, delicious meat tenderness is fresh and alive, and price is high, profitable, and seashore beach can be utilized, and breeding is fast, individual Greatly, technology easily supports a kind of grouper raising technology held and its method.
The technical solution of the present invention is such, a kind of grouper raising technology and its method it is characterised in that its Step method is:
Step 1, artificial culture technology:Plant's environmental selection it is desirable to substrate with copy matter, half sandy have natural reef layer, (2) water quality transparency is high, and (3) do not pollute source area, and (4), near set net off-shore operation area, (5) wind sheltering condition is good;
Step 2, the usual soil of existing aquaculture is pool cultivated, the cultivation of fill formula, fetch earth in cage culture pool cultivated pattern, is cultivating In in area, low tidal region dig Di Jianchi, dam sluice is leaned in the exchange of water, inside builds drainage ditch, communicates with fishpond, enters moisture Open, and be separated by, 12 mu of fishpond area is a pond, rectangle pond length-width ratio calamity 5:1, a sluice water inlet is built in each pond, width is 1 Rice, gate configures 4 lock grooves, and each is separated by 30 meters, and first groove puts steel wire, and second groove puts flashboard, and the 3rd road groove puts grass Netting, the 4th road groove puts nylon wire, digs a circular groove, 55 centimetres of ditch depth, dig at intake gate to water gate at 1.2 meters from pond bank Article 1, visit and wash in a pan ditch, wide 1.2 meters, deep 0.6 centimetre, 1/2nd of a width of intake gate of water gate, deeply more than 2 meters, at the bottom of pond spreads water If stone riprap, coral reef, cement fish shelter;
Step 3, puts management: the selection of (1) fry in a suitable place to breed: select energetic, body is long, body colour is partially black, outward appearance is normal, anosis fry, (2) sterilize: open gate through exposure in sunshine, repeatedly rinse, remove mud, use drug disinfection afterwards, with quick lime and bleaching powder, Consumption is: quick lime 450ppm, bleaching powder 25ppm, every mu of consumption: quick lime 220kg, bleaching powder 12kg, before putting fry One week applied;
Step 4, the density of fish: every mu of stocking rate is 90 kilograms, and annual 3 ~ October puts fry;
Step 5, bait is thrown in: bait and fresh small fish are raw material, arranges in pairs or groups mixed feed protein more than 38%, bait Fish specification makes varigrained bait to grain by size, works as consumption per day according to fish body re-computation, quantitation taken by bait throwing in material, feeds many less Meal, between first making a basket, throws periphery, thirty in summer 5 starts to throw, and winter throws at noon, and some black porgy fishes of arranging in pairs or groups in pond are raised together with, and also will afterwards Sorting size divides pond branch mailbox to support in good time;
Step 6, safety cultivates: (1) hydro-environmental change situation, and its physicochemical environment requires water temperature at 33 DEG C, salinity: 10%, ph7.5, Dissolved oxygen amount 3 mg/litre, is optimum condition, arranges tower oxygen machine depending on water environment, (2) safety and patrol, pays close attention to pond and becomes Change, the activity change of fish, prevent and cure diseases and rely mainly on prevention, with terramycin, per kilogram bait mixes 2 grams, fresh water cleans once within every 25 days.
The prominent effect of the present invention is to build pond easily, the optional seashore in place Tan Chi, healthy aquaculture, ecologic breeding, and fish is fast Long, big soon, the time is short, and technology is easily grasped, simple to operate, and meat quality of fish is delicious, small investment, instant effect, and economic worth is high, income High.
Specific embodiment
The present invention is described below in detail
First, ecological habit: grouper is warm water fishes, mainly perches in cay area, subsea cavern and space, coral Reef is carnivorous fish, property is violent, have and kill and devour mutually phenomenon, especially in the Juvenile fish stage, individual little normal by individual big eating Fall.Typically with fish, shrimp as bait, after having enough, return to cave or cay seam rest.
2nd, reproductive habit: in general, grouper is hermaphroditic, with the individual growth stopped, the conversion of generation property.Become first For female body, after continued growth, it is converted into male body.Before sexual gland prematurity, it is difficult to distinguish male and female.Property conversion individuality with kind Class, age and build and different.Grouper started to lay eggs every year from March, and raun has the characteristic of multiple spawning.Ovum is spherical in shape, Water white transparency, has an oily ball in ovum, belong to buoyant egg, and water temperature about hatched out through 23 25 hours when 25 27 DEG C, Unfertilized egg then sinks to seabed.
In order to solve the seedling of grouper, the test of the proud many artificial propagation techniques of many marine organisms scholars both at home and abroad is ground Study carefully, and obtain remarkable progress, essentially consist in the property conversion using oral methyl testis sterol hasting of maturity raun, significantly coil up short Required for naturality conversion when vexed.China carries out artificial insemination to green hata and hatching is successful, and South Sea aquatic products grinds Study carefully the artificial propagation of Epinephlus fario is also made a breakthrough.Other many research units also list emphasis brainstorm subject in it.
3rd, the biological engineering of grouper: before grouper artificial propagation Technique of Raising Seeedling not yet can solve to produce needs, Cultivation seed to rely on natural fish, that is, catch stay greatly little, therefore, grasp grouper fishing catch technology.In Fujian, every year from " clear and bright " is opened and is caught, and " terminates after White Dew, the best fishing period phase is in the Beginning of summer to Slight Heat.
Artificial breeding technique:
1st, parent population select with cultivate: parent population can artificial propagation or catch from natural waterses.Raun selects body weight 0.5kg~1kg, abdomen Portion expands and softness person;Milter selects more than body weight 1.5kg, clear pressure belly person of flowing out seminal fluid.Male and female parent population presses 1: 1~1: 3 Ratio collocation.Grouper is protogynous hermaphroditic fish body, and its 6 age is just converted into milter, in recent years, due to excessively catching Drag for, there is female many male few property ratio detuning phenomenas in the Repoductive population of natural waterses, and it is individual greatly to cultivate advanced age under cultivating condition The time length of body male parent population and expense is also high, so, the difficult problem during parent population selects is that the ripe milter of sexual gland is difficult to obtain.For The male parent population solving in artificial propagation is not enough, and available exogenous hormones 17 Alpha-Methyl testosterone induces hermaphroditic red stone Spot fish, can do sth. in advance for 3 age~4 ages makes raun be changed into the male parent population having reproductive function, and 17 Alpha-Methyl testosterones not only can Suppression yolk generates, but also can affect oogonium propagation and break up.50 days pharmaceutical chemistry, each dosage are fed to 2 age~4 age fishes About 5 mg/kg body weight (cumulant 241.3mg/kg body weight), can make the male parent population stream essence rate of sex reversal reach 93.5%, award Smart rate reaches 81.1%, and embryonic development is normal.For solving male sex hormone bait feeding method because taking the photograph " sex reversal " that bait amount inequality causes The unstable and daily throwing of effect raise take a lot of work, time-consuming the problems such as, may also be employed by 17 Alpha-Methyl testosterones implant fish bodies male sex hormone Heeling-in method come to induce grouper do sth. in advance " sex reversal ".17 Alpha-Methyl testosterones can disposably heeling-in to 3 age~7 ages ripe red stone In spot fish raun, after 50 days~90 days, raun is just changed into milter fish body, makes grouper " sex reversal " process 5 years~6 years ahead of time. The fertilization rate reached 73% of the embryonated egg being obtained with their seminal fluid, incubation rate 97%, Larval is normal, can reach artificial propagation Purpose.Under identical treatment conditions, " sex reversal " time of female advanced age fish is shorter than low age fish, and is easier to obtain and releases essence Denaturation milter.Therefore, should select to make degenerative treatments compared with advanced age, individual larger raun in artificial propagation, effect is relatively as far as possible Good.
In order to solve the problems, such as that in artificial propagation, sexually matured milter is rareer, superfreeze method also can be applied to preserve essence Liquid, in liquid nitrogen container, seminal fluid after 2 months for the freezen protective still has the vigor being equivalent to fresh essence, does not affect the effect of artificial propagation Really.The effect of artificial propagation is heavily dependent on the maturity of parent population sexual gland, so before induced spawning, strengthening parent population Cultivate, promote its gonad development most important.Store up in cement pit indoors or temporarily support lithosporic fish parent fish, trained by artificial-strengthening Educate, change water and soil pick-up daily, parent population is hastened parturition with regard to energy natural spawning fertilization without hormone, can obtain the embryonated egg of high-quality.
2nd, hasten parturition: the female parent population choosing, with thin plastic pipe or dig egg apparatus and deeply suction out from tocostome insertion about 3cm~5cm Ovum grain, is placed on wave carrier piece, examines under a microscope its maturity, if ovum grain is easily separated, yolk yellow, full, ovum footpath 0.3mm ~0.5mm, plus transparent fixer after core be partial to animal pole, then maturity is preferable.Male parent population gently presses belly to have a little essence The liquor stream person of going out is ripe good.Grouper lack of quantity of spermatic fluid, when checking milter maturity, DO NOT CRUSH is too heavy.Ocyodinic has carp brain to hang down 4 kinds of mixture of body, human chorionic gonadtropin, LHRH analogue and lrh-a+pg etc..Raun is used Pg10mg/kg body weight~12mg/kg body weight or lrh-a60ug/kg.The general intrathecal at twice of above dosage, notes for the first time The amount of penetrating accounts for the 2/3 of total amount, twice between interval time be 24 hours about when 25 DEG C~26 DEG C of water temperature is spent.Male parent population is injected Dosage is the half of raun, all carries out while raun is injected for second.Water for injection is 0.6% sodium chloride solution, will urge Produce agent dissolving or make suspension, injection liquid measure is every tail parent population shot 1ml~2ml is degree.
3rd, artificial insemination and natural spawning fertilization: epinephelus akaara artificial insemination preferably adopts dry method insemination method.Parent population injection second After pin ocyodinic, 10h~13h can be laid eggs, and from top to bottom gently press raun belly, ripe fish-egg is clamp-oned the ceramic whiteware bowl sterilized In, parent population gently can be put back in parent population holding pond after 5 times repeatedly~6 times.With same method, milter seminal fluid is squeezed again immediately Enter on the ovum heap of ceramic whiteware bowl.Grouper seminal fluid seldom, even squeezes 5 times~6 times and amounts to only 1ml~2ml, but use enough. After the completion for the treatment of to squeeze essence for the last time, with the clean feather of mistake wet from sea water of sterilizing, ovum in bowl and seminal fluid are stirred, about Add a small amount of seawater of sterilizing after 1min~2min, be poured in the little washbowl sterilized after continuing stirring 5min, plus the sea of sterilization Water gently stirs evenly, standing a moment.All embryonated eggs all swim in water at the middle and upper levels, and dead ovum or unfertilized egg are deposited in bottom.With The seawater sterilized cleans embryonated egg, removes unnecessary sperm, to avoid polyspermy, then embryonated egg is moved into incubator Middle hatching.During artificial insemination, direct sunlight should be avoided, in order to avoid killing sperm.Because Epinephelus lays eggs fish in batches, have continuous The repeatedly reproduction feature of spawning.Create the environmental condition of natural spawning fertilization in spawning pond if parent population it is possible to avoid The drawbacks of ovum because often occurring during artificial insemination is overdone or not mature enough is it is also possible to reduce because fishing for and squeezing ovum, squeeze seminal fluid The injury to parent population causing.So, the method that reinforced cultivating lithosporic fish parent fish may also be employed, promote parent population secreting hormone, no With injection ocyodinic, energy natural spawning fertilization, thus obtaining high quality fertilized egg of scophthatmus, improve larvae survival rate, reducing abnormal Form quotient.Natural spawning mode is better than artificial induced spawning and insemination.25 DEG C~27 DEG C of suitable water temperature during spawning, seawater salinity 32~35, Ph7.8~8.5, pool area 20 of laying eggs, the depth of water about 1.5m, uses shading curtain shading, discharge 40l/min~50l/ above pond min.
4th, hatch: grouper produces buoyant egg, hatching should be carried out in circuit incubator or hatching cylinder.During hatching, fish-egg is close Spend for 50 ovum/l seawater~100 ovum/l seawater, water velocity is floated as degree with making fish-egg or prelarva.Spawning water is necessary Pure and fresh, need to be through husky filter and uv disinfection.Water temperature is maintained at 25 DEG C about, salinity 30%~33%, and keeps stable.Hatching During need appropriateness inflation, aeration quantity is too big or too little all bad, makes seawater dissolved oxygen amount be maintained at more than 5 mg/litre.Hatching In remove dead ovum, in case water quality degenerates as far as possible.Epinephelus akaara and green hata ovum in the above conditions, from spawning after fertilization Fry can be hatched through 24h.
4th, artificial culture technology
At present, carrying out, in Fujian, the form that grouper propagates artificially has three kinds, and that is, native pool cultivated, fill formula cultivation and net cage are supported Grow.No matter taking a kind of that mode it is necessary to conscientiously select culturing area.Typically require 1. substrates with copy matter, half sandy or There is natural reef layer preferably.2. water quality is good, and transparency is high, and trend is unimpeded.3. there is no industrial wastewater or organic impurities filth on the bank Enter and pollute, should not be near big resident living area and vessel berth wind sheltering area.4. nearby there are the off-shore operations such as set net, It is easy to obtain fresh small fish and make bait.5. wind sheltering condition is good, is not attacked by typhoon front.
1st, the Tu Chi Yi nationality foot of a hill or mountain: low in reclamation area, midtidal region digs Di Jianchi, and dam sluice is leaned in the exchange of water.Cultivate build in doctor into, Gutter, is communicated with fishpond, enters gutter and will separate, and in order to avoid Inlet and outlet water intersects, will cause germ sense at a distance Dye.Fishpond area 5-10 mu is 1, and preferably rectangle, length-width ratio is 4: 1 to shape.Daily fishpond will have 1 intake gate Door, width 1.2 1.5m.Gate will configure 3 lock grooves, and each lock groove is at a distance of in 40 cm.First groove can device iron Silk screen plate, as blocking weeds, fish evil is used } the second banister groove can place flashboard, control Inlet and outlet water.3rd road is explained groove and is placed steel wire Or nylon web plate, favorably receive into natural bait.L bar circular groove is dug in 1 meter from pond bank about of place in oily bottom, ditch depth 50cm about, Or dig 1 at intake gate to water gate and visit and wash in a pan, wide lm, deep 5ocm, it is beneficial to water body and exchanges, during midsummer, also allow for Fish is hidden high temperature and allows it to have a rest in depths.Water outlet gate locating one or two, width be inlet gate 2/3rds.Always It, the design of turnover sluice gate, accomplish big neap can exchanged water, depth of water remains at more than 2.5 meters.In pond Some stone ripraps, coral reef should be laid in bottom, or throw in have a bit and wear junked tire, cement fish shelter of sky etc., is liked with adapting to grouper Get into the cave the requirement of rest.
2nd, foot of a hill or mountain dike formula cultivation: pond is made in the littoral zone fill that this breeding way is selected at cay, using the tidal bulge tide of seawater Fall exchanged water.Due to directly in marine fill, dykes and dams are washed away by tidewater, stormy waves, when building dam, preferably select hard substrate proud The dam foundation, and assembled with stone, cement caulking.Typically require dam bottom width 6 8m, wide 3 4m of dam crest, height of dam should exceed locality More than high tide level l rice.The overseas slope in face will have certain tiltedly, and dam shape can be different along natural conditions.Turnover sluice is directly built in dam, Gate widths depending on pool area in fill size and with keep big neap can exchanged water, make pond deeply remain one 3 meters to set Meter.If area is at 5 10 mu about, the cultural method that can refer to Tu Chi is designed.Fill cultivation method is leaned on due to the one side in pond Bank, also will dig l bar row's fresh water ditch and lead to outside pond, to discharge sewage on the bank, flood-protection attacks.A kind of half dike formula net is also had to block cultivation Method.Pond is made in the bank fill that this method is equally selected at cay, but dike height only build five or six partial tide positions in, is spaced on dike Certain distance stamp cement or plant overwood Chinese toon, then collodion silk net is loaded onto on Chinese toon and blocks, rely on naturally rising of tide move back, allow seawater from Overflow on dike into diffusing out, carry out water coke slurry.This mode is lower than full fill formula on building pond cost, and more can bring natural bait into Biology, but it is firm corrosion-resistant to require net to block material.Some places are too big because once investing in view of full fill formula, just first adopt Breed fish in this way, row is continued again later, a kind of good method of can yet be regarded as.
3rd, the Fan Lu Yi nationality foot of a hill or mountain: this is the cultural method of relatively broad employing at present.Using cage culture except noted earlier to burying jade tablet Area should according to condition select outer it is necessary to select the depth of water in calm, the sea area that trend is unimpeded of more than 5m.Net cage is shaped as Square, general requirements 2 x 2m, net cage height is defined by not pasting seabed, and should regard the current of mariculture area, depth of water situation Depending on.Netting twine is woven with the formal wire of l2mg, depending on the fish body size that mesh size rule are put in a suitable place to breed, usually 1.5 centimetres.Net cage Tie up on the square bearer that plank is made, shelf is fixed on ball float, whole rack is fixed on sea area with anchor again.General l1 fish Platform constitutes 1 steck, and 1 Yutai is made up of 10 nets again, and platform is 2 meters with the spacing of platform.Lay net cage to put down with direction of tide Row arrangement, so can keep flowing water freely to escape, and increase the dissolved oxygen amount in net cage, and favorably brings natural biological bait into and so that residual bait is given up It is noted that the quantity in same sea area net cage should not be laid excessively overstocked, steck and steck will keep certain intervals to thing deslagging, In order to avoid because net cage overmatter impact current ruin water quality, leading to the muddy life of fish disease.Cage culture should be laid and surely be covered thing, because Surely cover thing and have a following benefit for laying: (1), because when breeding fish for two casees, fish is thrown the place hidden, and often concentrates on bottom or a certain Corner, easily causes friction injured, catches.There is provided and surely cover thing, raw words access expansion environment can be made, reduce friction, mitigate " the psychological burden of fish itself.(2) due to the continuous impact of trend and coastal water, the fish in net cage will consume substantial amounts of energy, Oneself position in case could be kept, and arrange and surely cover thing so that it may so that it is used for the growth of itself the energy consuming. (3) fish culture in net pen density is high, easily makes the growth size of fish produce polarization, and the presence due to big fish, and ingesting of small fish is subject to To suppression.And arrange and surely cover thing, big disk is hided to stabilize after ingesting and is covered place, and small fish just has chance of more ingesting, thus reducing Take the photograph bait competition between big small fish and surely cover thing and can adopt old tire, tire burrowing to allow current turnover, beating for 3 or 4 Tie up into a string hanging in net cage with rope behind good hole, light-duty surely the cover thing such as hollow cement fish shelter, coral reef may also be employed and hang In case.
5th, put administrative skill in a suitable place to breed
1st, the selection of fry: the lithosporic fry of cultivation in addition to oneself fishes the person of catching, need to outwards buy by great majority.Buy during seedling it is necessary to Note the quality of fry. require to select that energetic, body is longer, outward appearance is normal, anosis, body colour is partially black.The fish that natural fishing is caught is past More toward disability, head is too, weak, the disconnected fin of broken skin docks or the blind person of ears should not select
2nd, clear wall sterilization: all open gate using building pool cultivation method after fish pond is built up after sunlight fully tans by the sun, many Secondary enter to clear wash pool, the impurity sludge removal in pond is fallen, is then cleaned up the pond sterilization with medicine.At present using more be bleaching powder And quick lime, apply in before seedling 1 week putting.The dosage of every cubic meter of water is: quick lime 400ppm bleaching powder 30ppm.? Can spread quick lime, every mu of consumption: quick lime 150-200kg, bleaching powder 5-10kg.
3rd, density: lithosporic fish crop relies on the density of its population to a certain extent, too high or too low all can directly affect production Effect, in certain density, typically can obtain optimum growth speed offer sacriffices to the gods or the spirits of the dead its optimal population of highest yield again be subject to pair The flowing water quality of the restriction of many objective condition, such as cultivation place, seed dog are little, the rich managerial skills height etc. of regretting of bait. Therefore, grasp breeding density must suit measures to local conditions.Under general conditions, Tu Chi supports every mu of stocking rate is 1o0 mono- l5okg, It is 30o mono- 400kg that fill formula cultivates every mu of stocking rate.2.5kg is put in every cubic metre of cage culture in a suitable place to breed, about puts 25 fishes in a suitable place to breed.Every year Four to September be the season of fishing grouper be also the time putting seedling in a suitable place to breed, five to August be growth optimum time.
4th, daily ration, feeding quantity is with throwing erbium technology: has spot fish to be predacious fish, based on fresh small fish.If collocation hand fit raise Material requires protein content more than 36%, and is processed into different size according to fry is too little, feeds the food preferably fitting fry from less to more Depending on desire.Bait-throwing method must be fastened from the pass of the growth of grouper and bait throwing in frequency and take in, and the amount of being satiated with food is suppression lithosporic The key factor of fish growth, and the amount of being satiated with food is closely related with bait residual quantity in stomach.When empty stomach, the food ration of fish is maximum, stone The digestion time of spot fish about needs 35h, because grouper is gluttonous, runs into fresh food instant.And the food that end in stomach is digested Drain, cause to waste.Therefore the grasp of bait throwing in frequency is vital enough, should accomplish to allow fish to have enough, but do not waste bait and Cost-effective.
General daily ration of feeding foot according to fish body size, by the 3kg of its body weight with grasp day to food standard, simultaneously with the liter of water temperature Fall decreases or increases.Take quantitative, few method feeding many meal during bait throwing in, between first making a basket, throw side afterwards, each feeding volume also should divide Become several parts of throwings, can be eaten up by fish before bait sinks and be defined.The bait throwing in time rests in and carries out during temperature optimum in a day, the summer Its morning six, afternoon five, winter then fed at water temperature higher noon when six when seven.Many tests prove, every two It feeds and once also can obtain satisfied feeding effect.Lithosporic piscinity is suspected, and static food is lost interest in, and so that part is fallen Bait in bottom causes to waste.And sparid class is shown in that bait is instant, feeding habits are also more miscellaneous, therefore in foster grouper, suitably collocation one A little black porgies, Sparus Latus etc. can drive grouper to ingest, and can serve as " street cleaner, the various aufwuches of cleaning and impurity, purification Water quality.During cultivation grouper, due to the difference of the situation of ingesting, fish body size differentiation phenomenon often occurs, select in time Point pond or branch mailbox cultivation are so as to homoepitaxial.
5th, daily management:
(1) mensure of water environment.According to the life habit of grouper, its physicochemical environment require be.Water temperature l33 DEG C, salinity 36, ph Value 8.5, dissolved oxygen 3 more than mg/9mg.Therefore water thermometer to be equipped with, colorimeter, litmus paper etc. is measured, and proud easy to remember Record, to grasp the change conditions of envirment factor, coordinates science bait throwing in, improves yield.If meeting certain Graph One factor to change, and When take measures to solve.In breeding process, due to water translation difference, to put seedling density excessive, be susceptible to anoxic and raise the nose above water to breathe, To take machinery to draw water in time or aerator oxygenation cage culture suitably dilute can dip in the box number that wafts, improve current, or transfer sea Domain.
(2) safety and patrol.No matter taking a kind of that breeding way, all pregnant highly important work of safety and patrol.Pond is supported Grow and want running check dykes and dams, the security situation of gate, web plate etc., take measures in time to reinforce, change, it is to avoid more pond flight.Net Running check net cage is then answered in case cultivation, and whether art frame, float, anchor hawser, anchor etc. are damaged, drift, or move anchor, and net cage outer layer is because attached Some biological, block mesh, periodically scrub, and the growing up of marrow fish body, change the net cage of different meshes, rationally select point Class, branch mailbox is formed.
(3) grave illness preventing and treating.Propagating grouper artificially is intensive culture, and density is larger, and pathogen propagation chance is many, and due to water Stream condition is poorer than natural environment, and bait throwing in is improper to often result in water pollution, adds that feeding and management is not good at, and fish body premunition reduces, Often lead to fish disease and occur therefore, the prevention and treatment work of fish disease to be carried out, increase economic efficiency.In whole breeding process In, the principle relied mainly on prevention to be adhered to, each cultivating link all must prevent germ brings breeding water body into, keep water quality Fresh ill fry fish body to be avoided in handling process of not throwing in is mechanically damaged, and does not feed stale or corrupt bait Material, and prevent bait throwing in excessive, residual bait excessively ruins water quality.Propagating artificially of grouper grew up in recent years, fish disease Preventing and treating have in many new the problem still exists further investigateds.At present, common Shuo fish disease has tail, fin rot, ichthyophthirius, hickie Disease, parasitic disease etc..In order to prevent the generation of fish disease, usually add in bait can anti-fish disease medicine, improve the supporting of fish body Drag, conventional is terramycin, and 2g mixed by per kilogram bait.Periodically wash fish with fresh water respond well, be especially mechanically damaged and Washed with fresh water during morbidity, processed by fresh water osmotic pressure, allow its fish body feel the bacterium and parasite discharging top layer.Also can be every Wash within 15 days fresh water to be prevented for 1 time.Ecological method, the bacterium in seawater and parasite can also be used to be only limited in the seawater Can existence.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of grouper raising technology and its method are it is characterised in that its step method is:
Step 1, artificial culture technology:Plant's environmental selection is it is desirable to substrate is to copy matter, half sandy to have natural reef layer, (2) Water quality transparency is high, and (3) do not pollute source area, and (4), near set net off-shore operation area, (5) wind sheltering condition is good;
Step 2, fetch earth pool cultivated pattern, in reclamation area in, low tidal region dig Di Jianchi, dam sluice is leaned in the exchange of water, inside repaiies Build drainage ditch, communicate with fishpond, water inlet separately, and is separated by, 12 mu of fishpond area is a pond, rectangle pond length-width ratio calamity 5: 1, a sluice water inlet is built in each pond, and width is 1 meter, and gate configures 4 lock grooves, and each is separated by 30 meters, and first groove puts steel wire Net, second groove puts flashboard, and the 3rd road groove puts straw rope net, and the 4th road groove puts nylon wire, digs a ring at 1.2 meters from pond bank Ditch, 55 centimetres of ditch depth, dig 1 at intake gate to water gate and visit naughty ditch, wide 1.2 meters, deep 0.6 centimetre, a width of intake gate of water gate 1/2nd, water deep more than 2 meters, at the bottom of pond lays stone riprap, coral reef, cement fish shelter;
Step 3, puts management: the selection of (1) fry in a suitable place to breed: select energetic, body is long, body colour is partially black, outward appearance is normal, anosis fry, (2) sterilize: open gate through exposure in sunshine, repeatedly rinse, remove mud, use drug disinfection afterwards, with quick lime and bleaching powder, Consumption is: quick lime 450ppm, bleaching powder 25ppm, every mu of consumption: quick lime 220kg, bleaching powder 12kg, before putting fry One week applied;
Step 4, the density of fish: every mu of stocking rate is 90 kilograms, and annual 3 ~ October puts fry;
Step 5, bait is thrown in: bait and fresh small fish are raw material, arranges in pairs or groups mixed feed protein more than 38%, bait Fish specification makes varigrained bait to grain by size, works as consumption per day according to fish body re-computation, quantitation taken by bait throwing in material, feeds many less Meal, between first making a basket, throws periphery, thirty in summer 5 starts to throw, and winter throws at noon, and some black porgy fishes of arranging in pairs or groups in pond are raised together with, and also will afterwards Sorting size divides pond branch mailbox to support in good time;
Step 6, safety cultivates: (1) hydro-environmental change situation, and its physicochemical environment requires water temperature at 33 DEG C, salinity: 10%, ph7.5, Dissolved oxygen amount 3 mg/litre, is optimum condition, arranges tower oxygen machine depending on water environment, (2) safety and patrol, pays close attention to pond and becomes Change, the activity change of fish, prevent and cure diseases and rely mainly on prevention, with terramycin, per kilogram bait mixes 2 grams, fresh water cleans once within every 25 days.
CN201610733572.XA 2016-08-27 2016-08-27 Grouper breeding technology and method thereof Pending CN106332811A (en)

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