CN106247308B - Boiler scaling condition monitoring based on furnace exit temperature and control method - Google Patents

Boiler scaling condition monitoring based on furnace exit temperature and control method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106247308B
CN106247308B CN201610602842.3A CN201610602842A CN106247308B CN 106247308 B CN106247308 B CN 106247308B CN 201610602842 A CN201610602842 A CN 201610602842A CN 106247308 B CN106247308 B CN 106247308B
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temperature
furnace
rise rate
furnace exit
boiler
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CN106247308A (en
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周永刚
薛志亮
李培
施子福
王肖
周永青
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Zhejiang University ZJU
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Zhejiang University ZJU
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F22STEAM GENERATION
    • F22BMETHODS OF STEAM GENERATION; STEAM BOILERS
    • F22B37/00Component parts or details of steam boilers
    • F22B37/02Component parts or details of steam boilers applicable to more than one kind or type of steam boiler
    • F22B37/38Determining or indicating operating conditions in steam boilers, e.g. monitoring direction or rate of water flow through water tubes
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F22STEAM GENERATION
    • F22BMETHODS OF STEAM GENERATION; STEAM BOILERS
    • F22B35/00Control systems for steam boilers

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of boiler scaling condition monitoring method based on furnace exit temperature, includes the following steps:(1) temperature of furnace outlet is detected;(2) according to the temperature rise rate after the temperature change and soot blowing before and after the detection calculating furnace outlet soot blowing of step (1);(3) temperature change is more than 50 DEG C, while temperature rise rate is more than 5 DEG C/h, and judgement burning coal is easy to slagging;Temperature change is more than 80 DEG C, while temperature rise rate is more than 10 DEG C/h, and judgement burning coal is not suitable for long-term burning and uses, it should adjust coal;The present invention additionally provides a kind of boiler scaling state control method based on furnace exit temperature simultaneously;The monitoring method and control method of the present invention effectively instructs the science of soot blower to come into operation, continuous record furnace exit temperature, the temperature rise rate after burner hearth soot blowing forward and backward temperature change and soot blowing is calculated, the running time for further obtaining soot blower reflects the clean-up performance of water-cooling wall and the Slagging Characteristics of coal.

Description

Boiler scaling condition monitoring based on furnace exit temperature and control method
Technical field
The present invention relates to technical field of boiler combustion, more particularly to the boiler scaling condition monitoring based on furnace exit temperature And control method.
Background technology
When boiler uses solid or when containing the liquid fuel of ash, boiler each section heating surface all companions to some extent With the depositional phenomenon for having minerals.When flue-gas temperature is higher, be softened or melted in combustion shape ash particle be stained with knot by On hot face, constantly growth, accumulation causes slagging, heat transfer deterioration, heated surface corrosion is caused to influence the safe operation of equipment.Boiler Slagging is an extremely complex process, is related to that there are many factor, it not only has with the ingredient and Wuli-Shili-Renli system approach for using coal Close, but also with the design parameter of boiler in relation to (arrangement of such as burner, furnace load, aerodynamic structure in the stove, Furnace outlet gas temperature, the position of superheater, the flue gas flow rate of each section and smoke temperature, the steam parameter of boiler and tube wall temperature Degree, the arrangement spacing of heating surface and arrangement form etc.), while also being influenced that (such as load changes, excessive by boiler operatiopn operating mode Air coefficient, fineness of pulverized coal, fire box temperature, air distribution mode and stove combusting air aerodynamic field etc.).
Currently, China's large-sized unit, which uses coal about 50%, belongs to easy slagging and dust stratification coal, power plant of China burning coal in addition Changeable, nearly all there is different degrees of slagging in frequent larger off-design value.In the various technical measures for avoiding Serious Slagging In, it is means that are a kind of effective and generally using to carry out steam or air purging to heating surface in operation.But it is either empty On the one hand gas or steam soot blowing will consume a large amount of energy, if steam soot blowing institute steam consumption accounts for the 1% of steam total amount, steam in addition The operation of the increase of the heat loss of vapour and its restriction loss and flue gas loss, soot blower will consume 0.7% of boiler efficiency or so; On the other hand, unsuitable frequent soot blowing can damage heating surface because of abrasion and thermal stress, shorten the heating surface metal service life, Also increase the maintenance cost of soot blower simultaneously.
In boiler operatiopn, how the degree and development trend of accurate measurements ash erosion, and according to the situation of slagging and Operation needs, and formulates effective soot blowing scarfing cinder measure, that is, maintains the normal condition of heating surface, and saves sootblowing dielectric and reduce cigarette Dirt discharge seems particularly significant.Therefore, it is that the research and development of large power plant boiler is monitored based on operating parameter, is directly or indirectly anti- The diagnostic techniques of ash erosion situation is reflected, guidance optimization scarfing cinder soot blowing is very necessary.The large-scale pot that China goes into operation in recent years Furnace foundation is originally assembled with heating surface steam soot blowing and cleaning dregs system, for heating surface stain situation monitoring method mainly have it is following It is several.
Heat-flow meter:Include being directly installed on using heat-flow meter as the furnace wall cooling slagging of diagnostic sensor monitoring system " contamination " heat-flow meter on water-cooling wall and " cleaning " heat-flow meter mounted in observation aperture of door." contamination " heat-flow meter is welded in water cooling wall surface On, the heat flow that water screen tube is actually absorbed is measured, and it can also be stain as furnace wall cooling." cleaning " heat Flowmeter is equipped with identical sensing device, but cleaning air makes it keep clean." cleaning " heat-flow meter is shown in this position Possessed potential or utilizable heat flow.Compare practical heat flow (signal for staiing heat-flow meter) and available heat flow (clean heat-flow meter signal), so that it may obtain the measurement of contamination degree.The knot of different location can be accurately diagnosed using heat-flow meter Slag, simple and reliable and practical, principle is also fairly simple.Major defect has:1) arrangement of heat-flow meter is cumbersome, needs to be welded on On water-cooling wall, the structure of water-cooling wall is changed, also reduces the intensity of water-cooling wall;2) for the station boiler of operation has been put into For be highly difficult, blowing out to install, and measuring point safeguard it is also difficult;3) price of heat-flow meter is generally more expensive, if pushed away Extensively many places use in burner hearth, there is certain difficulty.
Direct inspections and examinations:Using photograph and image processing technique, situation is stain in the slagging for directly observing heating surface.Pass through The placement of images acquisition system at heating surface different location shoots heating surface image using CCD, ash can be obtained by image analysis The generating process of slag.Major defect has:1) since camera lens stretch into inside burner hearth, water cooling is installed and used outside camera lens Protection sleeve pipe, protection camera lens it is without damage at high temperature;2) in order to ensure camera lens in shooting slagging image process not It is polluted by flying dust in stove, protection gas mould need to be formed in camera lens front end by compressed air;3) CCD camera is typically located at burner hearth Outside, complicated light path system is needed to ensure image quality.
Furnace outlet gas temperature:Burner hearth stains situation and directly affects Heat Transfer in Furnace, and furnace outlet gas temperature reflects the whole of slagging Body situation.External almost all of slagging monitoring system all uses furnace outlet gas temperature as main or important auxiliary diagnosis hand Section.Furnace outlet gas temperature can calculate by boiler heat balance, can also be by leucoscope or acoustics pyrometer measures, institute's total According to accuracy, the diagnostic result of slagging contamination will be directly affected.
Invention content
The present invention provides a kind of boiler scaling condition monitoring method based on furnace exit temperature is gone out by measuring burner hearth The rate of change of mouth temperature obtains furnace exit temperature distribution and Boiler Furnace slagging situation, to obtain preferable combustion scheme, together When rationally coming into operation data supporting be provided for soot blower.
A kind of boiler scaling condition monitoring method based on furnace exit temperature, includes the following steps:
(1) temperature of furnace outlet is detected;
(2) according to the temperature after the temperature change and soot blowing before and after the testing result of step (1) calculating furnace outlet soot blowing Raising speed rate;
(3) temperature change is more than 50 DEG C, while temperature rise rate is more than 5 DEG C/h, and judgement burning coal is easy to slagging;
Temperature change is more than 80 DEG C, while temperature rise rate is more than 10 DEG C/h, and judgement burning coal, which is not suitable for long-term burning, to be made With, it should adjust coal.
By furnace exit temperature variation and rate temperature change (temperature rise rate), it can effectively reflect the clear of water-cooling wall The Slagging Characteristics of clean degree and coal to judge the quality of coal used, and then carry out coal preferred, improvement Combustion state.
In order to improve the accuracy of temperature data, it is preferred that in step (1), detect the temperature on each flame-observing hole of furnace outlet Degree, obtains the temperature matrices of furnace outlet.Furnace outlet is typically provided four flame-observing holes makes data to obtain temperature matrices It is more acurrate.It realizes measurement of a certain moment to furnace exit temperature matrix, obtains furnace outlet gas temperature deviation, to eliminate boiler Left and right gas temperature windage provides guidance, keeps fire box temperature field uniform.
In order to improve the accuracy of temperature rise rate and temperature change, it is preferred that in step (1), using CCD technical limit spacings Flame radiation image at each flame-observing hole detects temperature, can also come by comparing the temperature difference of each flame-observing hole in step (3) Judge the uniformity of fire box temperature field.CCD records the flame radiation image at each flame-observing hole, and image is realized by computer Segmentation extraction, temperature computation correspond to the rate temperature change of measuring point to obtain furnace exit temperature matrix and each CCD, Effectively improve the accuracy of calculating.
The present invention also provides a kind of boiler scaling state control method based on furnace exit temperature, including following step Suddenly:
(1) temperature of furnace outlet is detected;
(2) temperature rise rate after soot blower soot blowing is calculated according to the detection of step (1);
(3) the running time t of soot blower can be calculated by heating rate, computational methods are as follows:
Wherein,
ST is the softening temperature of ash, and unit is DEG C;
δT is equalFor the average value of temperature rise rate, unit is DEG C;
TB is nearestIt is that nearest moment point is used to calculate temperature rise rate δTThe end moment corresponding to temperature, unit be DEG C;
A is soot blowing pre-set time.
The control method of the present invention realizes that the running time of soot blower is according to reaction by adjusting the running time of soot blower Temperature rise rate after the soot blowing of boiler scaling situation is calculated, and to effectively improve the using effect of soot blower, improves boiler Slagging.In view of the thermal inertia of boiler system is larger, setting A is soot blowing pre-set time, before reaching maximum temperature Start soot blowing.
In order to improve the accuracy of temperature data, it is preferred that in step (1), detect the temperature on each flame-observing hole of furnace body, obtain To the temperature matrices of furnace outlet.Furnace outlet is typically provided four flame-observing holes, is distributed in four angles of furnace outlet, matrix row Cloth keeps data more acurrate to obtain temperature matrices, and temperature matrices B is defined as follows:
In formula, T1For the temperature of CCD1 measuring points, DEG C;T2For the temperature of CCD2 measuring points, DEG C;T3For the temperature of CCD3 measuring points, ℃;T4For the temperature of CCD4 measuring points, DEG C.
In order to improve the accuracy of temperature detection, it is preferred that using at each flame-observing hole of CCD technical limit spacings in step (1) Flame radiation image detects temperature;
Preferably, in step (3), the running time at each flame-observing hole is calculated, is minimized as final throwing Use the time.Soot blowing is carried out ahead of time, is effectively improved the combustion efficiency at each position.
In view of the thermal inertia of boiler system is larger, setting A is soot blowing pre-set time, is started before reaching maximum temperature Soot blowing, it is preferred that A=0.25~0.5h.
In order to quickly obtain accurate result of calculation, it is preferred that in step (2), the calculation formula of temperature rise rate is as follows:
Wherein, TaFor the measuring temperature at initial time (hereinafter referred to as moment 1), unit is DEG C;TbIt is (following for the end moment The abbreviation moment 2) measuring temperature, unit be DEG C;Time intervals of the Δ t between moment 1 and moment 2, unit min..
In order to further increase accuracy, it is as follows to implement calculating process:
Burner hearth soot blowing terminates, and as the starting point of record, the moment 1 is used as the moment 2 after Δ t, calculates rate temperature change δT, then at interval of 5~10min, a rate temperature change δ is calculated according to record dataT, calculate δTPrevious time point be Moment 1, later moment in time point are the moment 2;
That is, burner hearth soot blowing terminates, as the starting point of record, (can be set at interval of 5~10min after 60min It is fixed) rate temperature change is calculated, the temperature rise rate for calculating blowing time is temperature rise rate before calculating moment point Average value, and calculate the T used in blowing timeB is nearestTemperature corresponding to 2 at the time of being used to calculate temperature rise rate for nearest moment point Degree.
In view of furnace exit temperature variation is slower, it is preferred that Δ t=30~90min.
Furnace flame constantly flickers simultaneously, and temperature also has certain fluctuation, to ensure the temperature change calculated speed Rate is representative, it is preferred that TaAnd TbAll it is the average value of 1~5min before value moment point.
Illustrate rate temperature change δTWith rate temperature change δT is equalComputational methods:
Measuring temperature T1 at the end of burner hearth soot blowing, take △ t=30min, and (35min is here by 35min measuring temperatures T2 5min is to take the average value in 5min), calculate temperature rise rate δT, T at this timeb=T2, Ta=T1;
And so on, cross 5min, that is, second of calculating temperature rise rate δ when 40minT, T at this timebIt is surveyed for 35~40min The average value (moment 2) of amount, and TaThe average value (moment 1) that=5~10min is measured
Then a δ is calculated every 5minT, and calculate the δ of soot blower running timeT is equalTerminate to all δ this moment for soot blowingT Average value.
Beneficial effects of the present invention:
The clean-up performance of the monitoring method and control method Efficient Characterization water-cooling wall of the present invention, instructs the science of soot blower to throw With, furnace exit temperature is continuously recorded, the temperature rise rate after burner hearth soot blowing forward and backward temperature change and soot blowing is calculated, into One step obtains the running time of soot blower, reflects the clean-up performance of water-cooling wall and the Slagging Characteristics of coal.
Description of the drawings
Installations and connection diagram of the Fig. 1 for CCD in the monitoring and control method of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is that certain mixes the fire box temperature characteristic under burning scheme.
Fig. 3 differences mix the temperature change before and after burning scheme lower hearth soot blowing.
Fig. 4 differences mix burning scheme lower hearth outlet temperature rise rate.
Fig. 5 differences mix the time interval for the burner hearth soot blowing being calculated by the method for the invention under burning scheme.
Fig. 6 is that the time interval being calculated using the method for the present invention controls the slagging situation of soot blower with existing method Comparison diagram.
Specific implementation mode
In order to make technological means, creation characteristic, workflow, the application method of the present invention be apparent to, with reference to tool Body embodiment, the present invention is further explained.
Fig. 1 is that the furnace exit temperature matrix of the present embodiment method measures scheme of installation, including CCD1, CCD2, CCD3, CCD4 and portable computer 5.6 top of burner hearth is rear wall 8, and lower part is front wall 7, and each CCD is mounted on burner hearth 6 each for recording Flame radiation image at a flame-observing hole realizes that the segmentation of image is extracted by computer, and temperature computation goes out to obtain burner hearth Mouth temperature matrices and each CCD correspond to the rate temperature change of measuring point, and then predict the running time of soot blower, reflect water cooling The clean-up performance of wall and the Slagging Characteristics of coal.
The reality of burning scheme under boiler is mixed using the present embodiment method certain power plant 660MW Boiler of Ultra-supercritical Unit differences Slagging situation is monitored and controls.
Fig. 2 is that certain mixes fire box temperature variation characteristic under burning scheme, and when experiment records a data per 10s, it can be seen that Furnace exit temperature is constantly fluctuating, and in burner hearth soot blowing process, furnace exit temperature slowly declines, and terminates in soot blowing Afterwards, in rising trend.Statistics difference mixes the furnace exit temperature variation before and after burning scheme lower hearth soot blowing, can estimate burner hearth soot blowing Influence to furnace exit temperature, temperature decline is more, shows that Boiler Furnace slagging is more serious.
Fig. 3 is the different temperature change mixed before and after burning scheme lower hearth soot blowing, after burner hearth soot blowing, scheme 1, scheme 2, scheme 3 furnace exit temperatures reduce about 15~30 DEG C, and 4 furnace exit temperature of scheme reduces about 68 DEG C, and 5 furnace exit temperature of scheme reduces About 40 DEG C, the Boiler Furnace slagging situation that can obtain scheme 4 and scheme 5 is more more serious than 1~scheme of scheme 3.
Further according to rate temperature change δTThe computational methods of (DEG C/min):
In formula, TaFor moment 1 when measuring temperature, DEG C;TbFor moment 2 when measuring temperature, DEG C;Δ t be the moment 1 and when Carve the time interval between 2, min, it is contemplated that furnace exit temperature variation is slower, and Δ t is set as 60min.
Implementation process:Burner hearth soot blowing terminates, and as the starting point of record, moment 1, Δ t is set as 60min, conduct after 60min Moment 2 calculates rate temperature change δT, then at interval of 5min, a rate temperature change δ is calculated according to record dataT, meter Calculate δTPrevious time point be the moment 1, later moment in time point be the moment 2;
That is, burner hearth soot blowing terminates, as the starting point of record, counted at interval of 5min (can set) after 60min A rate temperature change is calculated, the temperature rise rate for calculating blowing time is the average value of temperature rise rate before calculating moment point And calculate the T used in blowing timebTemperature corresponding to 2 at the time of being used to calculate temperature rise rate for nearest moment point.
The advantages of calculating the temperature rise rate average value in blowing time is to eliminate fire box temperature wave zone come Wen Sheng The fluctuation of rate so that the calculating of blowing time is more acurrate.
Furnace flame constantly flickers simultaneously, and temperature also has certain fluctuation, to ensure the temperature change calculated speed Rate is representative, the average value that the temperature for calculating rate temperature change is 2min before the moment point.
Fig. 4 is that difference mixes burning scheme lower hearth outlet temperature rise rate, by the temperature rise rate or so of boiler furnace outlet temperature Two side draw high level are compared, and when stable operation of the boiler, the furnace exit temperature temperature rise rate of scheme 1 is only about 1.4 DEG C/h, side The furnace exit temperature temperature rise rate of case 2 and scheme 3 is each about 4 DEG C/h or so, and the furnace exit temperature temperature rise rate of scheme 4 is about 17.4 DEG C/h, the about 10.2 DEG C/h of furnace exit temperature temperature rise rate of scheme 5.
The running time t (h) of soot blower can be calculated by heating rate, computational methods are as follows:
In formula, ST is the softening temperature of ash, DEG C;TB is nearestIt is that nearest moment point is used to calculate temperature rise rate δTAt the time of 2 pair The temperature answered, DEG C;δT is equalFor the average value of temperature rise rate, unit is DEG C.
In view of the thermal inertia of boiler system is larger, the half an hour before reaching maximum temperature starts soot blowing, and soot blowing carries Preceding time A=0.5.
According to test data in lab can 1~scheme of estimation scheme 5 correspond to coal combination Low Temperature Ash ashing melting temperature ST is respectively 1251 DEG C, 1231 DEG C, 1203 DEG C, 1206 DEG C, 1191 DEG C, calculates difference and mixes and burns situation lower hearth soot blowing longest interval Time is as shown in figure 5, wherein:
The burner hearth soot blowing longest interval time of scheme 1 is about 78h, hence it is evident that is more than other schemes;
Scheme 2, scheme 3 burner hearth soot blowing longest interval time respectively may be about 22h and 15h;
Scheme 4, scheme 5 burner hearth soot blowing longest interval time respectively may be about 3h and 5h, hence it is evident that be less than 1~scheme of scheme 3.
Comprehensive analysis difference mixes temperature change before and after the burner hearth soot blowing under burning scheme and the temperature rise rate after soot blowing, says It is bright:
Slagging is serious in the higher scheme 4 of high sodium coal mixed-fuel burning proportion, 5 burner hearth of scheme,
And 1 burner hearth of scheme is almost without Slagging,
Scheme 2 and 3 Boiler Furnace slagging situation ratio scheme 1 of scheme are slightly serious.
Burning scheme is mixed using scheme 4, scheme 5, Boiler Furnace slagging is serious so that the frequency that comes into operation of soot blower is very high, steam Soot blowing steam consumption rises, and flue gas loss increases, while heating surface can be worn because of frequent soot blowing, shorten the heating surface metal longevity Life, so the burning scheme of mixing of scheme 4, scheme 5 is worthless.
The realization process of the boiler scaling condition monitoring method is as follows:Furnace flame radiant light by CCD1, CCD2, CCD3, CCD4 is recorded, and realizes that the segmentation of image is extracted by computer, temperature computation, to obtain furnace exit temperature matrix and each A CCD corresponds to the rate temperature change of measuring point, and then predicts and control the running time of soot blower, reflects the cleaning journey of water-cooling wall The Slagging Characteristics of degree and coal.
As shown in fig. 6, currently, the blowing time of power plant be set to substantially full load operation 12h blow once, be fixed, make After the method for the present invention, it can predict blowing time according to different types of coal, reduce the unnecessary of soot blower and come into operation, save steam, The service life for extending water-cooling wall, improves boiler efficiency.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of boiler scaling state control method based on furnace exit temperature, which is characterized in that include the following steps:
(1) temperature of furnace outlet is detected;
(2) temperature rise rate after soot blower soot blowing is calculated according to the testing result of step (1);
(3) the running time t of soot blower can be calculated by temperature rise rate, computational methods are as follows:
Wherein,
ST is the softening temperature of ash, and unit is DEG C;
δT is equalFor the average value of temperature rise rate, unit is DEG C;
TB is nearestIt is that nearest moment point is used to calculate temperature rise rate δTThe end moment corresponding to temperature, unit be DEG C;
A is soot blowing pre-set time.
2. the boiler scaling state control method based on furnace exit temperature as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that step (1) in, the temperature on each flame-observing hole of furnace outlet is detected, the temperature matrices of furnace outlet are obtained.
3. the boiler scaling state control method based on furnace exit temperature as claimed in claim 2, which is characterized in that step (1) temperature is detected using the flame radiation image at each flame-observing hole of CCD technical limit spacings in;
In step (3), the running time at each flame-observing hole is calculated, is minimized as final running time.
4. the boiler scaling state control method based on furnace exit temperature as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that A= 0.25~1h.
5. the boiler scaling state control method based on furnace exit temperature as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that step (2) in, the calculation formula of temperature rise rate is as follows:
Wherein, TaFor the measuring temperature of initial time, unit is DEG C;TbFor the measuring temperature at end moment, unit is DEG C;Δ t is Time interval between initial time and end moment, unit min.
6. the boiler scaling state control method based on furnace exit temperature as claimed in claim 5, which is characterized in that Δ t =30~90min.
7. the boiler scaling state control method based on furnace exit temperature as claimed in claim 5, which is characterized in that TaWith TbAll it is the average value of 1~5min before value moment point.
CN201610602842.3A 2016-07-26 2016-07-26 Boiler scaling condition monitoring based on furnace exit temperature and control method Active CN106247308B (en)

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CN106871957B (en) * 2017-01-11 2019-02-05 浙江大学 A kind of measurement method of pulverized-coal fired boiler slag position and slag amount
CN107449526B (en) * 2017-04-20 2019-05-03 清华大学 A kind of burner hearth of determining biomass fired boiler is suitable for the method for outlet temperature
CN107392417A (en) * 2017-06-07 2017-11-24 西安西热锅炉环保工程有限公司 Online evaluation method is stain in a kind of Boiler Mixed Burning slagging
CN107356200B (en) * 2017-07-03 2021-06-29 浙江大学 Method and system for measuring slag falling in pulverized coal boiler based on slag block track
CN109668625B (en) * 2018-12-21 2020-04-21 浙江大学 Boiler slag falling monitoring and controlling method based on cold ash hopper vibration signal
JP6808001B1 (en) * 2019-08-26 2021-01-06 三菱パワー株式会社 Soot blower control system
CN111307320B (en) * 2020-03-02 2021-07-23 华北电力大学 System and method for measuring temperature distribution of hearth by using CCD camera

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CN102253081A (en) * 2011-04-29 2011-11-23 华北电力大学 Method for monitoring soot in hearth of power station boiler based on acoustical principle
CN103604132B (en) * 2013-12-06 2017-06-16 太原理工大学 Boiler Convection Heating Surface dust stratification on-line monitoring system
CN105276563B (en) * 2015-11-11 2017-04-05 东南大学 A kind of furnace outlet gas temperature flexible measurement method based on the real-time slagging scorification situation of burner hearth

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