CN106323587A - Monocular video high precision measuring method for wing wind tunnel test model elastic deformation - Google Patents

Monocular video high precision measuring method for wing wind tunnel test model elastic deformation Download PDF

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CN106323587A
CN106323587A CN201610627327.0A CN201610627327A CN106323587A CN 106323587 A CN106323587 A CN 106323587A CN 201610627327 A CN201610627327 A CN 201610627327A CN 106323587 A CN106323587 A CN 106323587A
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coordinate value
wing
deformation
coordinate
wind tunnel
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CN106323587B (en
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张征宇
彭章国
黄叙辉
茆骥
王超
刘明敏
范金磊
刘田
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High Speed Aerodynamics Research Institute of China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center
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High Speed Aerodynamics Research Institute of China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01MTESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01M9/00Aerodynamic testing; Arrangements in or on wind tunnels
    • G01M9/06Measuring arrangements specially adapted for aerodynamic testing

Abstract

The invention discloses a monocular video high precision measuring method for wing wind tunnel test model elastic deformation. Based on a fact that relative deformation of two adjacent cross sections of a wing wind tunnel test model is small linear elasticity deformation, coordinate figures of corners and deformation mark points Y of all cross sections are orderly calculated from a wing root according to a superposition principle; a conventional monocular video measuring method is adopted, the coordinate figures of the deformation mark points Y are brought in a collinearity equation, and deformation data of the mark points on all the cross sections can be orderly obtained. Via the monocular video high precision measuring method, monocular video measurement errors of wing wind tunnel test model elastic deformation can be greatly reduced, only one camera needs to be used, multi-view video measurement precision can be obtained, hardware cost of a measurement device can be lowered, tedious homonymous point matching work of multi-view video measurement can be prevented, the monocular video high precision measuring method is particularly suitable for an environment where camera installation positions are limited, and the monocular video high precision measuring method has great engineering application prospects.

Description

The monocular video high-precision measuring method of wing model in wind tunnel elastic deformation
Technical field
The present invention relates to machine vision and photogrammetric wind-tunnel technique field, particularly to a kind of wing wind-tunnel examination Test the monocular video high-precision measuring method of model elastic deformation.
Background technology
Along with the increase of test chamber size, corresponding moulded dimension and aerodynamic loading increase, in test model and The elastic deformation of support system is the most obvious.The aerodynamic loading born such as model during 2.4 meters of transonic wind tunnel tests is up to several tons, Even the wing of high strength steel also can occur obvious elastic deformation, and numerous studies show: turn twist, separate and shock wave/ The complicated flow phenomenon such as boundary region interference is very sensitive to change of shape, and the trickle change of mould shapes may cause pneumatic spy Property produce large change.
Therefore, the wing twist of accurate experiment with measuring model and flexural deformation, grasp actual measurement aerodynamic data and test mould with it Corresponding relation between type aerodynamic configuration, is the premise of high wind tunnel testing data implementation model elasticity effect correction, is also based on The inevitable requirement of test data checking CFD numerical simulation result.
Although laser grating method andIt is high that the measuring precision is measured in optics commercialization, but needs at test model Upper concordant setting-in grating sensor or MARKER point, not only break up the aerodynamic configuration of model, must also on test model perforate cloth Line is the power supply of MARKER point, causes the design of wing model in wind tunnel and manufacture is difficult, cost is high;AndOutward Shape size be up to 1 meter, 3 line array CCD spacing reach 0.45 meter, Measuring Object must be placed in from1.5 meters to 6 meters Within, cause the observation window of existing domestic and international high-speed wind tunnel to be difficult to possess measuring condition.
In view of test model is designed without special by video measuring (Videogrammetric Measurement, VM) technology Requirement, it is only necessary to viscous marking note point on test model, i.e. may utilize collinearity equation and solves the three-dimensional coordinate of labelling point, it is thus achieved that wing The deformation data of model in wind tunnel, therefore, is favored by domestic and international wind tunnel test mechanism.
As it is shown in figure 1, but the observation window limited amount of existing domestic and international high-speed wind tunnel, cause many mesh ripe on the market Machine vision and the photogrammetric business software of various visual angles are difficult to be suitable for.Especially transonic wind tunnel, owing to being necessary to ensure that it is smooth Quality, the size causing its optical observation window is little, quantity is few, and the appearance difference of the most all kinds of aircraft test models is relatively big, often Occur that double camera can not cover the situation of measured zone simultaneously, now, it has to use the monocular video measuring method of one camera.
Collinearity equation describes viscous print tested point and the mathematical modulo of picture point three thereof on video measuring camera, test model Type, expression formula is
x + f a 1 ( X - X s ) + b 1 ( Y - Y s ) + c 1 ( Z - Z s ) a 3 ( X - X S ) + b 3 ( Y - Y s ) + c 3 ( Z - Z s ) + x u = x 0 y + f a 2 ( X - X s ) + b 2 ( Y - Y s ) + c 2 ( Z - Z s ) a 3 ( X - X S ) + b 3 ( Y - Y s ) + c 3 ( Z - Z s ) + y u = y 0 - - - ( 1 )
(x in formula0,y0) it being respectively camera image plane center, f is camera focus, xuWith yuFor obtained by camera calibration Distortion correction amount, (Xs,Ys,Zs) it is respectively camera position coordinates under wind tunnel axis system, (and x, y) the most viscous with (X, Y, Z) The image plane coordinate of print point and the coordinate under wind tunnel axis system, (a1,a2,a3,b1,b2,b3,c1,c2,c3) it is camera attitude angle 9 direction cosines in the spin matrix R that (φ, ω, κ) is formed.
Therefore, for monocular video measuring method, when the pose parameter of known camera, the image plane coordinate of labelling to be measured point (x, the Y-coordinate value in coordinate (X, Y, Z) (i.e. spanwise coordinate figure) y) and under wind tunnel axis system can be obtained by formula (1) Its another two coordinate figure (X, Z) under wind tunnel axis system.
But for wing test model, as it is shown in figure 1, because of its cantilever beam structure form, can occur under aerodynamic loading Significantly flexural deformation, causes its Y-coordinate value (i.e. along spanwise) to have reduced, and especially sits the closer to its Y at wing tip Scale value reduces the biggest, thus (X, the Z) coordinate figure causing monocular video measuring method to be obtained by formula (1) produces error.
Summary of the invention
In order to overcome the disadvantages mentioned above of prior art, the present invention proposes the list of a kind of wing model in wind tunnel elastic deformation Visually frequency high-precision measuring method, during by setting up wing model generation elastic deformation, labelling point is at the Y coordinate meter of spanwise Calculate model, obtain the labelling new Y-coordinate value of point after considering deformation, then using the image plane coordinate of labelling point when itself and deformation as Know condition, bring collinearity equation into and record (X, Z) coordinate figure of wing model upper cover labelling point, to guarantee wing model in wind tunnel The accuracy that the monocular video of deformation is measured, has huge future in engineering applications.
The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems comprises the steps:
Step one, at wind tunnel window extenal fixation, camera is installed, adjusts camera pose parameter and focal length so that it is cover whole The measured zone of wing test model;
Step 2, wing test model neutral axis upper surface draw labelling point, each labelling point determine one cut Face, is wherein arranged on the upper surface labelling point of the 0th cross-sectional neutral axis at the wing root that wing is connected with fuselage;
After step 3, calculating elastic deformation, i-th cross section is relative to the rotational angle theta in the i-th-1 cross sectioni:
θ i ≈ d z l i = Z P i - ( z i - 1 D + l i sinβ i - 1 ) l i
In formula: PiFor i-th cross section and neutral axis intersection point,For Pi-1Z coordinate value after deformation,For PiZ coordinate Value, βi-1For Pi-1Place's neutral axis tangent line is relative to the angle of Y coordinate axle, liFor neutral axis between i-th cross section and the i-th-1 cross section Length;
Judge θiWhether less than or equal to 1 degree, the most then enter next step, otherwise shorten li, recalculate θi, until θiLittle In equal to 1 degree;
Step 4, calculating PiPlace's neutral axis tangent line is relative to the angle β of Y coordinate axlei:
βii-1i
P after step 5, calculating elastic deformationiZ coordinate value
z i D = z i - 1 D + l i sinβ i
P after step 6, calculating elastic deformationiY-coordinate value
y i D = y i - 1 D + l i cosβ i
The Y-coordinate value of the upper and lower surface markers point of i-th cross-sectional neutral axis after step 7, calculating deformation:
(1) upper surface labelling point P is calculatedi surfaceY-coordinate value:
Y P i s u r f a c e D = y i D - τsinθ i
Wherein, τ is Pi surfaceTo PiDistance;
(2) lower surface labelling point P is calculatedi surface-downY-coordinate value:
Y P i s u r f a c e - d o w n D = y i D + τsinθ i
Step 8, calculate the deflection of upper and lower surface markers point:
(1) deflection of calculating upper surface labelling point:
Upper surface labelling point P when camera shooting is deformedi surfaceImage space coordinate and Y-coordinate valueCamera inside and outside parameter, as known parameters, is brought collinearity equation into and is calculated Pi surfaceX-coordinate value And Z coordinate valueBy it and without P during aerodynamic loadingi surfaceX subtract each other respectively with Z coordinate value, obtain Pi surface's Deflection;
(2) deflection of calculating lower surface labelling point:
Deform surface markers point P at present by camera shootingi surface-downImage space coordinate and Y-coordinate valueCamera inside and outside parameter, as known parameters, is brought collinearity equation into and is calculated Pi surface-downX-coordinate valueAnd Z coordinate valueBy it and without P during aerodynamic loadingi surface-downX and Z coordinate value Subtract each other respectively, obtain Pi surface-downDeflection.
Compared with prior art, the positive effect of the present invention is:
Different from existing monocular video measuring method, utilization is arranged on the corner in the 0th cross section at wing root and with amount of deflection is Zero, this boundary condition, set up wing i-th (i >=1) individual cross section relatively for the corner in the i-th-1 cross section and passing of Y-coordinate value Push away relation, i.e. the present invention utilizes relative deformation between the adjacent two sections of wing model in wind tunnel to belong to the spy of linear elasticity small deformation Property, based on principle of stacking, calculate corner and the Y-coordinate value of labelling point during deformation in each cross section successively from wing root;Again with existing There is monocular video measuring method, bring the Y-coordinate value of labelling point during deformation into collinearity equation, draw the change of labelling point on each cross section Graphic data.
Therefore, bring collinearity equation into the direct labelling point Y-coordinate value by wing time not deformed and calculate this labelling point deformation The existing monocular video measuring method of data is compared, and the present invention considers wing and deforms caused labelling point Y under aerodynamic loading Coordinate reduction amount, during by setting up wing model generation bending elastic deformation, labelling point is at the Y coordinate computation model of spanwise, Calculate the new Y-coordinate value of labelling point when deforming, then carry it into collinearity equation, record labelling point on wing model (X, Z) coordinate figure, to guarantee the accuracy that the monocular video that wing model in wind tunnel deforms is measured.
The present invention only need to use single camera, can obtain the accuracy of many mesh video measuring, both reduce measurement equipment Hardware cost, avoids again the homotopy mapping of loaded down with trivial details many mesh video measuring to work, is particularly suited in camera installation site limited Environment use, therefore there is huge future in engineering applications.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Examples of the present invention will be described by way of reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Fig. 1 is high-speed wind tunnel wing test model elastic deformation video measuring schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 is wing test model elastic deformation monocular video instrumentation plan;
Fig. 3 is the neutral axis upper surface labelling point-rendering schematic diagram of wing test model;
Fig. 4 is the schematic diagram of the corner recurrence calculation in wing i-th cross section.
Detailed description of the invention
The monocular video high-precision measuring method of a kind of wing model in wind tunnel elastic deformation, comprises the steps:
Step one, as in figure 2 it is shown, install camera at wind tunnel window extenal fixation, adjusts camera pose parameter and focal length, makes It covers the measured zone of whole wing test model;
Step 2, the machine vision using maturation and photogrammetric survey method, obtain the distortion parameter of camera optical system, with And the pose parameter under the wind tunnel axis system yoz shown in Fig. 2;
Step 3 as it is shown on figure 3, wing test model neutral axis upper surface draw labelling point, each labelling point Determine a cross section, wherein the upper surface labelling point of the 0th cross-sectional neutral axis be arranged at the wing root that wing is connected with fuselage, The most do not deform, i.e. draw labelling pointZ coordinate value after deformationZ coordinate value time not deformed with itEqual.Obviously, according to Fig. 2 coordinate system, the upper surface labelling point of i-th cross-sectional neutral axis in Fig. 3 time not deformed Pi surfaceWith i-th cross section and neutral axis intersection point PiY-coordinate value equal.
Step 4, the corner setting up i-th cross section and i-th cross section and neutral axis intersection point PiThe recursion meter of Y-coordinate value Formula.Concrete computational methods are as follows:
1. qualifications: in wind tunnel test, the big order of magnitude of lift specific resistance of wing, wing becomes in lift bending in addition The rigidity in shape direction is much smaller compared with the rigidity in resistance flexural deformation direction, therefore negligible resistance flexural deformation, only consider such as Fig. 2 institute The lift flexural deformation shown;
2. the corner recurrence calculation formula in wing i-th cross section.Utilize between the adjacent two sections of wing model in wind tunnel Relative deformation belongs to the characteristic of linear elasticity small deformation, and the GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR even with high aspect ratio wing model (becomes greatly Shape small strain effect), its stress-strain relation still meets linear elasticity, therefore meets the mechanics of materials about cantilever beam elastic deformation Principle of stacking: i.e. wing i-th cross section is relative to the corner in the i-th-1 cross section
θ i ≈ d z l i - - - ( 2 )
In formula, dZ is i-th cross section and neutral axis intersection point PiWith the i-th-1 cross section and neutral axis intersection point Pi-1Z coordinate poor Value, liFor the length of neutral axis between i-th cross section and the i-th-1 cross section.
3. i-th cross section and neutral axis intersection point PiThe recurrence calculation formula of Y-coordinate value.As shown in Figure 4, will be located in wing examination Test model i-th cross section and neutral axis intersection point PiY-coordinate value be designated as yi, P after elastic deformationiY coordinate be designated asThen's Computational methods are as follows:
y i D = y i - 1 D + l i c o s ( θ i + β i - 1 )
β in formulai-1For Pi-1Locate the neutral axis tangent line angle relative to Y coordinate axle,WithIt is respectively Pi-1After deformation Y-coordinate value and Z coordinate value, θiFor i-th cross section after deformation relative to the corner in the i-th-1 cross section.During linear elasticity small deformation, Be equivalent to labelling point P on i-th cross-sectional neutral axisiAt the black circle of Fig. 4, with Pi-1For the center of circle, liFor radius, go to Fig. 4 Dotted line round dot at, have according to formula (2):
θ i ≈ Z P i - ( z i - 1 D + l i sinβ i - 1 ) l i
In formulaComputational methods be: by camera shooting deform time PiImage space coordinate, the inside and outside ginseng of camera Number, and PiY-coordinate valueBring formula (1) into and calculate PiZ coordinate valueNamely be based on Consider the y of preamble section deformation impactiDrawWith P in Fig. 4iThe difference of the Z coordinate value at black circle is divided by li, according to Formula (2) calculates the i-th cross section rotational angle theta relative to the i-th-1 cross sectioni.By the contrast experiment with binocular video measurement result, Find: work as θiDuring less than or equal to 1 degree, the error that this approximation based on principle of stacking causes is negligible, if θiMore than 1 When spending, then can shorten li, recalculate θi, until θiLess than or equal to 1 degree.
④PiPlace's neutral axis tangent line is relative to the angle β of Y coordinate axleiRecurrence calculation formula
βii-1i
⑤PiZ coordinate valueRecurrence calculation formula:
z i D = z i - 1 D + l i sinβ i
6. by labelling point P on the 0th of wing model in wind tunnel the cross-sectional neutral axis0It is arranged on what wing was connected with fuselage At wing root constraint, the most do not deform, therefore, P0Place has:β00=0,
Step 5, the upper surface labelling point P of calculating i-th cross-sectional neutral axisi surfaceY-coordinate value.By Pi surfaceTo Pi Distance be designated as τ and (be neutral axis at PiPlace is to the distance of wing model upper surface), then Pi surfaceY-coordinate value
Y P i s u r f a c e D = y i D - τsinθ i
For i-th cross-sectional neutral axis lower surface labelling point Pi surface-downY-coordinate value
Y P i s u r f a c e - d o w n D = y i D + τsinθ i
Step 6, by camera shooting deform time labelling point Pi surfaceImage space coordinate and Y-coordinate valueCamera inside and outside parameter, as known parameters, is brought formula (1) into, is calculated Pi surfaceX-coordinate valueAnd Z Coordinate figureBy it and without P during aerodynamic loadingi surfaceX subtract each other respectively with Z coordinate value, be the P recordedi surface Deflection;In like manner, lower surface labelling point P when camera shooting being deformedi surface-downImage space coordinate andCamera inside and outside parameter, as known parameters, can calculate Pi surface-downX-coordinate valueAnd Z coordinate valueBy it and without P during aerodynamic loadingi surface-downX and Z coordinate value Subtract each other respectively, be the P recordedi surface-downDeflection.

Claims (3)

1. the monocular video high-precision measuring method of a wing model in wind tunnel elastic deformation, it is characterised in that include as follows Step:
Step one, at wind tunnel window extenal fixation, camera is installed, adjusts camera pose parameter and focal length so that it is cover whole wing The measured zone of test model;
Step 2, wing test model neutral axis upper surface draw labelling point, each labelling point determines a cross section, its Middle the upper surface labelling point of the 0th cross-sectional neutral axis is arranged at the wing root that wing is connected with fuselage;
After step 3, calculating elastic deformation, i-th cross section is relative to the rotational angle theta in the i-th-1 cross sectioni:
θ i ≈ d z l i = Z P i - ( z i - 1 D + l i sinβ i - 1 ) l i
In formula: PiFor i-th cross section and neutral axis intersection point,For Pi-1Z coordinate value after deformation,For PiZ coordinate value, βi-1For Pi-1Place's neutral axis tangent line is relative to the angle of Y coordinate axle, liFor neutral axis between i-th cross section and the i-th-1 cross section Length;
Judge θiWhether less than or equal to 1 degree, the most then enter next step, otherwise shorten li, recalculate θi, until θiIt is less than or equal to 1 degree;
Step 4, calculating PiPlace's neutral axis tangent line is relative to the angle β of Y coordinate axlei:
βii-1i
P after step 5, calculating elastic deformationiZ coordinate value
z i D = z i - 1 D + l i sinβ i
P after step 6, calculating elastic deformationiY-coordinate value
y i D = y i - 1 D + l i cosβ i
The Y-coordinate value of the upper and lower surface markers point of i-th cross-sectional neutral axis after step 7, calculating deformation:
(1) upper surface labelling point P is calculatedi surfaceY-coordinate value:
Y P i s u r f a c e D = y i D - τsinθ i
Wherein, τ is Pi surfaceTo PiDistance;
(2) lower surface labelling point P is calculatedi surface-downY-coordinate value:
Y P i s u r f a c e - d o w n D = y i D + τsinθ i
Step 8, calculate the deflection of upper and lower surface markers point:
(1) deflection of calculating upper surface labelling point:
Upper surface labelling point P when camera shooting is deformedi surfaceImage space coordinate and Y-coordinate valuePhase Machine inside and outside parameter, as known parameters, is brought collinearity equation into and is calculated Pi surfaceX-coordinate valueAnd Z coordinate valueBy it and without P during aerodynamic loadingi surfaceX subtract each other respectively with Z coordinate value, obtain Pi surfaceDeflection;
(2) deflection of calculating lower surface labelling point:
Deform surface markers point P at present by camera shootingi surface-downImage space coordinate and Y-coordinate valueCamera inside and outside parameter, as known parameters, is brought collinearity equation into and is calculated Pi surface-downX-coordinate valueAnd Z coordinate valueBy it and without P during aerodynamic loadingi surface-downX and Z coordinate value Subtract each other respectively, obtain Pi surface-downDeflection.
The monocular video high-precision measuring method of wing model in wind tunnel elastic deformation the most according to claim 1, its It is characterised by: describedComputational methods be: by camera shooting deform time PiImage space coordinate, the inside and outside ginseng of camera Number, and PiY-coordinate value yiBring collinearity equation into try to achieve.
The monocular video high-precision measuring method of wing model in wind tunnel elastic deformation the most according to claim 2, its It is characterised by: described yiIt is calculated as follows:
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