CN106316447A - 一种稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料及其制备方法 - Google Patents

一种稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料及其制备方法 Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN106316447A
CN106316447A CN201610617099.9A CN201610617099A CN106316447A CN 106316447 A CN106316447 A CN 106316447A CN 201610617099 A CN201610617099 A CN 201610617099A CN 106316447 A CN106316447 A CN 106316447A
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
silicon carbide
rice husk
carbide ceramic
rice
husk
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
CN201610617099.9A
Other languages
English (en)
Other versions
CN106316447B (zh
Inventor
马琰珂
Original Assignee
马琰珂
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by 马琰珂 filed Critical 马琰珂
Priority to CN201610617099.9A priority Critical patent/CN106316447B/zh
Publication of CN106316447A publication Critical patent/CN106316447A/zh
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN106316447B publication Critical patent/CN106316447B/zh
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B38/00Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware; Preparation thereof
    • C04B38/06Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware; Preparation thereof by burning-out added substances by burning natural expanding materials or by sublimating or melting out added substances
    • C04B38/063Preparing or treating the raw materials individually or as batches
    • C04B38/0635Compounding ingredients
    • C04B38/0645Burnable, meltable, sublimable materials
    • C04B38/0675Vegetable refuse; Cellulosic materials, e.g. wood chips, cork, peat, paper
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B35/00Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/515Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on non-oxide ceramics
    • C04B35/56Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on non-oxide ceramics based on carbides or oxycarbides
    • C04B35/565Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on non-oxide ceramics based on carbides or oxycarbides based on silicon carbide
    • C04B35/573Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on non-oxide ceramics based on carbides or oxycarbides based on silicon carbide obtained by reaction sintering or recrystallisation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B35/00Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/622Forming processes; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/62204Forming processes; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products using waste materials or refuse
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B35/00Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/622Forming processes; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/62204Forming processes; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products using waste materials or refuse
    • C04B35/62213Forming processes; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products using waste materials or refuse using rice material, e.g. bran or hulls or husks
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B35/00Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/622Forming processes; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/626Preparing or treating the powders individually or as batches ; preparing or treating macroscopic reinforcing agents for ceramic products, e.g. fibres; mechanical aspects section B
    • C04B35/63Preparing or treating the powders individually or as batches ; preparing or treating macroscopic reinforcing agents for ceramic products, e.g. fibres; mechanical aspects section B using additives specially adapted for forming the products, e.g.. binder binders
    • C04B35/6303Inorganic additives
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B35/00Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/622Forming processes; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/626Preparing or treating the powders individually or as batches ; preparing or treating macroscopic reinforcing agents for ceramic products, e.g. fibres; mechanical aspects section B
    • C04B35/63Preparing or treating the powders individually or as batches ; preparing or treating macroscopic reinforcing agents for ceramic products, e.g. fibres; mechanical aspects section B using additives specially adapted for forming the products, e.g.. binder binders
    • C04B35/632Organic additives
    • C04B35/634Polymers
    • C04B35/63404Polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • C04B35/6342Polyvinylacetals, e.g. polyvinylbutyral [PVB]
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B35/00Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/622Forming processes; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/626Preparing or treating the powders individually or as batches ; preparing or treating macroscopic reinforcing agents for ceramic products, e.g. fibres; mechanical aspects section B
    • C04B35/63Preparing or treating the powders individually or as batches ; preparing or treating macroscopic reinforcing agents for ceramic products, e.g. fibres; mechanical aspects section B using additives specially adapted for forming the products, e.g.. binder binders
    • C04B35/632Organic additives
    • C04B35/636Polysaccharides or derivatives thereof
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B35/00Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/622Forming processes; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/64Burning or sintering processes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B35/00Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/71Ceramic products containing macroscopic reinforcing agents
    • C04B35/78Ceramic products containing macroscopic reinforcing agents containing non-metallic materials
    • C04B35/80Fibres, filaments, whiskers, platelets, or the like
    • C04B35/806The matrix of the ceramic products consisting of non-oxides only
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/02Composition of constituents of the starting material or of secondary phases of the final product
    • C04B2235/30Constituents and secondary phases not being of a fibrous nature
    • C04B2235/32Metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, or oxide-forming salts thereof, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides
    • C04B2235/327Iron group oxides, their mixed metal oxides, or oxide-forming salts thereof
    • C04B2235/3272Iron oxides or oxide forming salts thereof, e.g. hematite, magnetite
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/02Composition of constituents of the starting material or of secondary phases of the final product
    • C04B2235/30Constituents and secondary phases not being of a fibrous nature
    • C04B2235/40Metallic constituents or additives not added as binding phase
    • C04B2235/405Iron group metals
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/02Composition of constituents of the starting material or of secondary phases of the final product
    • C04B2235/30Constituents and secondary phases not being of a fibrous nature
    • C04B2235/42Non metallic elements added as constituents or additives, e.g. sulfur, phosphor, selenium or tellurium
    • C04B2235/422Carbon
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/02Composition of constituents of the starting material or of secondary phases of the final product
    • C04B2235/30Constituents and secondary phases not being of a fibrous nature
    • C04B2235/42Non metallic elements added as constituents or additives, e.g. sulfur, phosphor, selenium or tellurium
    • C04B2235/422Carbon
    • C04B2235/425Graphite
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/02Composition of constituents of the starting material or of secondary phases of the final product
    • C04B2235/30Constituents and secondary phases not being of a fibrous nature
    • C04B2235/44Metal salt constituents or additives chosen for the nature of the anions, e.g. hydrides or acetylacetonate
    • C04B2235/444Halide containing anions, e.g. bromide, iodate, chlorite
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/02Composition of constituents of the starting material or of secondary phases of the final product
    • C04B2235/30Constituents and secondary phases not being of a fibrous nature
    • C04B2235/48Organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. carbonising phenol resins
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/02Composition of constituents of the starting material or of secondary phases of the final product
    • C04B2235/50Constituents or additives of the starting mixture chosen for their shape or used because of their shape or their physical appearance
    • C04B2235/52Constituents or additives characterised by their shapes
    • C04B2235/5208Fibers
    • C04B2235/5216Inorganic
    • C04B2235/524Non-oxidic, e.g. borides, carbides, silicides or nitrides
    • C04B2235/5244Silicon carbide
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/02Composition of constituents of the starting material or of secondary phases of the final product
    • C04B2235/50Constituents or additives of the starting mixture chosen for their shape or used because of their shape or their physical appearance
    • C04B2235/52Constituents or additives characterised by their shapes
    • C04B2235/5276Whiskers, spindles, needles or pins
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/02Composition of constituents of the starting material or of secondary phases of the final product
    • C04B2235/50Constituents or additives of the starting mixture chosen for their shape or used because of their shape or their physical appearance
    • C04B2235/54Particle size related information
    • C04B2235/5418Particle size related information expressed by the size of the particles or aggregates thereof
    • C04B2235/5436Particle size related information expressed by the size of the particles or aggregates thereof micrometer sized, i.e. from 1 to 100 micron
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/65Aspects relating to heat treatments of ceramic bodies such as green ceramics or pre-sintered ceramics, e.g. burning, sintering or melting processes
    • C04B2235/658Atmosphere during thermal treatment
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/65Aspects relating to heat treatments of ceramic bodies such as green ceramics or pre-sintered ceramics, e.g. burning, sintering or melting processes
    • C04B2235/66Specific sintering techniques, e.g. centrifugal sintering
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/70Aspects relating to sintered or melt-casted ceramic products
    • C04B2235/74Physical characteristics
    • C04B2235/77Density
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/70Aspects relating to sintered or melt-casted ceramic products
    • C04B2235/96Properties of ceramic products, e.g. mechanical properties such as strength, toughness, wear resistance

Abstract

本发明公开了一种稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料及其制备方法。稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料,主要由稻壳和混合料制成,混合料的质量为稻壳质量的30%~70%;所述混合料由以下质量百分比的组分组成:硅粉1%~30%,碳源5%~40%,催化剂1%~15%,结合剂30%~75%。本发明的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料,以农业废料稻壳为主要原料,与硅粉、碳源、催化剂、结合剂混合后制成坯料,经成型、干燥、烧成制得;所用原料来源广泛、成本低廉,所得制品具有气孔率高、机械强度大、过滤效果好、抗热震性优异、气孔孔径微细及微观形貌可调等优点,具有广阔的发展空间和应用前景,适合工业化推广应用。

Description

一种稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料及其制备方法
技术领域
[0001] 本发明属于陶瓷材料技术领域,具体涉及一种稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料及其制 备方法。
背景技术
[0002] 多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料具有隔热效果好、过滤性强、耐高温、耐侵蚀、强度高、抗热震 性优良等特点,被广泛应用于保温隔热、高温烟气的净化及熔融金属的过滤等领域。目前, 多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料的制备常以碳化硅为主要原料,并通过添加可燃物法成孔,经高温固 相反应烧结制备而成。但因碳化硅材料价格较为昂贵,并具有较强的共价键(约为88%),使 其高温扩散系数较低,在2100°C下C和Si的自扩散系数分别仅为1.5 X l(T1()Cm2/S和2.5 X 10 -13cm2/S,致使其烧成温度较高,制备成本难以降低,限制了多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料的工业推 广及应用,为此寻找低成本且简便易行的多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料的制备方法是实现其工业化 推广应用的关键。
[0003] 稻壳是稻米加工的副产品,约占稻谷重量的20%,目前全球稻谷产地主要集中在 亚洲,其中,我国稻谷年产量约为2亿吨,折算成稻壳年产量约为0.4亿吨,占世界总产量的 30 %以上,位居世界首位。但在我国广大农村及粮米加工厂,稻壳多是通过焚烧或自然堆放 进行处理,既污染了周边环境、潜存火灾隐患,还占用大量土地资源。研究表明,稻壳是一种 多孔性、低密度(720kg/m 3)的天然有机材料,由粗纤维、木质素、粗蛋白、粗脂肪和灰分构 成,其质量百分比分别约为40%、34%、4%、1%和21%,在灰分中,31〇2约占93.1%,其余为 少量的K2〇,Na2〇,MgO和AI2O3等。由此可知,稻壳中同时包含C和Si两种元素,且杂质含量较 低。因此,以稻壳为原料,同时利用其Si质和C质成分原位合成碳化硅,有望大大降低多孔碳 化硅陶瓷材料的制备成本,并使稻壳废物资源有效利用,对推进工业、农业的绿色发展具有 重大现实意义。
[0004] CN103803982B公开了一种稻壳堆积多孔碳化硅的制备方法,其将浸渍有酚醛树脂 的稻壳烘干后堆积成型,于真空条件下经300~1300°C碳化得到碳化产物,再将碳化产物和 硅粉于1420~1750°C硅化制成多孔碳化硅陶瓷;该方法可以获得孔隙率为30%~70%的多 孔或泡沫碳化硅陶瓷,但其并没有对孔径分布、机械强度及碳化硅的微观结构形貌作进一 步说明,且需真空条件,技术条件较为复杂,实际应用范围有限。
发明内容
[0005] 本发明的目的是提供一种稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料,其具有孔径微细、体积密 度低、机械强度高、过滤性好的特点,综合性能优良。
[0006] 本发明的第二个目的是提供上述稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料的制备方法。
[0007] 为了实现以上目的,本发明采用的技术方案是:
[0008] -种稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料,主要由稻壳和混合料制成,混合料的质量为稻 壳质量的30 %~70 % ;所述混合料由以下质量百分比的组分组成:硅粉1 %~30 %,碳源5 % ~40%,催化剂1 %~15%,结合剂30%~75% ;其中碳源为碳黑、石墨、石墨烯、酚醛树脂 粉、无烟煤、焦炭或沥青中的一种或组合。
[0009]上述稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料,由稻壳、混合料和水制成。
[0010]稻壳的体积密度较低,真实密度约为720kg · πΓ3,自然堆积密度仅为96~160kg · πΓ3,以其为主要原料,可有效降低制品的比重。
[0011] 所述催化剂为他(:1、他卩、211、卩6、卩6(:13、卩6203中的一种或组合。
[0012] 所述结合剂为糊精粉、纸浆粉、羧甲基纤维素、羧甲基纤维素钠、聚乙烯醇缩丁醛、 明胶中的一种或组合。
[0013] 上述原料中,硅粉中Si的质量百分含量多98% ;碳黑中碳的质量百分含量多 98.3%;石墨中碳的质量百分含量多98.5%;石墨烯中碳的质量百分含量多96%;酚醛树脂 粉中残余碳的质量百分含量为60%~68% ;无烟煤中碳的质量百分含量多95.5% ;焦炭中 碳的质量百分含量为95%~98%;沥青中碳的质量百分含量为40%~45%。
[0014] 本发明的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料,主要由稻壳和混合料制成,稻壳中同时含 有Si和C两种元素,且Si元素为无定型态,具有较高的反应活性,易与C反应生成SiC,使烧成 温度降低;催化剂促进高温合成反应平稳进行;结合剂使各原料组分充分润湿并粘合,提高 坯体强度,减少制品缺陷。各原料组分配比科学、协同作用,使所得稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷 材料的气孔孔径微细、体积密度低,且具有较高的机械强度。
[0015] 将稻壳粉加水润湿后与混合料混合制备成坯料,再经成型、干燥和埋碳条件下的 高温烧成,即得多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料。
[0016] 优选的,上述稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料的制备方法,包括以下步骤:
[0017] 1)将稻壳粉与水混合,再加入混合料混合均匀,制成坯料;
[0018] 2)将坯料成型制成坯体,还体干燥后,在还原气氛中于1300~1500 °C烧成,即得。
[0019] 步骤1)中,水的用量为稻壳粉重量的20 %~200 %。稻壳粉的平均粒径<75μπι。混 合料中,硅粉的平均粒径彡75μπι,碳源的平均粒径彡75μπι,催化剂的平均粒径彡45μπι。
[0020] 步骤2)中,所述的成型为压制成型,成型的压力为0.5~3MPa,成型压力下保压的 时间为10~30s。
[0021] 步骤2)中,干燥的温度为50~110°C,干燥的时间为12~48h。
[0022] 步骤2)中,以2~5°C/min的速率升温至1300~1500°C,并在最高烧成温度保温3~ 5h〇
[0023] 所述的还原气氛为埋碳条件下的还原性气氛。
[0024] 本发明的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料的制备方法,以价格低廉且来源充足的农业 废料稻壳为主要原料制备成多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料,降低了烧成温度,使制备成本大大降低, 并实现了废物资源的有效利用,提高了稻壳的附加值,减少了环境污染,有利于节能环保。 该制备方法工艺简单易控、成本低廉、无毒无污染、绿色环保,具有广阔的发展空间和应用 前景,适合工业化推广应用。
附图说明
[0025] 图1为本发明实施例1所得稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料中碳化硅的SEM图;
[0026] 图2为本发明实施例2所得稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料中碳化硅的SEM图。
具体实施方式
[0027] 下面结合具体实施例对本发明作进一步说明。
[0028] 以下实施例中,将稻壳与水按体积比1:5的比例清洗3次,去除其表面泥沙,得到洁 净稻壳;洁净稻壳干燥后粉磨、过筛,使其平均粒径<75μπι,得到稻壳粉备用;
[0029] 碳源中,石墨、碳黑、石墨烯、酚醛树脂粉、无烟煤、焦炭、沥青的粒径均彡75μπι,碳 黑中碳的质量百分含量多98.3% ;石墨中碳的质量百分含量多98.5% ;石墨烯中碳的质量 百分含量多96% ;酚醛树脂粉中残余碳的质量百分含量为60%~68% ;无烟煤中碳的质量 百分含量多95.5%;焦炭中碳的质量百分含量为95%~98%;沥青中碳的质量百分含量为 40%~45% ;
[0030] 硅粉中Si的质量百分含量彡98%,硅粉的平均粒径彡75μπι;
[0031] 催化剂中,似(:1、他?、211小6^6(:13、?62〇3粉的平均粒径均彡45以111。上述原料均为市 售常规商品。
[0032] 实施例1
[0033] 本实施例的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料,由稻壳、水和混合料制备而成,混合料的 质量为稻壳质量的40% ;所述混合料由以下质量百分比的组分组成:硅粉26%,石墨37%, NaCl 6%,糊精粉31% ;按配比取原料于球磨混料机中混合lh,即得混合料。
[0034] 本实施例的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料的制备方法,采用以下步骤:
[0035] 1)将稻壳粉加入搅拌机中,加入稻壳粉重量45%的水,搅拌使稻壳粉充分打湿;再 加入混合料,搅拌5m i η制成还料;
[0036] 2)将坯料在低压下进行机压成型,成型压力为IMPa,保压时间为20s,得到坯体;将 坯体于110 °C下干燥15h,然后在埋碳条件下的还原性气氛中以2.5 °C /miη的速率升温至 1400°C并保温3h,即得。
[0037] 实施例2
[0038] 本实施例的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料,由稻壳、水和混合料制备而成,混合料的 质量为稻壳质量的65%;所述混合料由以下质量百分比的组分组成:硅粉2%,碳黑40%,Fe 3%,Fe2〇3 5%,糊精粉28%,明胶22% ;按配比取原料于球磨混料机中混合lh,即得混合料。
[0039] 本实施例的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料的制备方法,采用以下步骤:
[0040] 1)将稻壳粉加入搅拌机中,加入稻壳粉重量57%的水,搅拌使稻壳粉充分打湿;再 加入混合料,搅拌5m i η制成还料;
[0041] 2)将坯料在低压下进行机压成型,成型压力为3MPa,保压时间为10s,得到坯体;将 坯体于110°C下干燥18h,然后在埋碳条件下的还原性气氛中以3°C/min的速率升温至1500 C并保温3h,即得。
[0042] 实施例3
[0043] 本实施例的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料,由稻壳、水和混合料制备而成,混合料的 质量为稻壳质量的50% ;所述混合料由以下质量百分比的组分组成:硅粉3%,无烟煤25%, 石墨烯8%,NaCl 6%,纸浆粉45%,聚乙烯醇缩丁醛13% ;按配比取原料于球磨混料机中混 合lh,即得混合料。
[0044] 本实施例的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料的制备方法,采用以下步骤:
[0045] 1)将稻壳粉加入搅拌机中,加入稻壳粉重量55%的水,搅拌使稻壳粉充分打湿;再 加入混合料,搅拌5m i η制成还料;
[0046] 2)将坯料在低压下进行机压成型,成型压力为2MPa,保压时间为15s,得到坯体;将 坯体于110°C下干燥18h,然后在埋碳条件下的还原性气氛中以3°C/min的速率升温至1450 C并保温3h,即得。
[0047] 实施例4
[0048] 本实施例的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料,由稻壳、水和混合料制备而成,混合料的 质量为稻壳质量的30% ;所述混合料由以下质量百分比的组分组成:硅粉22%,石墨16%, 酚醛树脂粉12%,NaF 7%,Zn 8%,明胶18%,聚乙烯醇缩丁醛17%;按配比取原料于球磨 混料机中混合lh,即得混合料。
[0049] 本实施例的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料的制备方法,采用以下步骤:
[0050] 1)将稻壳粉加入搅拌机中,加入稻壳粉重量20%的水,搅拌使稻壳粉充分打湿;再 加入混合料,搅拌5m i η制成还料;
[0051] 2)将坯料在低压下进行机压成型,成型压力为0.5MPa,保压时间为30s,得到坯体; 将坯体于110 °C下干燥12h,然后在埋碳条件下的还原性气氛中以2.5 °C /min的速率升温至 1450°C并保温3h,即得。
[0052] 实施例5
[0053]本实施例的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料,由稻壳、水和混合料制备而成,混合料的 质量为稻壳质量的35% ;所述混合料由以下质量百分比的组分组成:硅粉25%,沥青35%, FeCl3 5%,纸浆粉25%、羧甲基纤维素5%,羧甲基纤维素钠5% ;按配比取原料于球磨混料 机中混合lh,即得混合料。
[0054]本实施例的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料的制备方法,采用以下步骤:
[0055] 1)将稻壳粉加入搅拌机中,加入稻壳粉重量80%的水,搅拌使稻壳粉充分打湿;再 加入混合料,搅拌1 〇m i η制成还料;
[0056] 2)将坯料在低压下进行机压成型,成型压力为0.5MPa,保压时间为30s,得到坯体; 将坯体于50°C下干燥48h,然后在埋碳条件下的还原性气氛中以5°C/min的速率升温至1300 C并保温5h,即得。
[0057] 试验例1
[0058]本试验例检测各实施例所得稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料的各项性能,结果如表1 所示。
[0059] 表1各实施例的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料的性能检测结果
[0060]
Figure CN106316447AD00061
[0061]^由表1的试验结果可知,本发明的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料,气孔孔径微细,平 均孔径仅2.2~25. Ιμπι;制品体积密度较低,达到0.5~1.3g · cnf3;气孔率高,达到57.4%~ 85.0 % ;机械强度较高,常温耐压强度为44.9~116.4MPa;使用温度高,可在1600 °C下正常 使用。
[0062] 试验例2
[0063]实施例1所得稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料中碳化硅的SEM图如图1所示,实施例2所 得稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料中碳化硅的SEM图如图2所示。
[0064]由图1和图2可知,本发明所得制品中原位生成了大量纤维状或晶须状的碳化硅, 对基体起强韧化作用,使制品具有较高的机械强度;原位生成的SiC纤维或晶须交织成网络 结构,此网络中亦存在较多微小气孔,加之制品中保留了稻壳中原有的微气孔结构,二者共 同作用,使制品具有多级气孔结构,孔径分布呈现多峰特征,制品具有较强的过滤及吸附能 力。此外,制品中气孔的大小及其微观形貌可通过改变原料组成、烧成温度及成型压力等进 行有效调控。

Claims (10)

1. 一种稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料,其特征在于,主要由稻壳和混合料制成,混合料的 质量为稻壳质量的30%~70% ;所述混合料由以下质量百分比的组分组成:硅粉1 %~ 30 %,碳源5 %~40 %,催化剂1 %~15 %,结合剂30 %~75 %。
2. 如权利要求1所述的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料,其特征在于,所述碳源为碳黑、石 墨、石墨烯、酚醛树脂粉、无烟煤、焦炭或沥青中的一种或组合。
3. 如权利要求1所述的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料,其特征在于,所述催化剂为NaCl、 NaF、Zn、Fe、FeCl3、Fe2〇3 中的一种或组合。
4. 如权利要求1所述的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料,其特征在于,所述结合剂为糊精 粉、纸浆粉、羧甲基纤维素、羧甲基纤维素钠、聚乙烯醇缩丁醛、明胶中的一种或组合。
5. -种如权利要求1所述的稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料的制备方法,其特征在于,包括 以下步骤: 1) 将稻壳粉与水混合,再加入混合料混合均匀,制成坯料; 2) 将坯料成型制成坯体,坯体干燥后,在还原气氛中于1300~1500 °C烧成,即得。
6. 如权利要求5所述的制备方法,其特征在于,步骤1)中,稻壳粉的平均粒径<75μπι;混 合料中,硅粉的平均粒径彡75μπι,碳源的平均粒径彡75μπι,催化剂的平均粒径彡45μπι。
7. 如权利要求5所述的制备方法,其特征在于,步骤1)中,水的用量为稻壳粉重量的 20%~200%。
8. 如权利要求5所述的制备方法,其特征在于,步骤2)中,所述成型为压制成型,成型的 压力为0.5~3MPa,保压的时间为10~30s。
9. 如权利要求5所述的制备方法,其特征在于,步骤2)中,所述干燥的温度为50~110 °C,干燥的时间为12~48h。
10. 如权利要求5所述的制备方法,其特征在于,步骤2)中,以2~5°C/min的速率升温至 1300~1500°C,在烧成温度保温的时间为3~5h。
CN201610617099.9A 2016-07-28 2016-07-28 一种稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料及其制备方法 Active CN106316447B (zh)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201610617099.9A CN106316447B (zh) 2016-07-28 2016-07-28 一种稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料及其制备方法

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201610617099.9A CN106316447B (zh) 2016-07-28 2016-07-28 一种稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料及其制备方法

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN106316447A true CN106316447A (zh) 2017-01-11
CN106316447B CN106316447B (zh) 2018-03-30

Family

ID=57740162

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201610617099.9A Active CN106316447B (zh) 2016-07-28 2016-07-28 一种稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料及其制备方法

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (1) CN106316447B (zh)

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107419060A (zh) * 2017-06-28 2017-12-01 常州莱尚纺织品有限公司 一种炼钢用脱氧剂及其制备方法
CN107698276A (zh) * 2017-09-19 2018-02-16 常州朋悦纺织品有限公司 一种多孔碳化硅陶瓷及其制备方法
CN108275969A (zh) * 2018-01-31 2018-07-13 景德镇陶瓷大学 一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料及其制备方法
CN108503367A (zh) * 2018-06-29 2018-09-07 南通志乐新材料有限公司 一种高温烟气除尘用复合型陶瓷过滤材料
CN108640117A (zh) * 2018-05-10 2018-10-12 南昌航空大学 一种以石墨烯为模板熔盐法合成二维SiC超薄纳米结构及其制备方法
CN108675790A (zh) * 2018-06-20 2018-10-19 三峡大学 一种石墨/碳化硅隔热背衬及其制备方法
CN108948389A (zh) * 2018-06-26 2018-12-07 常州五荣化工有限公司 一种明胶-氧化石墨烯复合膜的制备方法
CN109133977A (zh) * 2018-08-29 2019-01-04 佛山市森昂生物科技有限公司 一种多孔生物陶瓷的制备方法
CN109824362A (zh) * 2019-03-28 2019-05-31 武汉科技大学 一步烧成的生物质碳化硅/碳复合材料及其制备方法
CN110002878A (zh) * 2019-02-25 2019-07-12 常州金艺广告传媒有限公司 一种高结合度型碳化硅/石墨密封材料的制备方法
CN110818417A (zh) * 2019-11-18 2020-02-21 武汉科技大学 一种净化空气用炭-碳化硅多孔过滤器及其制备方法

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1064062A (zh) * 1992-03-20 1992-09-02 徐以达 以稻壳、稻秆为原料制碳化硅的方法
JPH0826848A (ja) * 1994-07-21 1996-01-30 Tokai Carbon Co Ltd 多孔質SiC成形体の製造方法
CN102351564A (zh) * 2011-07-20 2012-02-15 福州大学 一种利用煤沥青和生物质原料烧结制备木陶瓷的方法
CN102485694A (zh) * 2010-12-02 2012-06-06 徐宏武 用粉煤灰制备β-SiC及其粉体的方法

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1064062A (zh) * 1992-03-20 1992-09-02 徐以达 以稻壳、稻秆为原料制碳化硅的方法
JPH0826848A (ja) * 1994-07-21 1996-01-30 Tokai Carbon Co Ltd 多孔質SiC成形体の製造方法
CN102485694A (zh) * 2010-12-02 2012-06-06 徐宏武 用粉煤灰制备β-SiC及其粉体的方法
CN102351564A (zh) * 2011-07-20 2012-02-15 福州大学 一种利用煤沥青和生物质原料烧结制备木陶瓷的方法

Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107419060A (zh) * 2017-06-28 2017-12-01 常州莱尚纺织品有限公司 一种炼钢用脱氧剂及其制备方法
CN107698276A (zh) * 2017-09-19 2018-02-16 常州朋悦纺织品有限公司 一种多孔碳化硅陶瓷及其制备方法
CN108275969B (zh) * 2018-01-31 2020-04-07 景德镇陶瓷大学 一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料及其制备方法
CN108275969A (zh) * 2018-01-31 2018-07-13 景德镇陶瓷大学 一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料及其制备方法
CN108640117A (zh) * 2018-05-10 2018-10-12 南昌航空大学 一种以石墨烯为模板熔盐法合成二维SiC超薄纳米结构及其制备方法
CN108675790B (zh) * 2018-06-20 2021-01-26 三峡大学 一种石墨/碳化硅隔热背衬及其制备方法
CN108675790A (zh) * 2018-06-20 2018-10-19 三峡大学 一种石墨/碳化硅隔热背衬及其制备方法
CN108948389A (zh) * 2018-06-26 2018-12-07 常州五荣化工有限公司 一种明胶-氧化石墨烯复合膜的制备方法
CN108503367B (zh) * 2018-06-29 2019-04-02 南通志乐新材料有限公司 一种高温烟气除尘用复合型陶瓷过滤材料
CN108503367A (zh) * 2018-06-29 2018-09-07 南通志乐新材料有限公司 一种高温烟气除尘用复合型陶瓷过滤材料
CN109133977A (zh) * 2018-08-29 2019-01-04 佛山市森昂生物科技有限公司 一种多孔生物陶瓷的制备方法
CN110002878A (zh) * 2019-02-25 2019-07-12 常州金艺广告传媒有限公司 一种高结合度型碳化硅/石墨密封材料的制备方法
CN109824362A (zh) * 2019-03-28 2019-05-31 武汉科技大学 一步烧成的生物质碳化硅/碳复合材料及其制备方法
CN110818417A (zh) * 2019-11-18 2020-02-21 武汉科技大学 一种净化空气用炭-碳化硅多孔过滤器及其制备方法
CN110818417B (zh) * 2019-11-18 2021-08-03 武汉科技大学 一种净化空气用炭-碳化硅多孔过滤器及其制备方法

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN106316447B (zh) 2018-03-30

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN106316447B (zh) 一种稻壳基多孔碳化硅陶瓷材料及其制备方法
CN108585810B (zh) 微孔陶瓷及其制备方法和雾化芯
CN101624294A (zh) 陶粒及其制备方法
CN104909799A (zh) 一种轻质高强陶粒及其制备工艺
CN101628807B (zh) 一种简便的活性炭陶瓷及其制备方法
CN107399988B (zh) 一种利用铝硅系工业废渣制备氧化铝-碳化硅复合多孔陶瓷的方法
CN109516772B (zh) 一种轻质高强废玻璃陶粒及其制备方法
CN101672079B (zh) 一种高石粉掺量多孔烧结砖制备方法
CN103467102A (zh) 一种氮化硅多孔陶瓷及其制备方法
CN100436369C (zh) 纳米α-Al2O3复合刚玉砖的制备方法
CN101328060A (zh) 一种硅藻土基多功能微孔陶瓷的制备方法
CN101306937A (zh) 一种建筑垃圾混凝土砖及其生产方法
CN103058701A (zh) 一种多孔氮化硅复合陶瓷的制备方法
CN105130487A (zh) 用于生产过滤陶瓷的组合物以及过滤陶瓷及其制备方法和应用
CN108484115B (zh) 一种利用固体废弃物制备的多孔材料
CN106316448B (zh) 一种稻壳基微孔轻质耐火材料及其制备方法
CN110104979B (zh) 一种采用带式烧结制备煤矸石轻骨料的方法
CN109467423B (zh) 一种陶瓷纤维增强耐高温气体过滤材料及其制备方法
CN109704725B (zh) 城镇污水处理污泥陶瓷抛光渣陶粒及其制备方法
CN111056811A (zh) 一种加气混凝土砌块的制备方法
CN103723999A (zh) 利用城市给水污泥制备花卉陶粒的方法
CN108558365A (zh) 一种抗裂保温砖的制备方法
CN108911725A (zh) 一种高温使用性能好的过滤陶瓷及其制备方法
CN108033761A (zh) 碳化稻壳轻质蒸压砖及其制备方法
CN106938938A (zh) 一种以粉料为原料的陶瓷透水砖的制备方法及其制得的产品

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
PB01 Publication
PB01 Publication
C10 Entry into substantive examination
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
GR01 Patent grant
GR01 Patent grant