CN106234000B - Organic crop rotation cultivation method for autumn pepper, peas, early season rice, water chestnuts and green soy beans - Google Patents

Organic crop rotation cultivation method for autumn pepper, peas, early season rice, water chestnuts and green soy beans Download PDF

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CN106234000B
CN106234000B CN201610681163.XA CN201610681163A CN106234000B CN 106234000 B CN106234000 B CN 106234000B CN 201610681163 A CN201610681163 A CN 201610681163A CN 106234000 B CN106234000 B CN 106234000B
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pepper
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肖光辉
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Hunan Agricultural Information And Engineering Institute
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting

Abstract

The invention discloses an organic crop rotation cultivation method for autumn pepper, peas, early season rice, water chestnuts and green soy beans, and relates to the technical field of crop rotation cultivation. The method comprises the following steps: (1) selecting a proper place to establish an organic cultivation production base; (2) selecting a suitable variety; (3) the crop rotation mode is as follows: sequentially cultivating in the 1 st year: green soy beans, autumn peppers and peas are sequentially cultivated in the 2 nd year: early rice-water chestnut, which is in 1 rotation cycle every 2 years; (4) and (3) performing crop rotation cultivation of organic pepper, organic pea, organic early season rice, organic water chestnut and organic green soybean according to organic agricultural principles and organic agricultural product production modes and standards, and returning the straws to the field and retting the organic fertilizer to fertilize the soil. The crop rotation organic cultivation method has strong practicability and operability, is a high-efficiency ecological cycle agricultural cultivation mode, can be popularized and applied in middle and lower reaches of Yangtze river, and has good economic, social and ecological benefits.

Description

Organic crop rotation cultivation method for autumn pepper, peas, early season rice, water chestnuts and green soy beans
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of crop rotation cultivation, and particularly relates to an organic crop rotation cultivation method for autumn pepper, peas, early season rice, water chestnuts and green soy beans.
Background
Organic agriculture was first proposed by european countries in the 20 th century, and gradually received attention from governments of various countries through practice and development for several decades. Organic agriculture is one of good ways to solve the problem of food safety, is known as the "sunward industry" and has wide market prospect. The organic agricultural products are purely natural, pollution-free, safe and nutritional foods, also called ecological foods, are produced according to organic agricultural principles and organic agricultural product production modes and standards, and are agricultural products certified by organic food certification authorities. The organic cultivation is carried out according to the quality requirements and production technical specifications of organic agricultural products, so as to ensure the characteristics of no pollution, rich nutrition and high quality of the products. In recent years, organic agriculture is in line with the world trend of improving agricultural ecological environment and producing high-quality pollution-free organic food, so that organic agriculture is rapidly developed, organic cultivation is increasingly emphasized, and organic food is gradually developed to be a new sunrise industry, and becomes the fashion of people consumption. The production of high-quality agricultural products such as organic pepper and the like is developed, so that the economic benefit of a producer can be improved, and the physical and psychological health of a consumer can be guaranteed.
The pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) belongs to the solanaceae Capsicum genus and a year or a limited perennial herb, is originally produced in tropical regions in the central and south America, is introduced into China in the Ming dynasty last year, is generally cultivated in China nowadays, is the second most important vegetable crop next to Chinese cabbage in China, is popular vegetable which people like to eat, and is also a good seasoning. The capsicum is rich in nutrition, contains protein, vitamins, organic acids, pigment, capsaicin and minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, ferrum and the like required by human body, and the content of vitamin C in the capsicum is the first in vegetables. Capsaicin in Capsici fructus can stimulate appetite, and has good antioxidant effect. When eaten in a proper amount, the chili sauce has the food therapy effects of invigorating stomach, helping digestion, preventing gallstone, improving heart function, promoting blood circulation, reducing blood sugar, reducing fat and losing weight, warming stomach and dispelling cold, preventing cold, relieving pain and dissipating heat, beautifying skin, resisting radiation, helping longevity and the like. Chinese is the world of pepper production and consumption which is the first world, the pepper seeding area in China exceeds more than 140 million hectares, the pepper seeding area accounts for 1/10 more than the vegetable crop planting area in China, the yield is 2700 million tons, the yield reaches 270 million yuan (grand China, Martensis tiger, spring festival, etc., the continuous cropping no-tillage cultivation technology of early spring peppers, Chinese cucurbits and vegetables, 2015,28(1):55-56), so the pepper plays an important role in the construction of Chinese vegetable basket engineering in China. The pepper is a warm vegetable, is not frost-resistant, requires warm climate, strong illumination and good ventilation condition for growth and development, has long growth period, long harvesting and supplying period, high yield and good benefit, and can be cultivated and supplied annually by sowing in different periods in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze river and cooperating with a protected area. However, the pepper is warm, bright, water-loving, fertile and waterlogging-afraid, flower and fruit dropping is easily caused by low-temperature overcast and rainy days in spring in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze river, the flower and fruit dropping is also easily caused by insufficient supply of fertilizer and water in full fruit period or in high-temperature drought, rainy and humid days, the damage of plant diseases and insect pests is serious under adverse climatic conditions, and the requirements of organic cultivation cannot be met by using more chemical fertilizers and pesticides in the pepper cultivation process, so the organic cultivation of the pepper is few at present. The contribution of the greenhouse early spring crop organic pepper cultivation technology (the army, Xinjiang agricultural technology, 2011(5):69) and the organic pepper cultivation technology (the southern soldier, Anhui agricultural science bulletin, 201l,17(14):171 and 172) is that the organic cultivation of pepper is provided; the method has the defects that facility greenhouse cultivation is generally adopted, a reasonable crop rotation system is not established, continuous cropping of the peppers is not tolerant, an organic cultivation production base is required to be established firstly when organic cultivation is carried out, and if the peppers are planted in the same land in successive years, pathogenic bacteria accumulation can be caused on one hand, and soil-borne diseases such as bacterial wilt and the like are serious; on the other hand, as the root system absorbs and utilizes the same nutrient substances in the similar soil layer, continuous cropping causes the soil to lack certain elements and deteriorates the physical and chemical properties of the soil, and continuous cropping obstacles are easy to occur. Because the pepper is generally required to be subjected to rotation for more than 2-3 years or paddy-upland rotation, the organic pepper cultivation method is difficult to be applied in actual production or really realize organic cultivation. Therefore, when organic cultivation of pepper is carried out, a scientific rotation plan must be made to fertilize the soil and reduce the base number of diseases and insect pests in the soil so as to effectively prevent and control the occurrence of soil-borne diseases such as bacterial wilt and the like and continuous cropping obstacles of the soil. The contribution of two five-harvest organic cultivation methods (application No. 201410465914.5, application publication No. CN 104255243A) for garlic and chili in one year is that the technical scheme of organic cultivation by crop rotation of the chili and the garlic is provided; the method has the defects that 1 crop of pepper is produced in the same land every year, each 1 crop of pepper is only crop rotation with 1 crop of garlic, the crop rotation time is too short, the occurrence of plant diseases and insect pests is still serious, and the cultivation has a large risk, and chemical agents such as 10% trisodium phosphate are used, so that the method is not really organic cultivation.
Green soy beans (Glycine max) are also called vegetable soybeans, namely soybeans which are eaten with fresh pods, and the green soy beans which are harvested between the full-grain period and the early-maturing period are used as vegetables to be eaten, and are annual herbaceous leguminous crops. The green soy bean is a food rich in nutrition, and contains rich vegetable protein, various beneficial mineral substances, vitamins and dietary fibers. The green soy bean contains rich potassium, can relieve fatigue and weakness and appetite reduction caused by inflammatory hot weather, and is particularly suitable for being eaten in summer; the iron in the green soy bean is easy to absorb and can be used as one of iron supplementing foods for children; the content of dietary fiber of the green soy bean is up to 4.0 percent, which not only can improve constipation, but also is beneficial to reducing blood pressure and cholesterol. The green soybean also contains trace functional component flavonoid, and can improve female climacteric discomfort and prevent and treat osteoporosis. The content of unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid and linolenic acid in green soy bean is obviously higher than that of other vegetables, which can improve fat metabolism and is helpful for reducing triglyceride and cholesterol in human body. Lecithin in green soy bean is one of indispensable nutrients for brain development, and helps to improve memory and intelligence level of brain. Therefore, the green soy beans (vegetable soy beans) are traditional special vegetables which are deeply loved by southern residents, especially the spring-sowed early-maturing green soy beans, and have obvious economic benefits due to early marketing, good quality, high market price and the like. In recent years, the demand of the international market for quick-frozen processed vegetable soybeans (green soy beans) has rapidly increased, and particularly, the demand of organic green soy bean foods in japan, korea and southeast asia countries has rapidly increased, and the organic green soy beans have great market potential in both domestic and international markets. The organic green soy bean production is developed, so that vegetable baskets of urban and rural residents can be enriched, the income of farmers can be increased, the life quality of the urban and rural residents can be effectively improved, and foreign exchange can be exported. Therefore, the organic green soybean production is a new soybean industry in China, has huge development potential and international market competitiveness, is modern high-efficiency earning agriculture, can generate huge economic and social benefits, and has very broad prospects. At present, although there are various organic green soy bean cultivations in China (see: an organic green soy bean cultivation method, CN 104025873A; an organic green soy bean cultivation method, CN 105393743A), the cultivation methods are not really organic cultivation because the cultivation methods do not adopt reasonable rotation and more or less use chemical fertilizers or pesticides in the cultivation process. The green soy beans are not resistant to continuous cropping, if the green soy beans are subjected to crop rotation with organic cultivation of other crops during organic cultivation, a reasonable crop rotation system is established, the organic cultivation of the green soy beans is facilitated, and the green soy beans are irrigated to plough as early as possible when the straws, bean leaves and green are still green after being harvested and turned into the soil, so that the green-pressing fertilizer effect of the straws can be improved, the soil can be fertilized and improved, the organic matter content of the soil is increased, the soil fertility structure is improved, the occurrence degree of plant diseases and insect pests is reduced, and the organic cultivation of other crops is facilitated.
Pea (Pisum sativum) is a cold-loving legume, the fourth soybean crop in the world. Peas are rich in various nutritional ingredients such as protein, dietary fiber, provitamin A and the like, and can improve the resistance of a human body, help digestion and the like; the provitamin A in pea can be converted into vitamin A in vivo, and has skin moistening effect; the semen Pisi Sativi is rich in vitamin C and enzyme capable of decomposing nitrosamine in vivo, can decompose nitrosamine, and has anticancer and cancer preventing effects. Pea harvesting and green bean pod shelling is taken as a delicious spring season vegetable, is liked by more and more people, and enters more and more vegetable baskets. The green peas collected are sold on the market as fresh vegetables, so that the economic benefit is good, and the stubble can be led as soon as possible, thereby being beneficial to the growth of the succeeding crops. Root of pea has rhizobia to fix nitrogen, and branches and leaves are luxuriant, and easy to become thoroughly decomposed, and is an important green manure. Peas have strong cold resistance and are excellent crops for developing winter species production. The peas grow through winter after being sowed in autumn, the temperature in the growth stage is low, the occurrence of plant diseases and insect pests is less, the cultivation and management are relatively simple and convenient, the cost is low, and the planting benefit is good. But the peas are not resistant to continuous cropping, and if reasonable rotation is carried out with hot peppers, rice and the like, good economic, social and ecological benefits are achieved.
Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important grain crop in Yangtze river basin, and is also the main crop for rotation crop with vegetables such as pepper and rotation crop with aquatic vegetables such as water chestnut. Although various production methods of organic rice exist at present (see: Xielili, etc., Baough area organic rice cultivation technology, modern agricultural science and technology, 2013(23), (58, 63), a production method of high-yield organic rice, CN 103733929B, and a production technology of organic fragrant rice, CN 103250606B), most of the organic rice production methods adopt no scientific and reasonable crop rotation and soil fertilization measures, and have the problems of poor growth, low yield and serious damage of insect and grass due to insufficient fertilizer at different degrees. Although rice is a continuous cropping-resistant crop, chemical agents cannot be used for preventing and treating the disease, the accumulation of field pathogenic bacteria and the increase of population density can be caused by long-term continuous cropping, and although the method of controlling the occurrence of field insect pests by breeding ducks, soft-shelled turtles, shrimps, fishes and the like in a rice field and the method of controlling the disease and insect pests by soaking seeds with Chinese herbal medicine liquid, preventing and spraying botanical insecticides and the like are adopted, the problem that the disease and insect pests cannot be controlled can be caused in the severe years of the occurrence of the disease and insect pests, so that the serious yield reduction is caused, and even the cultivation failure is caused. Therefore, scientific and reasonable rotation is also needed for organic cultivation of rice, especially rotation between paddy field and dry land. The hot pepper and the rice are subjected to paddy-upland rotation, so that the soil physical and chemical properties of the rice field are improved, the soil fertility and the fertilizer efficiency are improved, diseases such as hot pepper bacterial wilt, anthracnose, epidemic diseases and the like can be effectively inhibited, the occurrence of diseases, insect pests and weeds is reduced, the rice yield can be improved, the economic benefit is remarkably improved, and the economic benefit and the ecological benefit are remarkable.
Eleocharis corm (Eleocharis dulcis) belongs to genus Eleocharis of family Cyperaceae, is a shallow water perennial root herbaceous plant, can be eaten as fruit or vegetable with underground corm, can be eaten as raw food or cooked food, and can also be processed into canned food or used as raw material for extracting starch. The water chestnut has good effects of clearing heat and purging fire, can clear heat and promote fluid production, can supplement nutrition, has the function of preventing acute infectious diseases, and is a good disease-preventing food in spring when measles and epidemic meningitis are easy to occur. Water chestnuts are generally cultivated in Yangtze river valley, the water chestnuts are white in meat quality, crisp, sweet, tasty and refreshing in juice, rich in nutrition, rich in various mineral elements, vitamins and amino acids required by human bodies, and rich in protein, fat, crude fiber, carotene, vitamin B, vitamin C, iron, calcium, phosphorus, carbohydrate and the like, and the water chestnuts are reputed by underground snow pears in ancient times and are considered as Jiangnan ginseng in the north China, so that the economic benefit of cultivating the water chestnuts is better. The water chestnuts cannot bear continuous cropping and are mostly crop-rotated with rice, but the economic benefit of the water chestnuts and the rice is lower, and the water chestnuts and the peppers are crop-rotated, so that the economic benefit is better, the soil structure can be improved, the soil fertility can be improved, the occurrence degree of diseases, insect pests and weeds can be reduced, the using amount of pesticides and fertilizers can be reduced, the product quality and the yield can be improved, and the economic benefit can be obviously improved.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide an organic crop rotation cultivation method for autumn pepper, peas, early season rice, water chestnuts and green soy beans, scientific and reasonable paddy-upland rotation is carried out on the pepper, the green soy beans and peas of leguminous crops, paddy rice of field crops and the water chestnuts of efficient aquatic crops, so that the economic benefit can be improved, more importantly, the weed harm can be reduced, the breeding environment of a pest source is destroyed, the occurrence degree of plant diseases and insect pests is reduced, the soil fertility structure is improved, and the soil environment is promoted to be repaired; the method is characterized in that 1 green bean and 1 pea are cultivated in 1 crop rotation period, green bean pods are harvested to be used as vegetables, economic benefit is good, stubble can be led as soon as possible, growth of succeeding crops is facilitated, the straws of the green beans and the peas are turned into soil as green manure to fertilize the soil, the straws are collected and piled into organic fertilizer after each crop is harvested or returned to the field on the spot to fertilize the soil, organic matter recycling is well achieved, soil fertility is improved, a positive cycle of crop cultivation can be formed, balance and biological diversity of a farmland ecosystem are maintained, and therefore the purpose of organic cultivation is achieved. The crop rotation organic cultivation method of the invention strictly carries out cultivation according to organic food technical specifications (HJ/T80-2001) issued by the State environmental protection administration, and organic hot pepper, peas, early season rice, water chestnuts and green soy beans can be cultivated in the same organic cultivation production base.
The organic crop rotation cultivation method of autumn pepper, peas, early season rice, water chestnuts and green soy beans comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting a proper place to establish an organic cultivation production base;
(2) selecting a suitable variety: the pepper variety is selected from early-medium-maturing varieties which are heat-resistant, disease-resistant, strong in stress resistance, wide in adaptability, strong in growth vigor, concentrated in fruit setting, strong in fruit bearing capacity, high in yield, high in quality and good in commodity, are suitable for local cultivation and market requirements, and comprise: xiang Ming No. 3, Xiang Ming No. 12 and Xiang Ming No. 13; the pea variety is selected from good varieties with high yield, disease and insect resistance, strong cold resistance, wide adaptability, high pod bearing rate and relatively concentrated pod bearing, and comprises the following steps: artix, fructus Canarii albi, flos Chrysanthemi of Hangzhou, Chengdu winter pea, middle pea No. 4, and middle pea No. 6; the early rice variety is selected from good varieties which have strong disease and insect resistance, lodging resistance, wide adaptability, good yield and good rice quality and are suitable for the local ecological environment, and the organic rice seeds authenticated by an organic authentication organization are preferentially selected; the water chestnut variety has strong disease resistance and stress resistance, large corm, thin peel, sweet taste and less fine texture and residue, and is suitable for high-yield and high-quality variety of local cultivation, and the water chestnut variety comprises the following components: hubei No. 1, Guizhou No. 2, filial corm, 91-33 corms, Guilin corms, Sanyo corms, Tufeng corms, Huichang corms, Yuhangda Pao and Suzhou corms; the green soybean variety is selected from early-medium-maturing varieties which have compact plant types, concentrated pod bearing, full large pods, tender meat quality, strong disease and insect resistance, wide adaptability, high yield, good commodity and suitability for local ecological condition cultivation, and comprises the following steps: taiwan 75, Taiwan 753, Taiwan 292, Japanese Fugui, Suxian 08-16, Qingsu No. 2, Qingsu No. 5, Sudou No. 5, spring green;
(3) the crop rotation mode is as follows: sequentially cultivating in the 1 st year: green soy beans, autumn peppers and peas are sequentially cultivated in the 2 nd year: early rice-water chestnut, which is in 1 rotation cycle every 2 years;
(4) and (3) performing crop rotation cultivation of organic pepper, organic pea, organic early season rice, organic water chestnut and organic green soybean according to organic agricultural principles and organic agricultural product production modes and standards, and returning the straws to the field and retting the organic fertilizer to fertilize the soil.
The organic cultivation production base in the step (1) is an agricultural production area which is convenient to transport, convenient to drain and irrigate, far away from urban areas and mining areas, good in ecological conditions, free of heavy metal and pesticide residue pollution, far away from refuse dumps and other pollution sources and traffic main lines, and has sustainable production capacity, the requirement on soil environment quality is not lower than a secondary standard in soil environment quality standard (GB 15618-; the planting area of each organic cultivation production base is not less than 10 hectares, the production bases are connected into pieces and have integrity, and an obvious isolation zone or a buffer zone is arranged at the junction of the organic production base and a conventional production land.
And (3) selecting seeds which are not treated by forbidden substances for the variety in the step (2), and forbidding the use of transgenic seeds.
The organic cultivation comprises the following measures:
in the whole cultivation process, the use of artificial chemical synthetic substances including pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides, hormones or growth regulators is forbidden, and genetic engineering technology and products thereof are not used, so that the balance and the biodiversity of a farmland ecosystem are maintained;
in the whole cultivation process, only organic fertilizers are allowed to be applied and leguminous crops are planted as green manure and straw returning soil for fertilizing, the organic fertilizers are one or more of fully decomposed organic fertilizers, efficient organic fertilizers and biological bacterial fertilizers, and besides animal manure and plant retting fertilizers, green manure, plant ash, cake fertilizers and biogas fertilizers, potassium mineral powder, phosphate rock powder and calcium chloride can be used, and organic special fertilizers and microbial fertilizers certified by organic certification organizations can also be used;
the prevention and control of the plant diseases and insect pests are mainly carried out, and the plant protection policy of comprehensive prevention and control is implemented, starting from an ecological system of the whole farmland production environment, various prevention and control measures are comprehensively applied, so that the environmental conditions which are not beneficial to breeding of the diseases and insect pests and beneficial to the multiplication of various natural enemies are created, the loss caused by the diseases and insect pests is reduced, the comprehensive agricultural prevention and control is based on biological and physical methods, artificially synthesized pesticides are not used for chemical prevention and control, when the diseases and pests occur, the permitted minerals or plant medicaments are used for preventing and controlling the diseases and pests, rotenone, pyrethrum from plant sources, emulsified vegetable oil and diatomite, microorganisms including bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bt preparations and the preparations thereof are used for preventing and controlling the diseases and pests, and the diseases and pests can also be prevented and controlled by using sulfur, lime, Bordeaux mixture and the like;
in the production process, the stability of a farmland ecosystem is maintained, environmental pollution and ecological damage cannot be caused, plant residues are cleaned in time after each crop is harvested, straws are collected and piled into organic fertilizers or returned to the field for fertilizing soil, all agricultural organic matters including the straws are comprehensively utilized, and all non-degradable wastes including agricultural films are recycled and utilized.
The organic pepper cultivation in the step (4) comprises the following steps: immediately irrigating water in the field after harvesting the previously planted green soybeans, turning the straws into the soil as green manure, composting the straws at high temperature to fertilize the soil, draining water, drying the field, turning over the soil, and cultivating 1 crop of autumn pepper after drying the soil, wherein the method comprises the following steps: selecting proper varieties, cultivating disease-free strong seedlings, planting in real time, managing in the field and harvesting.
The method for cultivating disease-free strong seedlings comprises the following steps: seedling is cultivated by adopting a sunshade net covering and rain sheltering measure in the late ten days to the early 7 months of 6 months, generally adopting a nutrition pot or a seedling cultivation plug tray with 50 holes, and temporarily planting the seedling in the nutrition pot/50 holes when 3-4 true leaves grow out during seedling bed broadcast sowing and seedling cultivation, wherein temporary planting can be omitted if the seedling is properly sowed at a low rate; during seedling raising, sun shading, temperature reduction, rain sheltering measures and water management are enhanced, and excessive growth of seedlings is prevented; the standard of strong seedlings is as follows: the seedlings grow strongly, the root systems are developed, 5-7 true leaves are contained, and the seedling age is not more than 35 days.
The organic pepper cultivation comprises the following steps: and (3) deep-ditch high-ridge cultivation is adopted, disease-free strong seedlings are selected for plastic film mulching and planting in afternoon or cloudy days from the bottom of 7 months to the first ten days of 8 months, 3000-4500 plants are planted in each mu, harvesting is started in the middle and last ten days of 9 months, and 11 months can be harvested all the time.
The organic pepper cultivation fertilization principle is that base fertilizers are used as main fertilizers, reasonable topdressing is carried out, 70% -80% of the total fertilization amount is used as base fertilizers, 2000-3000 kg of decomposed animal manure, 150-200 kg of cake fertilizers or 2500-3000 kg of decomposed human and animal manure, 30-50 kg of phosphate rock powder and 20-30 kg of potassium ore powder are applied to each mu of land, and the organic pepper cultivation compost is applied to the surface of a furrow after deep ploughing and before soil preparation; before topdressing, the pepper is light and heavy, so as to meet the nutritional requirement of continuous flowering fruiting of the pepper, after field planting and survival, 300-500 kg of 10-20% decomposed human excrement or biogas slurry is applied as a seedling raising fertilizer for 1-2 times, and after setting, 20-30% decomposed human excrement or biogas slurry is applied for 2-4 times in the growth and harvesting period of the fruit, 300-500 kg each time, or 60-120 kg of decomposed cake fertilizer is applied in holes.
The water management of the organic pepper cultivation comprises the following steps: rehydrating for 1 time in a seedling revival stage after planting, wherein the temperature in the early stage is high, the evaporation capacity is large, watering is easy to work, attention is paid to ensure uniform supply of water, and watering is carried out in the morning and evening when the seedlings are cooled; ensuring sufficient water supply in the fruiting period; in rainy seasons, ditching and draining must be done to prevent waterlogging and root injury.
The organic pea cultivation in the step (4) comprises the following steps: in the later period of harvesting autumn peppers or in the middle of 10 months to the middle of 11 months after harvesting, reserving an original mulching film for no-tillage direct hole sowing and interplanting of peas on pepper cultivation beds (1 hole of peas is sowed in the middle of every two peppers of each row of peppers, 2 rows of peas are sowed in each bed), cleaning a garden in time and enhancing management of peas after 11 months of pepper harvesting is finished, harvesting green bean pods in the middle of 4 months of the next year and leaving stubbles, turning straws after harvesting the green bean pods into soil as green manure to fertilize the soil, and then cultivating 1 crop of early rice.
The organic pea cultivation is generally carried out in 10 to 11 middle ten days of the month, hole sowing is adopted, 3 to 4 seeds are sowed in each hole, the planting density is ensured to be more than ten thousand plants per mu, and 20 to 40kg of ground phosphate rock and 10 to 20kg of potassium ore powder are mixed with rotten animal manure or soil impurity manure or fire soil ash for 1000 to 1500kg as covering fertilizer for each mu during sowing.
The cultivation of the organic early rice in the step (4) comprises the following steps: after harvesting the former cropping peas, turning the pea straws into soil to fertilize the soil, and cultivating 1 crop of early rice after applying sufficient base fertilizer in combination with land ploughing; the early season rice is planted in the first 3-4 days, the rice is planted in the middle and last 4 days, and after harvesting, the rice is turned into the field and the soil is composted by retting the rice at high temperature.
The organic early rice cultivation adopts a wet seedling raising method to raise seedlings intensively, and 1000-2000 kg of fully decomposed high-quality organic fertilizer, 30-50 kg of phosphate rock powder or 150kg of cake fertilizer is applied to each mu of rice seedling field 3-5 days before sowing; sowing seeds in the last ten days of 3 months to the last ten days of 4 months generally, and controlling the seedling age within 30 days.
The organic early rice cultivation method is characterized in that reasonable fertilization is carried out according to the fertilization principle of forward promotion, central control and backward stability, and 1000-2000 kg of farmyard organic fertilizers such as fully decomposed animal manure and the like or 100-150 kg of cake fertilizers and 30-50 kg of ground phosphate rock are applied to each mu of land for turning over as base fertilizers; and applying 100-150 kg of decomposed cake fertilizer or 50-100 kg of commercial organic fertilizer as tillering fertilizer per mu 4-5 days after transplanting, and applying 50-100 kg of decomposed cake fertilizer or about 50kg of commercial organic fertilizer per mu as spike fertilizer immediately after re-watering in the sun-dried field.
The organic water chestnut cultivation in the step (4) comprises the following steps: immediately turning the straws into the field after harvesting the early cropping rice, composting the straws at high temperature to fertilize the soil, and cultivating 1 crop of water chestnuts after applying sufficient base fertilizer in combination with the cultivated land; selecting a variety suitable for local cultivation, cultivating disease-free strong seedlings by adopting a two-stage method in the middle and upper ten days of 4 months, planting in the middle and lower ten days of 7 months, and harvesting from the middle and lower ten days of 11 months to the upper 2 months of the next year.
The two-stage method for cultivating disease-free strong seedlings comprises the following steps: selecting field blocks with regular and consistent growth, strong tillering and plant property, no lodging and no pest damage as seed reserving fields at the later growth stage of the water chestnuts in the first year, selecting corms which are full, smooth in surface skin, consistent in color, large and uniform, complete and robust in terminal buds and side buds, free of wounds and decay and have the characteristics of the corms, and adopting a two-stage seedling raising method of one-stage seedling raising (dry seedlings) and two-stage seedling raising (seedling field seedlings); the first stage of seedling raising (dry land seedling raising) comprises the following steps: selecting dry land or garden soil which is sheltered from wind and exposed to the sun, loose in soil and fertile in the middle ten days of 4 months, hoeing and loosening the surface soil by about 10cm, and forming a seedbed with the width of a furrow of 100-150 cm, soaking the seed camelina sativa in clean clear water for 18-24 hours, taking out the seed camelina sativa, draining off the clear water, neatly arranging the seed camelina sativa in the seedbed for dry land seedling culture, regularly watering to keep the soil moist until seedlings are raised, building a small arched shed at the early stage, covering a plastic film for germination acceleration, and transplanting the seed camelina sativa to a seedling field for second-stage seedling culture when the top bud of the seed bulb is 20-; the second stage seedling (seedling bed seedling) is: selecting paddy fields with convenient drainage and irrigation and rich organic matters, performing water tillage to form seedling raising fields after sufficient base fertilizer is applied, transplanting seedlings in dry land seedling raising seedbeds into the seedling raising fields in the middle and late 5 months for seedling raising, and planting when the seedlings are as high as more than 35-40 cm and the leaf-shaped stems are as thick as more than 0.5 cm.
The fertilization of the organic water chestnut cultivation is based on the principle of 'forward stability, central control and backward attack', sufficient base fertilizer is applied, 2000-3000 kg of farmyard organic fertilizer such as miscellaneous manure or decomposed manure is applied to each mu of ploughed land, 1000-2000 kg of decomposed human and animal manure or 150-200 kg of decomposed rapeseed cakes is applied to each mu of ploughed land, 40kg of phosphorus mineral powder and 20kg of potassium mineral powder are additionally used as the base fertilizer, and 50-100 kg of quicklime is applied to soil with heavy acidity in each mu of ploughed land; in the early stage of top dressing, nitrogen fertilizer is used as the main fertilizer, potassium fertilizer is used as the main fertilizer, top dressing for the 1 st time is carried out 7-10 days after field planting, after transplanting and turning green, decomposed human excrement and urine 400-500 kg is applied to each mu in combination with intertillage for the 1 st time to promote early tillering and plant division, top dressing for the 2 nd time is carried out 10-15 days, decomposed cake fertilizer 70-80 kg or plant ash 100-200 kg is applied to each mu in combination with weeding to promote row sealing, top dressing for the 3 rd time is carried out in the middle ten days of 9 months, decomposed cake fertilizer 100kg or biogas liquid 750kg is applied to each mu, and potassium mineral powder 20kg is additionally added to promote capsella bursa-pastoris.
The organic green soybean cultivation in the step (4) comprises the following steps: ploughing and drying soil after harvesting the earlier planted water chestnuts, directly seeding and cultivating a suitable green soybean variety in the middle and late 3 months to the middle and early 4 months after applying sufficient base fertilizer, timely pinching in the full-bloom period, harvesting and leaving stubble before the early 7 months, immediately irrigating the field, ploughing green soybean straws serving as green fertilizer into the soil, composting the soil at high temperature, and cultivating 1 crop of autumn pepper.
The application method of the base fertilizer comprises the following steps: ploughing and drying soil after harvesting the pre-grown water chestnuts, applying 1000-1500 kg of decomposed farmyard organic fertilizer and 50kg of ground phosphate rock as base fertilizer per mu in combination with soil preparation.
The organic green soybean cultivation comprises open field cultivation and mulching cultivation, wherein the open field cultivation is generally sown in the last 3-4-month middle ten days, and the mulching cultivation is generally sown in the middle and last 3-month ten days; hole sowing is adopted, the general density is about 2 ten thousand plants per mu, the reference row spacing is 30-40 cm, the plant spacing is 15-25 cm, and 2-3 seeds are sowed in each hole; during sowing, 20-40 kg of phosphate rock powder and 10-20 kg of potassium ore powder are mixed with decomposed animal manure or soil compost or fire soil ash 1000-1500 kg per mu to serve as covering fertilizer.
The timely pinching in the full-bloom period is as follows: and (3) pinching at the later stage of the full-bloom stage, namely removing 1-2 cm of terminal buds of main stems, so that nutrients are supplied to the bean pods in a centralized manner, seeds of the bean pods are full and mature uniformly, and centralized harvesting and yield improvement are facilitated.
The organic crop rotation cultivation method is particularly suitable for the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze river.
The invention has the following positive effects: the pepper is a solanaceous vegetable which is not resistant to continuous cropping, the requirement on fertilizer and water is high, the variety of plant diseases and insect pests is large, the damage is serious, the occurrence of soil-borne diseases such as bacterial wilt and the like is serious due to the accumulation of pathogenic bacteria and the like during continuous cropping, soil continuous cropping obstacles easily occur, the use amount of chemical fertilizers and pesticides is increased year by year to reach the expected yield along with the increase of the cultivation age during continuous cropping of the pepper, even if a large amount of chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used, the phenomenon of annual yield reduction occurs, so the common cultivation of the pepper hardly reaches the requirement of organic cultivation, and if the pepper needs to be cultivated organically, a scientific and reasonable crop rotation system must be established at first. The green soy beans and the peas are not resistant to continuous cropping, and the green soy beans and the peas are reasonably crop-rotated with crops such as pepper and rice, so that the organic cultivation of the green soy beans and the peas is facilitated, the fertilizer can be applied and the soil can be improved, and the organic cultivation of other crop-rotated crops such as the pepper and the rice is facilitated. The water chestnuts are not resistant to continuous cropping, and the water chestnuts and the peppers are subjected to water-land rotation, so that the economic benefit is better, the soil structure can be improved, the soil fertility can be improved, and the occurrence degree of plant diseases and insect pests can be reduced. Although rice is a continuous cropping resistant crop, the long-term continuous cropping can also cause accumulation of pathogenic bacteria in the field and increase of population density. According to the invention, the pepper, the leguminous crop green soy bean and pea, the field crop rice and the high-efficiency aquatic crop water chestnut are adopted for scientific and reasonable paddy-upland rotation, so that not only can the land utilization rate be improved, the unit area yield be increased, the product quality be improved and the economic benefit be improved, but also more importantly, completely different paddy-upland ecological environments can be formed through the paddy-upland rotation, the weed harm can be reduced, the breeding environment of a pest source is damaged to reduce the occurrence degree of plant diseases and insect pests, the soil nutrient can be utilized in a balanced manner, the physical and chemical properties of the soil and the soil fertility structure can be improved, the complementary change of the advantages of the physical and chemical properties of the soil can be; the green bean and pea stalks are turned into green manure to fertilize soil, so that the purposes of saving fertilizer and high yield can be achieved; meanwhile, after each crop is harvested, the straws are collected and piled into organic fertilizer or returned to the field to fertilize the soil, so that the organic matter is well recovered, the content of the organic matter in the soil is increased, the soil fertility is improved, a virtuous cycle of crop cultivation can be formed, the balance and the biological diversity of a farmland ecosystem are maintained, the sustainable development of agricultural production is ensured, and the aim of organic cultivation is fulfilled. The invention strictly carries out cultivation according to the quality requirement and the production technical specification of organic agricultural products, establishes an organic cultivation production base by selecting a proper place, selects a proper variety, cultivates disease-free strong seedlings and carries out field planting in time, adopts various feasible field management comprehensive technical measures, fully utilizes resources such as light, heat, water, gas, fertilizer and the like, creates environmental conditions which are beneficial to the growth and development of pepper, pea, early season rice, water chestnut and green soy bean and are not beneficial to the occurrence of plant diseases and insect pests, and can cultivate the organic pepper, the pea, the early season rice, the water chestnut and the green soy bean in the same organic cultivation production base. In 1 rotation period, the yield of 1 crop of organic autumn peppers is 2000-3200 kg/mu, the green pod yield of 1 crop of organic peas is 750-950 kg/mu, the yield of 1 crop of organic early season rice is 480-560 kg/mu, the yield of 1 crop of organic water chestnuts is 1500-2500 kg/mu, and the fresh pod yield of 1 crop of organic green beans is 700-900 kg/mu. The produced pepper, pea, early season rice, water chestnut and green soybean not only have excellent quality, meet the quality requirement of organic agricultural products, but also have high yield, and have no obvious difference with the yield of conventional cultivation. The crop rotation organic cultivation method is scientific and reasonable in technology, strong in practicability and operability, is a high-efficiency ecological cycle agricultural cultivation mode, has good social, economic and ecological benefits, and can be popularized and applied in middle and lower reaches of Yangtze river.
Detailed Description
The following examples are given to illustrate the essence of the present invention in detail without limiting the present invention.
Example 1
1. Selecting proper place to establish organic cultivation production base
The organic cultivation production base is established in agricultural production areas which are convenient to transport, convenient to drain and irrigate, far away from urban areas and industrial and mining areas (generally required to be more than 10 kilometers away), good in ecological conditions, free of heavy metal and pesticide residue pollution, far away from pollution sources such as garbage dumps (no pollution source within at least 5 kilometers of the periphery) and traffic main lines, and capable of achieving sustainable production capacity. The soil environment quality requirement of the production base is not lower than the secondary standard in the soil environment quality Standard (GB 15618-1995), and the requirements are that the terrain is high and comfortable, the soil has good physical and chemical properties, the water and fertilizer retention capacity is strong, the soil layer is deep and fertile, the effective soil layer reaches more than 60cm, the soil has good drainage and ventilation performance, the biological activity is strong, and the organic matter content is more than 15 g/kg. The quality of irrigation water meets the regulation of the Farmland irrigation Water quality Standard (GB 5084 + 2005), and the requirement is that the water source is sufficient and clean, the water quality is excellent, and the channel system is matched. The quality of the ambient air is not lower than the secondary standard in the environmental air quality standard (GB 3095-2012), and the air is required to be clean. The organic production base has a certain scale, and the planting area is not less than 10 hectares. The production sites should be contiguous in pieces, have integrity, and do not have the usual production of land blocks interspersed between them, but allow for the presence of organically transformed land blocks. The production base is relatively flat, matched ditch systems are dug well, and smooth ditches outside the field are achieved, and the irrigation and drainage are convenient. Obvious isolation zones such as rivers, ditches and the like are required at the junction of the organic production base and the conventional production land. If the marginal plots are likely to be affected by contamination of adjacent conventional plots, a buffer zone or physical barrier of around 10m must be provided between the organic and conventional plots to ensure that the organic plots are not contaminated. Considering that some substances are left in the environment for a long time, the conversion from the conventional production system to the organic production usually requires a 2-year conversion period, and agricultural products such as pepper cultivated thereafter can be harvested as organic products, i.e. pepper cultivated in 3 rd year and other agricultural products are organic agricultural products.
2. Producing according to the quality requirement and production technical specification of organic agricultural products
According to the organic agricultural production principle, based on following the natural law and the ecological principle, a series of continuously developed agricultural technologies such as planting and breeding combination, cyclic regeneration, maintenance of balance and biological diversity of a farmland ecosystem are adopted for production, and during the whole cultivation process, the use of artificial chemical synthetic substances such as pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides, hormones or growth regulators and the like is forbidden without using genetic engineering technology and products thereof.
(1) Soil fertility improvement and correct use of fertilizer
In order to ensure the sustainable production capacity of organic production bases, soil fertilization is very important. The green beans and the peas are important crops for simultaneously using vegetables, grains, feeds and green manure, the stems of the harvested green beans and the harvested peas are pressed green to be used as the green manure, the fertilizer efficiency is high, the physical and chemical properties of soil can be effectively improved, the organic matter content of the soil is improved, the soil nutrients are enriched and increased, the soil fertility is effectively improved, various effective nutrients can be provided for the succeeding crops, and the purposes of land cultivation and agricultural organic cultivation are achieved, so that the 1 crop of green beans and 1 crop of peas planted in 1 crop rotation period can obtain higher economic benefits, the soil fertility can be improved, the nutrients are supplemented for the soil, the soil structure is improved, and a solid foundation is laid for the production of agricultural products such as organic peppers. Only the application of organic fertilizers, the planting of green fertilizers such as leguminous crops and the like and the returning of straws to the field are allowed to fertilize the soil, and fully decomposed organic fertilizers, efficient organic fertilizers and biological bacterial fertilizers are used. Organic fertilizers such as chicken manure and pig manure need to be subjected to harmless treatment 2 months before application, and the fertilizers are mixed with water and then are accumulated and fermented to be fully decomposed. Aiming at the defect that the available nutrients in the early stage of the organic fertilizer are slowly released, the allowable microbial fertilizers such as rhizobia, bacillus, photosynthetic bacteria, phosphorus dissolving bacteria and the like with nitrogen fixing, phosphorus dissolving and potassium dissolving functions can be used, and the nutrients are accelerated to be released through the activity of beneficial bacteria, so that the nutrients are effectively utilized by crops. The allowed fertilizer types can be animal manure, plant retting fertilizer, green manure, plant ash, cake fertilizer, biogas fertilizer, potassium ore powder, phosphate rock powder, calcium chloride and other substances, and can also be organic special fertilizer and microbial fertilizer certified by organic certification organizations.
(2) Comprehensive control of diseases, pests and weeds
The method carries out a plant protection policy of 'prevention is mainly carried out and comprehensive control', comprehensively applies various control measures from an ecosystem of the whole farmland production environment, creates environmental conditions which are not beneficial to breeding of diseases, pests and weeds and are beneficial to the propagation of various natural enemies, reduces the loss caused by the diseases, the pests and the weeds, and adopts biological and physical methods for control on the basis of agricultural comprehensive control without using artificially synthesized pesticides for chemical control. The agricultural control is mainly to select varieties with strong resistance, carry out reasonable rotation, cultivate disease-free strong seedlings with proper age, adopt various possible cultivation technical measures to carry out scientific cultivation management, create environmental conditions which are beneficial to the growth and development of crops but not beneficial to the occurrence of diseases, pests and weeds, and enhance the disease and pest resistance of plants. Biological and physical control is to protect the ecological environment of the production base as much as possible, maintain the ecological balance of the nature and reasonably utilize natural enemies to biologically control pests; the natural phototaxis and odor of pests are utilized to kill the pests, and 1 solar pest killing lamp (HLD-01) is installed in each 2-3 hectares of a production base to trap and kill the pests. When the plant diseases and insect pests happen seriously, certain mineral substances and plant medicaments which are allowed to be used can be used for preventing and treating the plant diseases and insect pests, rotenone, pyrethrum from plant sources, emulsified vegetable oil and diatomite and microorganisms and preparations thereof such as cartap borer bacillus, Bt preparations and the like can be used for preventing and treating the plant diseases and insect pests in a limited way, and sulfur, lime sulphur, Bordeaux mixture and the like can be used for preventing and treating the plant diseases and insect pests in a limited way.
(3) Protecting ecological environment of base
The production process requires no environmental pollution and ecological damage, so that plant residues are timely cleaned after each crop is harvested, a base is thoroughly cleaned and cleaned, and all plant disease residues are transported out of the base and destroyed or deeply buried to reduce the base number of plant diseases and insect pests. The straws are collected and piled into organic fertilizer or returned to the field for fertilizing soil, so that the agricultural organic matters such as the straws and the like are all comprehensively utilized. The undegradable wastes such as agricultural films are recycled and utilized.
3. Making scientific and reasonable crop rotation plan for organic cultivation
The continuous cropping is not resistant to the hot pepper, and during the continuous cropping, not only soil-borne diseases such as bacterial wilt and the like are serious, but also soil continuous cropping obstacles are easy to occur, the yield is reduced if the diseases are light, and the orchard is destroyed and the crop is not harvested if the diseases are heavy, so that a scientific rotation plan must be made during the organic cultivation of the hot pepper, and a reasonable rotation system must be established to control the damage of diseases and insects and prevent the occurrence of the soil continuous cropping obstacles. Through years of research and production practice, the research and summarization show that the organic cultivation rotation mode of the autumn peppers in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze river is as follows: green soy bean, autumn pepper, pea (1 st year), early season rice, water chestnut (2 nd year), and 1 rotation cycle is 2 years. Firstly cultivating 1 green bean in the 1 st year, immediately irrigating the field after harvesting the green beans, turning the straws into the soil as green manure and composting the straws to fertilize the soil while the straws are high temperature, then draining and drying the soil in the sun, turning and drying the soil in the sun, cultivating 1 crop of autumn pepper, reserving the original mulching film on the cultivation bed of the pepper at the later stage of harvesting the autumn pepper or in the middle ten days of 10 months to 11 months after harvesting, directly sowing 2 rows of peas between two seedlings of peppers without tillage, timely cleaning the field and enhancing the management of the peas after 11 months of pepper harvesting, immediately turning the straws into the soil as green manure after harvesting green bean pods in the end of the next spring season of peas, then cultivating 1 crop of early rice, immediately turning the early rice into the field after harvesting the early rice and composting the straws while composting the soil, then cultivating 1 crop of water chestnuts, and then cultivating the crop rotation cultivation mode.
(1) Organic cultivation technology for autumn pepper
Selecting proper variety
Under the condition that no certified organic pepper seeds exist in China at present, seeds which are not treated by forbidden substances are selected, and transgenic seeds are forbidden. The early-middle-aged pepper varieties which are heat-resistant, disease-resistant, strong in stress resistance, wide in adaptability, strong in growth vigor, centralized in fruit setting, strong in fruit bearing capacity, high in yield, high in quality and good in commodity and are suitable for local cultivation and market requirements are selected, such as Hunan No. 3 (examined name: Xiang pepper No. 2), Hunan No. 12 (examined name: Xiang pepper No. 15) and Hunan No. 13 (examined name: Xiang pepper No. 21) varieties which are examined by the crop variety examination committee in Hunan province.
② properly and early cultivating disease-free strong seedlings
The seedling culture time of the organic pepper cultivated in autumn in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze river can be advanced to the early days of the last 6 months to the early days of the last 7 months. Generally, a nutrition pot or a 50-hole seedling raising plug tray is adopted for raising seedlings. If the seedbed is adopted for broadcast sowing and seedling raising, the temporary planting can not be carried out when the seeding is properly and thinly sowed; but when the seeding is dense, the temporary planting needs to be carried out for 1 time when 3-4 true leaves grow out from the seedling, and the temporary planting can be carried out in a nutrition pot or a 50-hole seedling raising plug tray. During seedling culture, high temperature and drought seasons are positive all year round, sunshine is strong, storm exists, and seedling culture needs to be carried out by adopting sunshade net coverage and rain sheltering measures so as to prevent the excessive growth of seedlings. In high temperature season, due to large evaporation capacity, special attention should be paid to seedbed moisture retention to prevent drought and death. The standard of strong seedlings is as follows: the seedlings grow strongly, the root systems are developed, 5-7 true leaves are provided, and the seedling age is generally not more than 35 days.
Thirdly, applying enough base fertilizer and planting in good time
Soil preparation and bed making and base fertilizer application: immediately irrigating the field after harvesting the previously planted green soybeans, turning the straws into the soil as green manure (the mulching film must be removed firstly in mulching film cultivation), composting the straws at high temperature to fertilize the soil, draining water, drying the field, and turning and drying the soil. Sufficient base fertilizer is applied before field planting, the base fertilizer accounts for 70-80% of the total fertilizer consumption, 2000-3000 kg of decomposed manure, 150-200 kg of cake fertilizer or 2500-3000 kg of decomposed human and animal manure, 30-50 kg of phosphate rock powder and 20-30 kg of potassium ore powder are generally applied per mu, and the amount can be increased or decreased according to the soil fertility condition. 50-100 kg of quicklime is applied to each mu of soil with heavy acidity. Generally, after deep ploughing for 1 time, base fertilizer is applied and land preparation is carried out to make a furrow, the furrow width (covering a side ditch) is 1.1-1.2 m, the furrow depth is 20-30 cm, and a circumferential ditch and a waist ditch are opened, so that the furrow ditch, the waist ditch and the circumferential ditch are communicated for facilitating drainage. The base fertilizer is generally applied to the surface of a furrow before soil preparation, then soil preparation is carried out, and a mulching film is covered.
Timely planting: the suitable planting period in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze river is 7-8 last ten days. Planting 2 rows in each ridge, wherein the plant spacing is 28-36 cm, 3000-4500 plants are planted in each mu, planting in the afternoon or in the cloudy day is selected, planting water is immediately poured after planting, and water is additionally poured for 1 time in the morning on the 2 nd day to ensure the survival of seedlings.
Fourthly, field management
And (3) reasonable fertilization: after field planting survival, 300-500 kg of 10-20% decomposed human excrement or biogas slurry is applied in 1-2 times as a seedling raising fertilizer. After the 1 st and 2 nd layer fruits are stable and after every 1-2 times of harvesting, a proper amount of quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer is applied according to the growth condition of plants, generally 20-30% of decomposed human excrement or biogas slurry can be applied for 2-4 times, 300-500 kg each time, or 60-120 kg of decomposed cake fertilizer is applied in holes, and then 1 time of water is poured. The topdressing amount needs to be light before and heavy after the application so as to meet the nutritional requirement of continuous flowering and fruiting of the pepper and enhance the postfruiting vigor.
Water content management: rehydrating for 1 time in a seedling revival stage after planting, wherein the temperature in the early stage is high, the evaporation capacity is large, watering is easy to work, attention is paid to ensure uniform supply of water, and watering is carried out in the morning and evening when the seedlings are cooled; ensuring sufficient water supply in the fruiting period; in rainy seasons, ditching and draining must be done to prevent waterlogging and root injury.
In addition, timely removing the lateral branches below the capsicum frutescens needs to be paid attention to so as to reduce nutrient consumption, supply the nutrients to fruits intensively, improve the fruit setting rate and promote the growth of young fruits.
Controlling diseases, pests and weeds: the method mainly aims at the comprehensive agricultural control, and comprises the steps of selecting disease and pest resistant varieties and disease-free seeds, killing germs carried on the surfaces of the seeds by using warm scalding seed soaking (namely, putting the seeds into 55 ℃ warm water which is 3-4 times of the weight of the seeds, continuously stirring for about 15 minutes, continuously soaking the seeds for 4-5 hours after the water temperature is reduced to the room temperature, then sowing after germination accelerating or directly sowing), carrying out reasonable water-dry rotation, applying proper amount of quicklime to adjust the pH value, cultivating disease-free strong seedlings, planting in good time, adopting deep-groove high-bed mulching film covering cultivation, carrying out reasonable close planting, strengthening fertilizer-water management to enable the plants to grow, preventing field water accumulation and other scientific cultivation management, creating environmental conditions which are beneficial to the growth and development of the peppers and are not beneficial to the occurrence of diseases, pests and weeds so as to strengthen the disease and pest resistance of the; checking in time, immediately removing, burning or deeply burying the diseased plant, and spreading lime in the hole; cleaning the field and the peripheral weeds, reducing the spreading source of diseases and pests, and the like. Secondly, biological and physical control is adopted, such as control of aphids and the like by using natural enemies such as coccinella septempunctata, encarsia formosa and the like; trapping and killing pests by using a frequency vibration type pest killing lamp, a yellow plate, a blue plate and the like, for example, trapping and killing pests by installing a solar pest killing lamp (frequency vibration type pest killing lamp HLD-01), or trapping and killing pests by hanging 30-40 yellow plates and blue plates with the specification of 25cm multiplied by 40cm per mu; optionally covering with silver gray plastic film to prevent aphid, and trapping and killing diamondback moth and prodenia litura with sugar-vinegar solution and sex attractant; when the pest and disease damage occurs seriously, botanical biological insecticidal and bactericidal agents such as soft soap, matrine and the like or local growing plant (houttuynia cordata, garlic, mint, chrysanthemum indicum, chinaberry and the like) extracting agents can be used for preventing and treating the pest and disease damage, for example, 30g/L (fresh weight) of chrysanthemum indicum liquid is used for preventing and treating aphids and mites, and onion and garlic mixed liquid and garlic leachate are used for preventing the pest and disease damage; rotenone, plant-derived pyrethrum, emulsified vegetable oil and diatomaceous earth, and microorganisms and preparations thereof such as Bt preparation, HD-l Bacillus thuringiensis or nuclear polyhedrosis virus can also be used with limitation for controlling insect pests, and Boldow solution can also be used for controlling diseases. The prevention and control of the weeds generally utilizes mulching to inhibit the growth of the weeds, and artificial weeding is adopted if necessary.
Collecting timely
The hot pepper can be harvested when the fruit is fully enlarged, the fruit is hard and the skin color is bright, the Menjiao and the opposite pepper are harvested properly in advance, and the harvesting is carried out for multiple times in batches as much as possible so as to avoid influencing the growth of plants and influencing the yield. Harvesting is generally started in the middle and last ten days of 9 months, and 11 months can be harvested all the time. The produced pepper has high quality and high yield, meets the production requirement of organic pepper, and generally has the yield of 2000-3200 kg/mu.
A Hunan-Ming No. 3 pepper variety is selected, a comparison test is carried out by adopting the organic cultivation crop rotation method and a conventional cultivation method (CK, soil cultivation without planting solanaceae crops in nearly 3 years is selected, 50kg of compound fertilizer, 50kg of calcium superphosphate and 30kg of ammonium bicarbonate are applied to each mu of land as base fertilizers, 30kg of compound fertilizer or 20kg of urea is applied to each mu of land as top manuring, and chemical agents are used for pest control for not less than 4 times), wherein the area of each treatment is 8m multiplied by 20m, and 3 times of repetition is set. The test result shows that: the organic cultivation method has the advantages that the diseases and insect hazards in the 1 st to 3 rd crop rotation periods are light, the yield is stable and not lower than CK, and the trend of increasing year by year is realized; meanwhile, the product quality of the organic cultivation rotation method is obviously improved compared with CK and reaches the standard of organic products, but the product quality of CK can only reach the standard of no pollution (see table 1).
TABLE 1 comparison table of yield, quality and pest and disease damage occurrence of Xiang-Ming No. 3 capsicum cultivated in autumn by the organic cultivation crop rotation method and the conventional cultivation method (CK) of the invention
(2) Organic pea cultivation technology
The pea is the afterculture of autumn pepper, and the organic cultivation technology is as follows.
Variety selection and seed treatment
Selecting high-yield, disease and insect resistant, cold resistant, wide adaptability, high podding rate and relatively centralized podding fine varieties, such as Artix, small green pod, Hangzhou white flower, Chengdu winter pea, middle pea No. 4, middle pea No. 6 and the like. Seeds that have not been treated with the banned material should be selected, and transgenic seeds should be banned.
And (3) sunning the seeds for 1-2 days before sowing to improve the vitality and water absorption capacity of the seeds and ensure the uniformity of seedling emergence. And then soaking the seeds by using warm water, namely soaking the seeds in warm water at 55 ℃ for 10-15 minutes to kill germs carried by the seeds, continuously stirring until the water temperature is reduced to about 30 ℃, and soaking the seeds for about 1 hour at room temperature. And then dressing seeds with rhizobia, wherein 10-20 g of rhizobia agent is used per mu, and the rhizobia agent and the seeds can be sown after being uniformly stirred, and the seeds can be used after being mixed.
Second, sowing in good time
The peas are previously used as hot peppers, and because more fertilizers are applied when the hot peppers are cultivated, more residual fertilizers in the soil are not used up, the soil after the hot peppers are cultivated is loose and breathable, the peas can be cultivated in a zero tillage direct seeding mode, base fertilizers do not need to be applied generally, and only rotten animal manure, soil miscellaneous fertilizers or fire soil ash is used as covering fertilizers.
Sowing seeds in 10-11 middle of the month, and overwintering in open field. In the later period of harvesting of the autumn peppers or in the middle ten days of 10 months to 11 months after harvesting, the original mulching film is reserved on the pepper cultivation beds for no-tillage direct seeding of 1 hole of peas in the middle of each two peppers of each row of peppers, 2 rows of peas are sowed in each bed, hole sowing is adopted, 3-4 seeds are sowed in each hole, and the planting density is guaranteed to be more than ten thousand per mu. And covering rotten animal manure or soil impurity manure or fire soil ash for 2-3 cm after sowing. Generally, in sowing, 20-40 kg of phosphorite powder and 10-20 kg of potassium ore powder are mixed with decomposed animal manure or soil miscellaneous fertilizer or fire soil ash 1000-1500 kg per mu to serve as covering fertilizer. After the harvest of the peppers is finished by 11 months, the field is cleaned in time, pepper straws are collected, crushed and stacked into organic fertilizer, and the management of peas is enhanced.
Management of field
Timely checking seedlings and filling gaps after seedling emergence, intertillage weeding for 1-2 times, ridging for 1 time before overwintering, and preserving heat and preventing freezing. When peas are cultivated in the soil after pepper cultivation, generally no additional fertilizer is needed, if seedlings are yellow in color in the seedling stage, the seedling stage shows the symptoms of fertilizer shortage, 1 time of seedling fertilizer application can be carried out, and 500kg of thin human and animal manure or 500-800 kg of decomposed organic fertilizer is applied to each mu of seedlings to promote the robust growth of the seedlings and the formation of root nodules. In the initial flowering period and the pod bearing period, flower and pod fertilizers can be properly applied, and thin human and animal manure, biogas liquid or decomposed cake fertilizers and the like can be applied. The soil in the pod bearing full period needs to be kept wet frequently, the Yangtze river basin has abundant rainfall, water does not need to be poured except for special years, if the rainfall is too much, water should be drained timely to reduce water stains, and ditch cleaning and drainage work is well done in rainy days. When the height of the plant is 30cm, the vine is started to be supported, small bamboo poles with tips or branches (leaves are removed) can be inserted between rows or pulled to guide vines, or 1-3 larger side branches are intentionally reserved for each pepper to be used as a natural support when a field garden is cleaned after the previous pepper is harvested, so that the pea plant can grow in a climbing mode.
Controlling diseases, pests and weeds: the prevention and control of diseases, pests and weeds mainly adopts agricultural prevention and control, and the diseases and the pests can be prevented and controlled by selecting disease and pest resistant varieties, selecting disease-free seeds for timely sowing, reasonably rotating, reasonably close planting and timely supporting and tendril guiding to improve the ventilation and light transmission conditions in the field, opening a field drainage ditch to reduce the field humidity, timely pulling out diseased plants, diseased leaves and diseased pods, timely cleaning the field after harvesting and other measures; preventing the growth of weeds by mulching cultivation. Meanwhile, biological and physical control is reasonably applied, natural enemies are protected, environmental conditions favorable for the survival of the natural enemies are created, imagoes are trapped and killed by adopting a frequency vibration type insecticidal lamp and a color plate, and silver gray film strips are hung to repel aphids and the like.
Fourthly, harvesting in good time
And (4) harvesting when the pods grow to 8-9 mature and seeds in the pods fully grow up and swell. Generally, harvesting is started in 3 months of the next year, and harvesting is finished in about 4 middle ten days of the month, and the yield of fresh pods per mu is 750-950 kg. Removing the mulching film immediately after the green bean pods are harvested, irrigating in the field, turning over the straws serving as green manure into the soil to fertilize the soil, and then cultivating 1 crop of early rice.
(3) Organic cultivation technology for early rice
Timely cultivating disease-free strong early rice seedlings
Variety selection: selecting excellent non-transgenic early rice variety with strong pest resistance, lodging resistance, wide adaptability, good high yield, good rice quality, suitability for local ecological environment and quality reaching the national seed standard, and preferentially selecting organic rice seed certified by organic certification authority.
Timely sowing and cultivating tillering strong seedlings: soaking seeds in 1% lime water for about 10 hours to kill pathogenic microorganisms on the surfaces of the seeds, cleaning the seeds with clear water, and soaking the seeds for germination by a conventional method; or soaking the seeds in warm water at 55 ℃ for 10-20 minutes while stirring, cooling the water to room temperature, soaking the seeds in a conventional method for germination acceleration, and sowing the seeds until the seeds break the chest and are white.
Generally, a wet seedling raising method is adopted for concentrated seedling raising, 1000-2000 kg of fully decomposed high-quality organic fertilizer, 30-50 kg of phosphate rock powder or 150kg of cake fertilizer is applied to each mu of rice seedling field 3-5 days before sowing in combination with turning. Sowing seeds in late 3-4 months, keeping the seedling bed wet after sowing until 1.5 leaves, and mainly sealing, preserving heat and moisture by using a thin film; 2, alternately drying and wetting leaves 1 after heart, irrigating running horse water, uncovering a film for ventilation and hardening seedlings before and after noon in a sunny day, preventing seedlings from being burnt, uncovering a night for hardening seedlings after the 3-leaf period in the sunny day, and uncovering the film completely 3 days before transplanting; applying diluted human excrement or biogas liquid in a proper amount 5-7 days before transplanting, and controlling the seedling age within 30 days.
② preparing and transplanting rice seedlings in field
Preparing a field: the pea is used as the former pea, the pea straw is turned into soil to fertilize the soil, the base fertilizer is not needed to be too much when the early rice is cultivated, and generally 1000-2000 kg of farmyard manure such as fully decomposed animal manure or 100-150 kg of cake fertilizer and 30-50 kg of ground phosphate rock are applied to each mu of land in combination with land turning. And (5) harrowing the ploughed rice by a water layer of 3-3.3 cm, and preparing for transplanting rice after ploughing and harrowing are leveled.
Timely transplanting rice seedlings: generally, in the middle and last ten days of 4 months, artificial planting or mechanical planting is adopted. The row spacing of the reference plants is 17cm multiplied by 20cm, the planting density is 1.8-2.2 million stumps/mu, tillering seedlings with 2-3 grains are planted in each stump, and 7-10 million basic seedlings are planted in each mu.
Management of field
And (3) reasonable fertilization: according to the principle of forward promotion, central control and backward stable fertilization, the tillering fertilizer and the spike grain fertilizer are properly applied under the condition of sufficient base fertilizer. Generally, after transplanting, 100-150 kg of decomposed cake fertilizer or 50-100 kg of commercial organic fertilizer is applied to each mu of land 4-5 days later as tillering fertilizer, and after drying the land and rehydration, 50-100 kg of decomposed cake fertilizer or about 50kg of commercial organic fertilizer is applied to each mu of land immediately as spike fertilizer.
Water content management: irrigation and drainage are fully utilized to adjust water, fertilizer, gas and heat of the rice field, and a field microclimate suitable for rice growth is created. The water management method comprises the steps of transplanting rice seedlings with water, enabling roots to live in shallow water and tillering, sunning enough seedlings (namely, sunning the seedlings when the number of the seedlings reaches about 20 ten thousand per mu), mainly wetting the seedlings after the sunning and rehydration, maintaining dry and wet irrigation, paying attention to the method that the seedlings drain water and expose the seedlings after turning green for 2-3 days to cultivate good root systems, and recovering shallow water after exposing the seedlings for 2-3 days, wherein the seedlings cannot be dehydrated too early in the later period so as not to influence the thousand seed weight.
Preventing and controlling diseases, pests and weeds
Agricultural control is preferentially adopted, and the microclimate in the field is improved by adopting disease-resistant varieties, reasonable crop rotation, strong seedling cultivation, reasonable thin planting, additional application of organic fertilizer, timely weed removal, scientific fertilizer and water regulation, timely field drying and other fitness cultivation measures, so that the field is good in ventilation and light transmission, the resistance of the plants is enhanced, and the occurrence of plant diseases and insect pests is reduced; weeds and rice residues on the edge of the ditch field are thoroughly removed, and the places where diseases and insect pests are bred are reduced; through measures such as reasonable close planting, basic seedling increasing, scientific water and fertilizer management and the like, the rice is sealed and planted early, and the aim of inhibiting the growth of weeds is fulfilled; the weeds are controlled by tillage and weed killing and artificial weed removal. Secondly, biological and physical control is adopted, natural enemies of pests such as birds, frogs, spiders, parasitic wasps and the like are utilized to control the population quantity of the pests, for example, when the population number of the rice field moths reaches 100/mu, trichogramma is released to control cnaphalocrocis medinalis, chilo suppressalis and tryporyza incertulas; controlling insect pests such as rice planthoppers, chilo suppressalis and tryporyza incertulas by breeding ducks in a rice field and controlling field weeds; the frequency vibration type insecticidal lamp is adopted to trap and kill pests such as chilo suppressalis, leaf roller, rice planthopper and the like, and the small pests are trapped and killed by yellow plates. When the plant diseases and insect pests are serious, biological pesticide preparations certified by an organic certification institution can be selected for prevention and treatment, such as bacillus subtilis wettable powder for preventing and treating rice blast and false smut, Bt preparations, azadirachtin preparations and other preparations for preventing and treating chilo suppressalis and rice leaf roller, matrine, azadirachtin preparations, beauveria bassiana preparations and other preparations for preventing and treating rice planthopper.
Fifthly, harvesting
The early rice is generally ripe in the middle and late ten days of 7 months, and is harvested in time after being ripe, and the early rice is required to be harvested, beaten, sun-dried and stored singly, and is sold uniformly after being sun-dried. Generally, the average yield per mu is 480-560 kg.
(4) Organic cultivation technology for water chestnuts
Preparation of field
After harvesting the early-season rice, the rice straws are immediately turned into the field and the soil is fertilized while the rice straws are rotten at high temperature, and weeds and stubble on the field and the ridges around the field are removed. 2000-3000 kg of farmyard organic fertilizer such as miscellaneous manure or decomposed animal manure or 1000-2000 kg of decomposed human and animal manure or 150-200 kg of decomposed rapeseed cakes are applied to each mu of ploughed land, and 40kg of phosphate ore powder and 20kg of potassium ore powder are additionally added as base fertilizers. 50-100 kg/mu of quicklime is applied to the soil with heavy acidity in the farmland. And ploughing and raking the two ploughs to level the field surface, keeping the living soil layer at 20-25 cm, keeping the shallow water layer at 2-5 cm, and achieving the purposes of leveling the field surface, soil activation, soil fertilization, grass purification and sufficient water for field planting.
② cultivating disease-free strong seedlings of water chestnut
Variety selection: selecting high-yield and high-quality water chestnut varieties with strong disease resistance and stress resistance, large bulbs, thin peels, sweet taste and less fine residues, and being suitable for local cultivation, such as Hubei No. 1, Guizhou No. 2, filial water chestnuts, 91-33 water chestnuts, Guilin water chestnuts, Sanyo water chestnuts, Tufeng water chestnuts, Huchang water chestnuts, Yuhangda Dahongpao, Suzhou water chestnuts and other excellent varieties.
And (3) seed reserving and seed camelina sativa selection: in the later stage of growth of water chestnuts in the first year, selecting field blocks which are uniform in growth, strong in tillering plant property, free of lodging and free of pest damage as seed reserving fields. When in harvesting, the bulbs with round appearance, undamaged epidermis, thick and healthy lateral buds of terminal buds, dark brown skin, weight of more than 20g of single bulb and characteristics of cultivated species are dug and taken to be stored for overwintering, and the bulbs can also be dug for direct seedling culture in the next 3 months after overwintering storage in the field.
Culturing strong seedlings: two-stage seedling raising is adopted in Yangtze river basin, namely one-stage seedling raising (dry seedling) and two-stage seedling raising (seedling field seedling) and the two-stage seedling raising is adopted, 110-200 camelina sativa seeds are required to be planted in each mu of field, and the seed consumption is 2.0-5.0 kg. a. First stage seedling (dry land seedling): selecting dry land or garden soil which is sheltered from wind and exposed to the sun, loose in soil and fertile in the middle ten days of 4 months, hoeing loose surface soil by about 10cm, hoeing finely and breaking the soil, and trimming into a seedbed with the furrow width of 100-150 cm; selecting corms which are full, smooth in surface skin, consistent in color and luster, large and uniform, complete and robust in top buds and side buds, free of wounds and rot and have the characteristics of the corms from stored water chestnuts or harvested after field overwintering storage, soaking the corms in clean clear water for 18-24 hours, taking out the corms, draining off clear water, neatly arranging the corms in a seedbed according to the row spacing of 15-20 cm and the plant spacing of 5-8 cm to enable the top buds to face upwards, spraying enough bottom water, uniformly covering fine sandy soil, ensuring that the top buds are covered, regularly watering to keep the soil moist until seedlings are raised; in the early stage, a small arched shed needs to be built due to low air temperature and a plastic film is covered for germination acceleration, the seedling can be covered by a sunshade net after 5 months to prevent direct sunlight from burning, and the seedling is transplanted to a seedling bed for seedling culture in the second stage when the top bud of the seedball is 20-25 cm long. b. Seedling growing in the second stage (seedling growing in rice seedling bed): generally selecting paddy fields with convenient irrigation and drainage and rich organic matters in the middle ten days of 5 months, applying 2000-3000 kg of decomposed farmyard organic fertilizer or 1500-2000 kg of decomposed human and animal manure or 150kg of decomposed cake fertilizer as base fertilizer per mu, ploughing seedling raising fields to plough soil water into paste, and leveling the field to mud and rot; in the middle and last ten days of 5 months, lifting and transplanting seedlings from a seedling bed raised in dry land, wherein the reference row spacing is 40-50 cm multiplied by 50-60 cm, and 1 seedling is planted in each hole; after seedling transplantation, the early stage irrigation depth is 2-3 cm, the deepest irrigation depth is not more than 4cm, and the later stage water depth is kept at 3-5 cm; applying additional fertilizer frequently in the seedling stage, applying 500-1000 kg of 30% diluted liquid manure or diluted biogas slurry to each mu in 15 days or so after transplanting, weeding with mud, and applying 500-1000 kg of 30% diluted liquid manure or diluted biogas slurry to each mu in 10 days or so; after 30-40 days, the seedlings are planted when the height is more than 35-40 cm and the leaf-shaped stem is more than 0.5cm thick.
③ timely planting
Usually, the permanent planting is carried out in the middle and late 7 months, and the late autumn is not exceeded. During planting, each hole has 1 bunch, each bunch has 3-5 leaf-shaped stems, and the planting depth is preferably 10-12 cm into mud. If the seedlings are too high, cutting off tips, keeping the height of leaf-shaped stems to be 30-35 cm, or folding and planting the tips into soil so as to prevent the tips from being broken by wind and shaking roots after planting. In order to improve the field ventilation and light transmittance and reduce the occurrence of plant diseases and insect pests, the organic cultivation needs to be carried out at a proper thin planting rate, the density is generally 2500-3000 holes/mu, and the reference plant row spacing is 40-50 cm multiplied by 50-60 cm.
Fourthly, field management
Timely topdressing: the principle of 'front stability, middle control and rear attack' is mastered during fertilization, sufficient base fertilizer is applied, nitrogen fertilizer is mainly applied in the early stage of top dressing, and potassium fertilizer is mainly applied in the later stage. After 7-10 days of field planting, top dressing for the 1 st time, and after transplanting and green turning, applying 400-500 kg of decomposed human excrement and urine per mu in combination with intertillage for the 1 st time to promote early tillering and plant growing; applying 70-80 kg of decomposed cake fertilizer or 100-200 kg of plant ash per mu by combining weeding for promoting row sealing in about 8 middle-of-month ten days when the plants grow vigorously every 10-15 days for the 2 nd topdressing; and (3) applying top dressing for top dressing in the middle ten days of 9 months, applying appropriate amount of nodulation fertilizer according to the growth condition of the whole field, generally applying 100kg of rotten cake fertilizer or 750kg of biogas liquid per mu when the color of the overground leafy stem is deepened and the central plant of the meristematic plant starts to pump out flower stems, and additionally adding 20kg of potassium mineral powder to promote the nodulation of the camelina sativa.
Water content management: during planting, keeping a shallow water layer of about 3cm to facilitate root pricking, keeping the water depth of 5-8 cm to facilitate stump survival after planting, keeping the shallow water layer of 2-5 cm to facilitate plant division after green turning, gradually deepening irrigation along with the growth acceleration of plants later, keeping the water layer of 6-9 cm in a vigorous growth period, properly draining and drying in the sun in the field from the bottom of 8 months to the beginning of 9 months as stem leaves grow too vigorously to inhibit excessive plant division, promoting early capsella bursa-pastoris development, keeping the water depth of 5-10 cm in the bulb expansion period from the middle of 9 months to the middle of 10 months, starting water cut in the field in the later 10 months, and keeping shallow water and moist; and (4) ditching and draining in the middle and last ten days of 11 months to facilitate mining and digging.
Intertillage weeding: and (4) combining topdressing for 1 st intertillage 7-10 days after the field planting, and removing weeds by hands. And (3) intertillage weeding for the 2 nd time is carried out by combining with top dressing for the 2 nd time at intervals of 10-15 days, and a part of weak seedlings can be pulled out from a place where the seedlings are dense, so that ventilation and light transmission are promoted, the plants can grow healthily and strongly, and the disease resistance is enhanced. The bulb forming period is strictly prevented from being used by people and animals in the field so as to avoid treading off underground stolons.
And (3) pest control: preferentially adopting agricultural control, such as reasonable crop rotation, selecting disease and insect resistant varieties, selecting disease-free field blocks for seed reservation, selecting disease-free seed balls for seed culture and cultivating strong seedlings; reasonably close planting and proper thin planting, and keeping good ventilation and light transmission among plants; the cultivation management and scientific fertilization are enhanced, and the phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are applied additionally, so that the disease and insect resistance of plants is enhanced; cleaning a field in time, removing all dead leaves of residual stems in the field after the leafy stems wither in winter, performing centralized treatment or retting compost, eradicating weeds at the edges of the field, and reducing the initial infection source of diseases and insect pests in the next year; scientifically managing water, avoiding serial irrigation and flood irrigation and irrigating water in a disease field into a disease-free field, properly drying the field in the sun in the disease period, reducing the humidity, preferably drying the field until the surface of the field is wet and small in cracks (namely mud with hard surface and soft inner surface), and immediately rehydrating after the surface is formed; 50-100 kg of quicklime is applied to each mu of field when the field is ploughed to disinfect the soil. Advocate and adopt biological and physical prevention and cure, protect the frog to prey on the field pest, utilize trichogramma, grass green, Encarsia formosa, ladybug, aphid fly, etc. natural enemy to prey on the pest; the method adopts a frequency vibration type insecticidal lamp or a sex attractant to trap and kill prodenia litura, white standing grain borer and the like, and adopts a yellow plate to trap and kill winged aphid imagoes. At the early stage of disease, the diseased plant is timely pulled out and taken out of the field and buried deeply, if necessary, bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis or paenibacillus polymyxa can be used for preventing and treating diseases, and Bt preparations are used for preventing and treating insect pests.
Fifth harvesting
In the middle and late ten days of 11 months, the overground stems and leaves of the water chestnuts begin to wither and yellow from top to bottom and gradually dry and fall down, and when the skin color of the corms is changed from white to yellow brown to red brown, the corms are mature and can be collected. Generally, after 12 middle ten days, the average daily temperature is reduced to below 5 ℃, the corm has high sugar content, is sweet and juicy, and is the best period for harvesting. The harvesting period is preferably from the late 12 months to the late 2 months of the next year. The general yield is 1500-2500 kg/mu.
(5) Organic cultivation technology for green soy beans
The green soy bean is the predecessor of autumn pepper, and the organic cultivation technology is as follows.
Variety selection and seed treatment
The green soybean variety suitable for local ecological condition cultivation is selected, and early-middle-aged species with compact plant type, concentrated pod bearing, full pods with large grains, tender meat, strong pest resistance, wide adaptability, high yield and good commodity are generally selected, such as Taiwan 75, Taiwan 753, Taiwan 292, Japanese riches and honour, Suxian 08-16, Qingsu No. 2, Qingsu No. 5, Sudou No. 5, spring green and the like. Non-transgenic seeds with a seed quality of more than one grade of the national standard are selected.
The seeds are dried for 1-2 days before sowing in a sunny day, then blanched seeds are adopted, namely the seeds are put into warm water (2 parts of boiled water and 1 part of cold water) with the temperature of 55 ℃ and the weight of the seeds is 3-4 times of the weight of the seeds, the seeds are continuously stirred, the seeds are continuously soaked for about 30 minutes after the water temperature is reduced to the room temperature, and then the seeds are mixed by using a rhizobium inoculant, and the seeds can be used after being stirred.
Second, sowing in good time
Soil preparation and bed making and base fertilizer application: ploughing and drying soil after harvesting the pre-grown water chestnuts, applying 1000-1500 kg of decomposed farmyard organic fertilizer and 50kg of ground phosphate rock as base fertilizer per mu in combination with soil preparation. The deep furrow high furrow cultivation is adopted, the furrow width is 1.5-2 m generally, furrow ditches, waist ditches and surrounding ditches are opened, the three ditches are matched, the rain stops, the water is dry, and no water is accumulated in the ditches.
Timely seeding: sowing is generally carried out in the last 3 th to the middle 4 th of the month in open field cultivation, and sowing is generally carried out in the middle and last 3 th of the month in mulching cultivation. And (3) performing hole sowing, wherein the general density is about 2 ten thousand plants per mu, the reference row spacing is 30-40 cm, the plant spacing is 15-25 cm, and 2-3 seeds are sowed in each hole. And mixing decomposed animal manure or soil miscellaneous fertilizer or fire soil ash 1000-1500 kg with 20-40 kg of phosphorite powder and 10-20 kg of potassium ore powder per mu as covering seed fertilizer.
Management of field
Timely final singling and intertillage weeding: the film of the seedlings cultivated by mulching must be broken and put in time after the seedlings come out of the ground, and the film around the seedlings is pressed tightly by soil. After the young soybean seedlings are completely grown, thinning and final singling are carried out in time, generally 2 seedlings are left in each hole, and if the seedling shortage phenomenon is found, the seedlings are supplemented in time. And intertillage and weeding are carried out for 2-3 times before the plants are not sealed in the non-plastic film mulching cultivation.
And (3) fertilizer and water management: under the condition of sufficient basal application, additional fertilizer is not needed generally, and if seedlings show insufficient fertility symptoms such as small leaves, light color, weak seedlings, short branches and the like, 100-150 kg of plant ash can be applied per mu as seedling promoting fertilizer; when the fertilizer deficiency symptom occurs in the flowering and pod bearing period, 100kg of fully decomposed high-quality chicken manure or 50kg of cake fertilizer or 100kg of plant ash can be applied as the flower pod fertilizer per mu. The green soybeans are drought-resistant and waterlogging-resistant, the rainfall of Yangtze river basin is abundant, watering is not needed except for special years, drought resistance and waterlogging drainage are needed in a flower pod period, soil is kept moist, and watering is needed in time if drought occurs.
Timely pinching: and (3) pinching at the later stage of the full-bloom stage, namely removing 1-2 cm of terminal buds of main stems, so that nutrients are supplied to the bean pods in a centralized manner, seeds of the bean pods are full and mature uniformly, and centralized harvesting and yield improvement are facilitated.
Controlling diseases, pests and weeds: the method insists on the plant protection policy of 'prevention is the main and comprehensive prevention', and takes corresponding prevention measures aiming at the climate conditions and the occurrence rule of the main diseases, pests and weeds of the green soy beans. The method mainly comprises the steps of reasonable crop rotation, timely sowing of selected disease-resistant varieties and disease-free seeds, reasonable close planting, deep groove high-bed mulching film mulching cultivation, tight prevention of field water accumulation, timely clearing of residual branches, spoiled leaves and weeds after harvesting and other agricultural measures. Reasonably applying biological and physical control, such as sun-drying seeds and soaking seeds in warm soup to kill germs carried on the surfaces of the seeds; the natural enemies are protected, environmental conditions beneficial to the survival of the natural enemies are created, and the frequency vibration type insecticidal lamp, the yellow plate or the sex attractant are adopted to trap and kill insect imagoes such as prodenia litura and the like, and a silver gray mulching film is covered or silver gray film strips are hung to repel aphids and the like. If necessary, biological pesticide can be used for biological control, such as 0.3% matrine or Bt preparation and rotenone and other biological pesticide for controlling pests. The weeds are controlled by pressing grass and cultivating land through various agricultural cultivation measures such as fine tillage and fine cropping, timely intertillage, artificial weeding, proper close planting, mulching film mulching cultivation and the like.
Fourthly, harvesting in good time
And (4) harvesting timely when the filling is sufficient, the bean pods are large, the seeds are full and plump and the bean pods are fresh green in the last stage of the swelling. Generally, harvesting begins to appear on the market in the middle and last ten days of 6 months, and is finished before the last ten days of 7 months, and the yield of fresh pods per mu is 700-900 kg. Immediately irrigating the field after harvesting the green beans, and turning the straws into the soil as green manure to rot the straws at high temperature to fertilize the soil (the mulching film must be removed firstly in the mulching film covering cultivation).
In conclusion, the pepper, pea, early season rice, water chestnut and green soy bean produced by the crop rotation organic cultivation method have the advantages of high quality, accordance with the quality requirement of organic agricultural products, high yield and no obvious difference from the yield of conventional cultivation; the occurrence of plant diseases and insect pests is light in the planting process, the soil fertility can be effectively improved, the rotation cultivation for many years by adopting the method has stable overall effect performance, and the yield of the pepper also tends to increase year by year.

Claims (5)

1. An organic crop rotation cultivation method for autumn pepper, peas, early season rice, water chestnuts and green soy beans is characterized in that,
selecting proper places to establish an organic cultivation production base in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river;
the crop rotation mode is as follows: sequentially cultivating in the 1 st year: green soy beans, autumn peppers and peas are sequentially cultivated in the 2 nd year: early rice-water chestnut, which is in 1 rotation cycle every 2 years; organic cultivation of peas, early season rice, water chestnuts and green soy beans is reasonably arranged in the same organic cultivation production base besides organic cultivation of hot peppers; the yield of the organic peppers of 1 crop is 2000-3200 kg/mu, the green pod yield of the organic peas of 1 crop is 750-950 kg/mu, the yield of the organic early rice of 1 crop is 480-560 kg/mu, the yield of the organic water chestnuts of 1 crop is 1500-2500 kg/mu, and the fresh pod yield of the organic green beans of 1 crop is 700-900 kg/mu;
the organic cultivation of the pepper is as follows: immediately irrigating water in the field after harvesting the pre-planted green soybeans, turning the straws into the soil as green manure, composting the straws at high temperature to fertilize the soil, draining water, drying the field, turning over, drying the soil, and then cultivating 1 crop of autumn pepper;
the organic autumn pepper cultivation method has the advantages that pepper varieties are selected from early-medium-maturing varieties which are heat-resistant, disease-resistant, high in stress resistance, wide in adaptability, strong in growth vigor, concentrated in fruit setting, high in fruit bearing capacity, high in yield, high in quality and good in commodity, and meet local cultivation and market requirements, and the early-medium-maturing varieties comprise: xiang Ming No. 3, Xiang Ming No. 12 and Xiang Ming No. 13;
in the organic cultivation of the autumn peppers, the seedlings are cultivated by adopting a sunshade net for covering and rain sheltering measures at the beginning of late 6 th ten days to the beginning of 7 th month, nutrition pots or 50-hole seedling cultivation hole trays are adopted for cultivating the seedlings or seedbed broadcast sowing is adopted for cultivating the seedlings, when 3-4 true leaves grow out from the seedlings, the seedlings need to be heeled in the nutrition pots/50-hole seedling cultivation hole trays, and if the seedlings are sowed in a proper and thin mode, the heeling is not carried out; during seedling raising, sun shading, temperature reduction, rain sheltering measures and water management are enhanced, and excessive growth of seedlings is prevented; the standard of strong seedlings is as follows: the seedlings grow strongly, the root systems are developed, 5-7 true leaves are provided, and the seedling age is not more than 35 days;
the organic autumn pepper cultivation method comprises the steps of adopting deep-groove high-ridge cultivation, selecting disease-free strong seedlings, and carrying out plastic film mulching and planting in afternoon or cloudy days from the bottom of 7 months to the top of 8 months, wherein 3000-4500 seedlings are planted in each mu, harvesting is started in the middle and last ten days of 9 months, and 11 months can be harvested all the time;
in the organic cultivation of the autumn peppers, a base fertilizer is used as a main fertilizer in a fertilizing principle, reasonable additional fertilizer is applied, 70-80% of the total fertilizing amount is used as the base fertilizer, 2000-3000 kg of decomposed animal manure, 150-200 kg of cake fertilizer or 2500-3000 kg of decomposed human and animal manure, 30-50 kg of ground phosphate rock and 20-30 kg of potassium ore powder are applied to each mu of land, and the organic cultivation is carried out on the land before soil preparation after deep ploughing; before topdressing, the pepper is light and heavy, so as to meet the nutritional requirement of continuous flowering and fruiting of the pepper, after field planting and survival, 300-500 kg of 10-20% decomposed human excrement or biogas slurry is applied as a seedling raising fertilizer for 1-2 times, and after setting, 20-30% decomposed human excrement or biogas slurry is applied for 2-4 times in the growth and harvesting period of the fruit, 300-500 kg each time, or 60-120 kg of decomposed cake fertilizer is applied in holes;
the organic cultivation of peas comprises the following steps: reserving an original mulching film for no-tillage direct hole sowing and interplanting of peas on a pepper cultivation bed in the later period of harvesting autumn peppers or in the middle ten days of 10 to 11 months after harvesting is finished, cleaning a garden in time and enhancing management of peas after the 11-month pepper harvesting is finished, harvesting green bean pods in the middle ten days of 4 months of the next year to allow stubbles to be harvested, turning the straws harvested green bean pods into soil as green manure to fertilize the soil, and then cultivating 1-crop of early rice;
the organic pea cultivation method has the advantages that the pea variety is selected from good varieties which are high in yield, disease and insect resistance, strong in cold resistance, wide in adaptability, high in podding rate and relatively concentrated in podding, and the excellent varieties comprise: artix, fructus Canarii albi, flos Chrysanthemi of Hangzhou, Chengdu winter pea, middle pea No. 4, and middle pea No. 6;
the organic cultivation of the peas is carried out, sowing is carried out in the middle ten days of 10 months to the middle ten days of 11 months, hole sowing is adopted, 3-4 seeds are sowed in each hole, the planting density is ensured to be more than ten thousand plants per mu, and 20-40 kg of ground phosphate rock and 10-20 kg of potassium ore powder are mixed with rotten animal manure or soil impurity manure or fire soil ash for 1000-1500 kg to serve as seed covering manure during sowing;
the organic cultivation of the green soy beans comprises the following steps: ploughing and drying soil after harvesting the pre-planted water chestnuts, directly seeding and cultivating a suitable green soybean variety in the middle and late 3 months to the middle and early 4 months after applying sufficient base fertilizer, timely pinching in a full-bloom period, harvesting and leaving stubble before the early 7 months, immediately irrigating in the field, ploughing green soybean straws serving as green fertilizer into the soil, composting the soil at high temperature, and cultivating 1 crop of autumn pepper;
according to the organic cultivation of the green soybeans, the green soybean variety is selected from early-medium-maturing varieties which are compact in plant type, concentrated in pod bearing, full of pods with large grains, tender in meat quality, strong in disease and insect resistance, wide in adaptability, high in yield, good in commodity and suitable for cultivation under local ecological conditions, and the early-medium-maturing varieties comprise: taiwan 75, Taiwan 753, Taiwan 292, Japanese Fugui, Suxian 08-16, Qingsu No. 2, Qingsu No. 5, Sudou No. 5, spring green;
the green soybean organic cultivation method comprises the following steps: ploughing and drying soil after harvesting the pre-grown water chestnuts, applying 1000-1500 kg of decomposed farmyard organic fertilizer and 50kg of ground phosphate rock as base fertilizer per mu in combination with soil preparation;
the organic cultivation of the green soy beans comprises open field cultivation and mulching film mulching cultivation, the open field cultivation is performed for sowing in the last 3 to the middle 4 months, and the mulching film mulching cultivation is performed for sowing in the middle and last 3 months; performing hole sowing with the density of 2 ten thousand plants per mu, the reference row spacing of 30-40 cm and the plant spacing of 15-25 cm, and sowing 2-3 seeds per hole; during sowing, mixing decomposed animal manure or soil miscellaneous fertilizer or fire soil ash 1000-1500 kg with 20-40 kg of phosphate rock powder and 10-20 kg of potassium ore powder per mu as covering fertilizer;
the organic cultivation of the green soy beans comprises the following timely pinching in the full-bloom stage: and (3) pinching at the later stage of the full-bloom stage, namely removing 1-2 cm of terminal buds of main stems, so that nutrients are supplied to the bean pods in a centralized manner, seeds of the bean pods are full and mature uniformly, and centralized harvesting and yield improvement are facilitated.
2. The organic cultivation method of autumn pepper, pea, early season rice, water chestnut and green soy bean rotation as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the organic cultivation production base is an agricultural production area with the advantages of convenient traffic, convenient drainage and irrigation, being far away from urban areas and industrial and mining areas, good ecological conditions, no heavy metal and pesticide residue pollution, being far away from garbage dump and other pollution sources and traffic main lines, and having sustainable production capacity, the soil environment quality requirement is not lower than the secondary standard in the soil environment quality standard (GB 15618-; the planting area of each organic cultivation production base is not less than 10 hectares, the production bases are connected into pieces and have integrity, and an obvious isolation zone or a buffer zone is arranged at the junction of the organic production base and a conventional production land.
3. The organic crop rotation method for autumn pepper with peas, early season rice, water chestnuts and green soy beans as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the organic crop rotation method comprises the following measures:
in the whole cultivation process, artificial chemical synthetic substances including pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides, hormones and growth regulators are forbidden to be used, and genetic engineering technology and products thereof are not used;
in the whole cultivation process, only organic fertilizers are allowed to be applied and used for planting leguminous crops as green manure and returning straws to the field to fertilize soil, and the organic fertilizers can use potassium mineral powder, phosphate rock powder and calcium chloride, and can also use organic special fertilizers and microbial fertilizers besides animal excrement and plant retting fertilizers, green manure, plant ash, cake fertilizers and biogas fertilizers;
the prevention and control of the plant diseases and insect pests are based on the agricultural comprehensive prevention and control, biological and physical methods are adopted for prevention and control, the artificially synthesized pesticide is not used for chemical prevention and control, when the plant diseases and insect pests occur, the permitted mineral substances or plant medicaments are used for preventing and controlling the plant diseases and insect pests, rotenone, pyrethrum, emulsified vegetable oil and diatomite which are derived from plants, microorganisms including bacillus cartap and Bt preparations and preparations thereof can be used for preventing and controlling the plant diseases and insect pests, and sulfur, lime sulphur and Bordeaux mixture can also be used for preventing and controlling the plant diseases and insect pests;
in the production process, the stability of a farmland ecosystem is maintained, environmental pollution and ecological damage cannot be caused, plant residues are cleaned in time after each crop is harvested, straws are collected and piled into organic fertilizers or returned to the field for fertilizing soil, all agricultural organic matters including the straws are comprehensively utilized, and all non-degradable wastes including agricultural films are recycled and utilized.
4. The organic crop rotation method for autumn pepper with peas, early season rice, water chestnuts and green soy beans as claimed in claim 1, 2 or 3, wherein the organic crop rotation method for early season rice is characterized in that: after harvesting the former cropping peas, turning the pea straws into soil to fertilize the soil, and cultivating 1 crop of early rice after applying sufficient base fertilizer in combination with land ploughing; the early season rice is planted in the first 3-4 days, the rice is planted in the middle and last 4 days, and after harvesting, the rice is turned into the field and the soil is composted by retting the rice at high temperature.
5. The organic crop rotation cultivation method for autumn pepper, peas, early season rice, water chestnuts and green soy beans as claimed in claim 1, 2 or 3, wherein the organic cultivation of water chestnuts is as follows: immediately turning the straws into the field after harvesting the early cropping rice, composting the straws at high temperature to fertilize the soil, and cultivating 1 crop of water chestnuts after applying sufficient base fertilizer in combination with the cultivated land; selecting a variety suitable for local cultivation, cultivating disease-free strong seedlings by adopting a two-stage method in the middle and upper ten days of 4 months, planting in the middle and lower ten days of 7 months, and harvesting from the middle and lower ten days of 11 months to the upper 2 months of the next year.
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